Five Miles Away A World Apart

Author: James E. Ryan
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195327380
Release Date: 2010-08-06
Genre: Education

How is it that half a century after Brown v. Board of Education--and in spite of increased funding for urban schools and programs like No Child Left Behind--educational opportunities for blacks and whites in America still remain so unequal? In Five Miles Away, A World Apart, James Ryan provides a sobering answer to this question by tracing the fortunes of two schools in Richmond, Virginia--one suburban, relatively affluent, and mostly white, and the other urban, relatively poor, and mostly black. Ryan shows how court rulings against desegregation in the 1970s laid the groundwork for the massive disparities between urban and suburban public school districts that persist to this day. The Nixon administration, intent on shoring up its base in the "silent majority," allowed suburbs to lock nonresidents out of their school systems. Urban schools, whose student bodies were becoming increasingly poor and black, simply received more funding, a panacea that has proven largely ineffective, while the academic independence (and superiority) of suburban schools was held sacrosanct. Drawing on compelling interviews with students, teachers, and principals, including one who has been a principal at both schools featured in the book, Ryan explains how certain policies--school finance, school choice, and standardized testing--not only fail to bridge the performance gap between students at urban and suburban schools but actually perpetuate segregation across the country. Ryan closes by suggesting innovative reforms that would bring greater diversity into our schools by shifting the emphasis from racial to socioeconomic integration. An incisive critique of exactly how and why our educational policies have gone wrong, Five Miles Away, A World Apart will interest all those who wish to see our educational system heal the divide between rich and poor and live up to our highest democratic ideals.

Five Miles Away A World Apart

Author: James E. Ryan
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199745609
Release Date: 2010-08-06
Genre: Education

How is it that, half a century after Brown v. Board of Education, educational opportunities remain so unequal for black and white students, not to mention poor and wealthy ones? In his important new book, Five Miles Away, A World Apart, James E. Ryan answers this question by tracing the fortunes of two schools in Richmond, Virginia--one in the city and the other in the suburbs. Ryan shows how court rulings in the 1970s, limiting the scope of desegregation, laid the groundwork for the sharp disparities between urban and suburban public schools that persist to this day. The Supreme Court, in accord with the wishes of the Nixon administration, allowed the suburbs to lock nonresidents out of their school systems. City schools, whose student bodies were becoming increasingly poor and black, simply received more funding, a measure that has proven largely ineffective, while the independence (and superiority) of suburban schools remained sacrosanct. Weaving together court opinions, social science research, and compelling interviews with students, teachers, and principals, Ryan explains why all the major education reforms since the 1970s--including school finance litigation, school choice, and the No Child Left Behind Act--have failed to bridge the gap between urban and suburban schools and have unintentionally entrenched segregation by race and class. As long as that segregation continues, Ryan forcefully argues, so too will educational inequality. Ryan closes by suggesting innovative ways to promote school integration, which would take advantage of unprecedented demographic shifts and an embrace of diversity among young adults. Exhaustively researched and elegantly written by one of the nation's leading education law scholars, Five Miles Away, A World Apart ties together, like no other book, a half-century's worth of education law and politics into a coherent, if disturbing, whole. It will be of interest to anyone who has ever wondered why our schools are so unequal and whether there is anything to be done about it.

Five Miles Away A World Apart

Author: James E. Ryan
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199798926
Release Date: 2010-08-06
Genre: Education

How is it that, half a century after Brown v. Board of Education, educational opportunities remain so unequal for black and white students, not to mention poor and wealthy ones? In his important new book, Five Miles Away, A World Apart, James E. Ryan answers this question by tracing the fortunes of two schools in Richmond, Virginia--one in the city and the other in the suburbs. Ryan shows how court rulings in the 1970s, limiting the scope of desegregation, laid the groundwork for the sharp disparities between urban and suburban public schools that persist to this day. The Supreme Court, in accord with the wishes of the Nixon administration, allowed the suburbs to lock nonresidents out of their school systems. City schools, whose student bodies were becoming increasingly poor and black, simply received more funding, a measure that has proven largely ineffective, while the independence (and superiority) of suburban schools remained sacrosanct. Weaving together court opinions, social science research, and compelling interviews with students, teachers, and principals, Ryan explains why all the major education reforms since the 1970s--including school finance litigation, school choice, and the No Child Left Behind Act--have failed to bridge the gap between urban and suburban schools and have unintentionally entrenched segregation by race and class. As long as that segregation continues, Ryan forcefully argues, so too will educational inequality. Ryan closes by suggesting innovative ways to promote school integration, which would take advantage of unprecedented demographic shifts and an embrace of diversity among young adults. Exhaustively researched and elegantly written by one of the nation's leading education law scholars, Five Miles Away, A World Apart ties together, like no other book, a half-century's worth of education law and politics into a coherent, if disturbing, whole. It will be of interest to anyone who has ever wondered why our schools are so unequal and whether there is anything to be done about it.

Schools Betrayed

Author: Kathryn M. Neckerman
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226569628
Release Date: 2008-09-15
Genre: Social Science

The problems commonly associated with inner-city schools were not nearly as pervasive a century ago, when black children in most northern cities attended school alongside white children. In Schools Betrayed, her innovative history of race and urban education, Kathryn M. Neckerman tells the story of how and why these schools came to serve black children so much worse than their white counterparts. Focusing on Chicago public schools between 1900 and 1960, Neckerman compares the circumstances of blacks and white immigrants, groups that had similarly little wealth and status yet came to gain vastly different benefits from their education. Their divergent educational outcomes, she contends, stemmed from Chicago officials’ decision to deal with rising African American migration by segregating schools and denying black students equal resources. And it deepened, she shows, because of techniques for managing academic failure that only reinforced inequality. Ultimately, these tactics eroded the legitimacy of the schools in Chicago’s black community, leaving educators unable to help their most disadvantaged students. Schools Betrayed will be required reading for anyone who cares about urban education.

Along Freedom Road

Author: David S. Cecelski
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
ISBN: 9780807860731
Release Date: 2000-11-09
Genre: Social Science

David Cecelski chronicles one of the most sustained and successful protests of the civil rights movement--the 1968-69 school boycott in Hyde County, North Carolina. For an entire year, the county's black citizens refused to send their children to school in protest of a desegregation plan that required closing two historically black schools in their remote coastal community. Parents and students held nonviolent protests daily for five months, marched twice on the state capitol in Raleigh, and drove the Ku Klux Klan out of the county in a massive gunfight. The threatened closing of Hyde County's black schools collided with a rich and vibrant educational heritage that had helped to sustain the black community since Reconstruction. As other southern school boards routinely closed black schools and displaced their educational leaders, Hyde County blacks began to fear that school desegregation was undermining--rather than enhancing--this legacy. This book, then, is the story of one county's extraordinary struggle for civil rights, but at the same time it explores the fight for civil rights in all of eastern North Carolina and the dismantling of black education throughout the South.

How to Succeed in School Without Really Learning

Author: David F. Labaree
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300078676
Release Date: 1999-04-01
Genre: Education

David Labaree claims that by thinking of education primarily as the route to individual advancement, we are defining it as a private good - a means of gaining a competitive advantage over other people. He endorses an alternative vision, one that defines education as a public good, providing society with benefits that can be collectively shared - for example, by producing citizens who are politically responsible and workers who are economically productive.

Educational Policy and the Law

Author: Mark G. Yudof
Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing Company
ISBN: 0495813168
Release Date: 2012
Genre: Business & Economics

This comprehensive casebook presents thorough coverage of a complex and dynamic subject--educational law and policy in the elementary and secondary school setting. With an emphasis on the interplay between law and policy, legal decisions, and educational practice, the book's interdisciplinary approach provides a wide range of perspectives on the most pressing issues in the field. Cases, legislation, and articles, all of which are accompanied by notes and discussion questions, clarify the issues and bring them to life. The book draws upon a range of social science sources as well as conventional legal materials, offering analyses that provide insights into the political and policy contexts of legal issues, and helping readers make sense of legal decisions. The abundant notes and references also make the book a useful reference work for lawyers or school administrators working in the field.

Building the Federal Schoolhouse

Author: Douglas S. Reed
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780199838486
Release Date: 2014
Genre: Education

Over the past 50 years, the federal government's efforts to reform American public education have transformed U.S. schools from locally-run enterprises to complex systems in which federal, state and local actors jointly construct the educational environment of U.S. children. Through struggles over school integration, the growth of special education, the teaching of English learners and the rise of accountability politics, the federal role in U.S. education has meant a profound reconstruction of local expectations, roles and political alignments. Seeking to construct the federal schoolhouse - an educational system in which there are common national expectations and practices - has meant the creation of new modes of education within local institutions. The creation of this education state" has also meant that federal educational initiatives have collided with - or reinforced - local political regimes in cities and suburbs alike. To the extent that "all politics is local," the federal role in public schools has changed both the conduct and the norms of local educational politics. Building the Federal Schoolhouse examines how increasing federal authority over public education in the U.S. changes the practices of "operational localism" in education and how local regime commitments implement, thwart, or even block federal policy initiatives. The book examines these issues through an in-depth, fifty year examination of federal educational policies at work within onecommunity, Alexandria, Virginia. The home of T.C. Williams High School, memorialized in the Hollywood movie Remember the Titans, Alexandria has been transformed within two generations from a Jim Crow school system to a new immigrant gateway school district with over 20 percent of its students English learners. Along the way, the school system has struggled to provide quality education for special needs students, sought to overcome the legacies of tracking and segregated learning and simultaneously retain upper-middle class students in this wealthy suburb of Washington, DC. Most recently, it has grappled with state and federally imposed accountability measures that seek to boost educational outcomes. All of these policy initiatives have contended with the existing political regime within Alexandria, at times forcing the local regime to a breaking point, and at times bolstering its reconstruction. At the same time, the local expectations and governing realities of administrators, parents, politicians and voters alike have sharply constrained federal initiatives, limiting their scope when in conflict with local commitments and amplifying them when they align. Through an extensive use of local archives, contemporary accounts, school data and interviews, Reed not only paints an intimate portrait of the conflicts that the creation of the federal schoolhouse has wrought in Alexandria, but also documents the successes of the federal commitment to greater educational opportunity. In so doing, he highlights the complexity of the American education state and the centrality of local regimes and local historical context to federal efforts to reform education."

A Chance for Change

Author: Crystal R. Sanders
Publisher: UNC Press Books
ISBN: 9781469627816
Release Date: 2016-02-10
Genre: Social Science

In this innovative study, Crystal Sanders explores how working-class black women, in collaboration with the federal government, created the Child Development Group of Mississippi (CDGM) in 1965, a Head Start program that not only gave poor black children access to early childhood education but also provided black women with greater opportunities for political activism during a crucial time in the unfolding of the civil rights movement. Women who had previously worked as domestics and sharecroppers secured jobs through CDGM as teachers and support staff and earned higher wages. The availability of jobs independent of the local white power structure afforded these women the freedom to vote in elections and petition officials without fear of reprisal. But CDGM's success antagonized segregationists at both the local and state levels who eventually defunded it. Tracing the stories of the more than 2,500 women who staffed Mississippi's CDGM preschool centers, Sanders's book remembers women who went beyond teaching children their shapes and colors to challenge the state's closed political system and white supremacist ideology and offers a profound example for future community organizing in the South.

Wait What

Author: James E. Ryan
Publisher: HarperCollins
ISBN: 9780062664761
Release Date: 2017-04-04
Genre: Self-Help

New York Times Bestseller “What, What? is a welcome—and joyful—reminder that true wisdom comes from asking the right questions. Should you read this book? Absolutely.” —Clayton Christensen, bestselling author of How Will You Measure Your Life? Based on the wildly popular commencement address, the art of asking (and answering) good questions by the Dean of Harvard University’s Graduate School of Education. Whether we’re in the boardroom or the classroom, we spend far too much time and energy looking for the right answer. But the truth is that questions are just as important as answers, often more so. If you ask the wrong question, for instance, you’re guaranteed to get the wrong answer. A good question, on the other hand, inspires a good answer and, in the process, invites deeper understanding and more meaningful connections between people. Asking a good question requires us to move beyond what we think we know about an issue or a person to explore the difficult and the unknown, the awkward, and even the unpleasant. In Wait, What?, Jim Ryan, dean of Harvard University’s Graduate School of Education, celebrates the art of asking—and answering—good questions. Five questions in particular: Wait, what?; I wonder…? Couldn’t we at least…?; How can I help?; and What truly matters? Using examples from politics, history, popular culture, and social movements, as well as his own personal life, Ryan demonstrates how these essential inquiries generate understanding, spark curiosity, initiate progress, fortify relationships, and draw our attention to the important things in life—from the Supreme Court to Fenway Park. By regularly asking these five essential questions, Ryan promises, we will be better able to answer life’s most important question: “And did you get what you wanted out of life, even so?” At once hilarious and illuminating, poignant and surprising, Wait, What? is an inspiring book of wisdom that will forever change the way you think about questions.

Begging for Change

Author: Robert Egger
Publisher: Zondervan
ISBN: 9780062013224
Release Date: 2010-07-06
Genre: Business & Economics

You are a good person. You are one of the 84 million Americans who volunteer with a charity. You are part of a national donor pool that contributes nearly $200 billion to good causes every year. But you wonder: Why don't your efforts seem to make a difference? Fifteen years ago, Robert Egger asked himself this same question as he reluctantly climbed aboard a food service truck for a night of volunteering to help serve meals to the homeless. He wondered why there were still people waiting in line for soup in this day and age. Where were the drug counselors, the job trainers, and the support team to help these men and women get off the streets? Why were volunteers buying supplies from grocery stores when restaurants were throwing away unused fresh food every night? Why had politicians, citizens, and local businesses allowed charity to become an end in itself? Why wasn't there an efficient way to solve the problem? Robert knew there had to be a better way. In 1989, he started the D.C. Central Kitchen by collecting unused food from local restaurants, caterers, and hotels and bringing it back to a central location where hot, nutritious meals were prepared and distributed to agencies around the city. Since then, the D.C. Central Kitchen has been named one of President Bush Sr.'s Thousand Points of Light and has become one of the most respected and emulated nonprofit agencies in the world, producing and distributing more than 4,000 meals a day. Its highly successful 12-week job-training program equips former homeless transients and drug addicts with culinary and life skills to gain employment in the restaurant business. In Begging for Change, Robert Egger looks back on his experience and exposes the startling lack of logic, waste, and ineffectiveness he has encountered during his years in the nonprofit sector, and calls for reform of this $800 billion industry from the inside out. In his entertaining and inimitable way, he weaves stories from his days in music, when he encountered legends such as Sarah Vaughan, Mel Torme, and Iggy Pop, together with stories from his experiences in the hunger movement -- and recently as volunteer interim director to help clean up the beleaguered United Way National Capital Area. He asks for nonprofits to be more innovative and results-driven, for corporate and nonprofit leaders to be more focused and responsible, and for citizens who contribute their time and money to be smarter and more demanding of nonprofits and what they provide in return. Robert's appeal to common sense will resonate with readers who are tired of hearing the same nonprofit fund-raising appeals and pity-based messages. Instead of asking the "who" and "what" of giving, he leads the way in asking the "how" and "why" in order to move beyond our 19th-century concept of charity, and usher in a 21st-century model of change and reform for nonprofits. Enlightening and provocative, engaging and moving, this book is essential reading for nonprofit managers, corporate leaders, and, most of all, any citizen who has ever cared enough to give of themselves to a worthy cause.

Still a House Divided

Author: Desmond S. King
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400839766
Release Date: 2011-08-22
Genre: Political Science

Why have American policies failed to reduce the racial inequalities still pervasive throughout the nation? Has President Barack Obama defined new political approaches to race that might spur unity and progress? Still a House Divided examines the enduring divisions of American racial politics and how these conflicts have been shaped by distinct political alliances and their competing race policies. Combining deep historical knowledge with a detailed exploration of such issues as housing, employment, criminal justice, multiracial census categories, immigration, voting in majority-minority districts, and school vouchers, Desmond King and Rogers Smith assess the significance of President Obama's election to the White House and the prospects for achieving constructive racial policies for America's future. Offering a fresh perspective on the networks of governing institutions, political groups, and political actors that influence the structure of American racial politics, King and Smith identify three distinct periods of opposing racial policy coalitions in American history. The authors investigate how today's alliances pit color-blind and race-conscious approaches against one another, contributing to political polarization and distorted policymaking. Contending that President Obama has so far inadequately confronted partisan divisions over race, the authors call for all sides to recognize the need for a balance of policy measures if America is to ever cease being a nation divided. Presenting a powerful account of American political alliances and their contending racial agendas, Still a House Divided sheds light on a policy path vital to the country's future.

The Allure of Order

Author: Jal Mehta
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199942060
Release Date: 2013-05-02
Genre: Education

Explores why reformers from both the left and right have repeatedly placed such high hopes in these reforms and why teachers and schools have been unable to resist these external reformers.

The Enduring Legacy of Rodriguez

Author: Charles J. Ogletree, Jr.
Publisher:
ISBN: 1612508316
Release Date: 2015-10-13
Genre: Education

In "The Enduring Legacy of "Rodriguez, leading legal and educational scholars examine "San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez "(1973), the landmark US Supreme Court decision that held that the Constitution does not guarantee equality of educational opportunity. This ambitious volume assesses the history of the decision and presents a variety of creative strategies to address the pernicious effects of inequality on student learning and achievement. Ogletree, Robinson, and their expert cowriters offer hope that this decision can be reversed or that other ways can be found to counter its ill effects. This book is a thoughtful and overdue contribution to improving schools. Jack Jennings, author, "Presidents, Congress, and the Public Schools" There is an enduring tradition in this nation of relentless legal scholars who stand as champions for educational equity. This important volume follows in that tradition, deftly charting the future of educational opportunity. Ronald F. Ferguson, faculty cochair and director, The Achievement Gap Initiative, Harvard University Ogletree and Robinson remind us that equalizing educational opportunity in the United States is going to require fundamental changes in law and policy from many directions, from how we allocate our financial resources to rethinking our housing policies. Their book makes a very important contribution toward broadening the conversation we re having around reforming education. Wendy Kopp, cofounder and CEO, Teach For All The Supreme Court s effective abdication of any role in securing equal educational opportunity requires us to continue to grapple with the past, present, and future effects of the "Rodriguez" decision, and the essays here make essential contributions to that endeavor. Thomas A. Saenz, president and general counsel, Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund Charles J. Ogletree, Jr., is the Jesse Climenko Professor of Law and founding and executive director of the Charles Hamilton Houston Institute for Race and Justice at Harvard Law School. Kimberly Jenkins Robinson is a professor at the University of Richmond School of Law and a researcher at the Charles Hamilton Houston Institute for Race and Justice. James E. Ryan is the dean and Charles William Eliot Professor of Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education."