This book deals with the theoretical, methodological, and empirical implications of bounded rationality in the operation of institutions. It focuses on decisions made under uncertainty, and presents a reliable strategy of knowledge acquisition for the design and implementation of decision-support systems. Based on the distinction between the inner and outer environment of decisions, the book explores both the cognitive mechanisms at work when actors decide, and the institutional mechanisms existing among and within organizations that make decisions fairly predictable. While a great deal of work has been done on how organizations act as patterns of events for (boundedly) rational decisions, less effort has been devoted to study under which circumstances organizations cease to act as such reliable mechanisms. Through an empirical strategy on open-ended response data from a survey among junior judges, the work pursues two main goals. The first one is to explore the limits of “institutional rationality” of the Spanish lower courts on-call service, an optimal scenario to observe decision-making under uncertainty. The second aim is to achieve a better understanding of the kind of uncertainty under which inexperienced decision-makers work. This entails exploring the demands imposed by problems and the knowledge needed to deal with them, making this book also a study on expertise achievement in institutional environments. This book combines standard multivariate statistical methods with machine learning techniques such as multidimensional scaling and topic models, treating text as data. Doing so, the book contributes to the collaboration between empirical social scientific approaches and the community of scientists that provide the set of tools and methods to make sense of the fastest growing resource of our time: data.
Author: James G. March
Release Date: 1991-01-08
Genre: Business & Economics
This book collects together for the first time over 20 of James March's key essays, including those co-authorised with R.M. Cyert and J.P. Olsen and others. The coverage ranges from his early work on the behavioural theory of the firm, through conflict and adaptive rules in organizations, to decision-making under ambiguity (including the famed 'garbage can' model).
This IBM RedguideTM publication looks back on the key decisions that made the data lake successful and looks forward to the future. It proposes that the metadata management and governance approaches developed for the data lake can be adopted more broadly to increase the value that an organization gets from its data. Delivering this broader vision, however, requires a new generation of data catalogs and governance tools built on open standards that are adopted by a multi-vendor ecosystem of data platforms and tools. Work is already underway to define and deliver this capability, and there are multiple ways to engage. This guide covers the reasons why this new capability is critical for modern businesses and how you can get value from it.
Author: Anwar Shah
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Release Date: 2007
Genre: Business & Economics
Budgeting and budgetary institutions play a critical role in resource allocation, government accountability, and improved fiscal and social outcomes. This volume distills lessons from practices in designing better fiscal institutions, citizen friendly budgets, and open and transparent processes of budget preparation and execution. It also highlights newer concepts of performance budgeting, accrual accounting, activity based costing, and the use of information and communication technology in budgeting. These tools of analysis are supplemented by a review of budgeting in post-conflict countries and two country case studies on the reform of budgeting systems.
Author: Justin Parkhurst
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Release Date: 2016-10-04
Genre: Political Science
The Open Access version of this book, available at http://www.tandfebooks.com/, has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 license. There has been an enormous increase in interest in the use of evidence for public policymaking, but the vast majority of work on the subject has failed to engage with the political nature of decision making and how this influences the ways in which evidence will be used (or misused) within political areas. This book provides new insights into the nature of political bias with regards to evidence and critically considers what an ‘improved’ use of evidence would look like from a policymaking perspective. Part I describes the great potential for evidence to help achieve social goals, as well as the challenges raised by the political nature of policymaking. It explores the concern of evidence advocates that political interests drive the misuse or manipulation of evidence, as well as counter-concerns of critical policy scholars about how appeals to ‘evidence-based policy’ can depoliticise political debates. Both concerns reflect forms of bias – the first representing technical bias, whereby evidence use violates principles of scientific best practice, and the second representing issue bias in how appeals to evidence can shift political debates to particular questions or marginalise policy-relevant social concerns. Part II then draws on the fields of policy studies and cognitive psychology to understand the origins and mechanisms of both forms of bias in relation to political interests and values. It illustrates how such biases are not only common, but can be much more predictable once we recognise their origins and manifestations in policy arenas. Finally, Part III discusses ways to move forward for those seeking to improve the use of evidence in public policymaking. It explores what constitutes ‘good evidence for policy’, as well as the ‘good use of evidence’ within policy processes, and considers how to build evidence-advisory institutions that embed key principles of both scientific good practice and democratic representation. Taken as a whole, the approach promoted is termed the ‘good governance of evidence’ – a concept that represents the use of rigorous, systematic and technically valid pieces of evidence within decision-making processes that are representative of, and accountable to, populations served.
Author: Gabrielle Matters
Publisher: Australian Council for Educational Research
Release Date: 2006
Genre: Curriculum planning
Examines the issues raised by the ACER Research Conference 2005. Analyses conference papers, distils essence of conference 'conversations' and contextualises them in the light of Australian and international literature.
Cognitive Hyperconnected Digital Transformation provides an overview of the current Internet of Things (IoT) landscape, ranging from research, innovation and development priorities to enabling technologies in a global context. It is intended as a standalone book in a series that covers the Internet of Things activities of the IERC-Internet of Things European Research Cluster, including both research and technological innovation, validation and deployment. The book builds on the ideas put forward by the European Research Cluster, the IoT European Platform Initiative (IoT-EPI) and the IoT European Large-Scale Pilots Programme, presenting global views and state-of-the-art results regarding the challenges facing IoT research, innovation, development and deployment in the next years. Hyperconnected environments integrating industrial/business/consumer IoT technologies and applications require new IoT open systems architectures integrated with network architecture (a knowledge-centric network for IoT), IoT system design and open, horizontal and interoperable platforms managing things that are digital, automated and connected and that function in real-time with remote access and control based on Internet-enabled tools. The IoT is bridging the physical world with the virtual world by combining augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) to support the physical-digital integrations in the Internet of mobile things based on sensors/actuators, communication, analytics technologies, cyber-physical systems, software, cognitive systems and IoT platforms with multiple functionalities. These IoT systems have the potential to understand, learn, predict, adapt and operate autonomously. They can change future behaviour, while the combination of extensive parallel processing power, advanced algorithms and data sets feed the cognitive algorithms that allow the IoT systems to develop new services and propose new solutions. IoT technologies are moving into the industrial space and enhancing traditional industrial platforms with solutions that break free of device-, operating system- and protocol-dependency. Secure edge computing solutions replace local networks, web services replace software, and devices with networked programmable logic controllers (NPLCs) based on Internet protocols replace devices that use proprietary protocols. Information captured by edge devices on the factory floor is secure and accessible from any location in real time, opening the communication gateway both vertically (connecting machines across the factory and enabling the instant availability of data to stakeholders within operational silos) and horizontally (with one framework for the entire supply chain, across departments, business units, global factory locations and other markets). End-to-end security and privacy solutions in IoT space require agile, context-aware and scalable components with mechanisms that are both fluid and adaptive. The convergence of IT (information technology) and OT (operational technology) makes security and privacy by default a new important element where security is addressed at the architecture level, across applications and domains, using multi-layered distributed security measures. Blockchain is transforming industry operating models by adding trust to untrusted environments, providing distributed security mechanisms and transparent access to the information in the chain. Digital technology platforms are evolving, with IoT platforms integrating complex info
Author: World Bank Group
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Release Date: 2017-01-23
Genre: Business & Economics
Why are carefully designed, sensible policies too often not adopted or implemented? When they are, why do they often fail to generate development outcomes such as security, growth, and equity? And why do some bad policies endure? World Development Report 2017: Governance and the Law addresses these fundamental questions, which are at the heart of development. Policy making and policy implementation do not occur in a vacuum. Rather, they take place in complex political and social settings, in which individuals and groups with unequal power interact within changing rules as they pursue conflicting interests. The process of these interactions is what this Report calls governance, and the space in which these interactions take place, the policy arena. The capacity of actors to commit and their willingness to cooperate and coordinate to achieve socially desirable goals are what matter for effectiveness. However, who bargains, who is excluded, and what barriers block entry to the policy arena determine the selection and implementation of policies and, consequently, their impact on development outcomes. Exclusion, capture, and clientelism are manifestations of power asymmetries that lead to failures to achieve security, growth, and equity. The distribution of power in society is partly determined by history. Yet, there is room for positive change. This Report reveals that governance can mitigate, even overcome, power asymmetries to bring about more effective policy interventions that achieve sustainable improvements in security, growth, and equity. This happens by shifting the incentives of those with power, reshaping their preferences in favor of good outcomes, and taking into account the interests of previously excluded participants. These changes can come about through bargains among elites and greater citizen engagement, as well as by international actors supporting rules that strengthen coalitions for reform.
Author: Jo Rycroft-Malone
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2010-05-10
This title provides a critical analysis of a number of different models and approaches to the implementation of evidence-based practice, culminating in an integrative review, narrative synthesis and likely future directions in the final chapters.
Author: Miriam Jorgensen
Publisher: University of Arizona Press
Release Date: 2007
Genre: Social Science
A revolution is underway among the Indigenous nations of North America. It is a quiet revolution, largely unnoticed in society at large. But it is profoundly important. From High Plains states and Prairie Provinces to southwestern deserts, from Mississippi and Oklahoma to the northwest coast of the continent, Native peoples are reclaiming their right to govern themselves and to shape their future in their own ways. Challenging more than a century of colonial controls, they are addressing severe social problems, building sustainable economies, and reinvigorating Indigenous cultures. In effect, they are rebuilding their nations according to their own diverse and often innovative designs. Produced by the Native Nations Institute for Leadership, Management, and Policy at the University of Arizona and the Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development, this book traces the contours of that revolution as Native nations turn the dream of self-determination into a practical reality. Part report, part analysis, part how-to manual for Native leaders, it discusses strategies for governance and community and economic development being employed by American Indian nations and First Nations in Canada as they move to assert greater control over their own affairs. Rebuilding Native Nations provides guidelines for creating new governance structures, rewriting constitutions, building justice systems, launching nation-owned enterprises, encouraging citizen entrepreneurs, developing new relationships with non-Native governments, and confronting the crippling legacies of colonialism. For nations that wish to join that revolution or for those who simply want to understand the transformation now underway across Indigenous North America, this book is a critical resource. CONTENTS Foreword by Oren Lyons Editor's Introduction Part 1 Starting Points 1. Two Approaches to the Development of Native Nations: One Works, the Other Doesn't Stephen Cornell and Joseph P. Kalt 2. Development, Governance, Culture: What Are They and What Do They Have to Do with Rebuilding Native Nations? Manley A. Begay, Jr., Stephen Cornell, Miriam Jorgensen, and Joseph P. Kalt Part 2 Rebuilding the Foundations 3. Remaking the Tools of Governance: Colonial Legacies, Indigenous Solutions Stephen Cornell 4. The Role of Constitutions in Native Nation Building: Laying a Firm Foundation Joseph P. Kalt 5 . Native Nation Courts: Key Players in Nation Rebuilding Joseph Thomas Flies-Away, Carrie Garrow, and Miriam Jorgensen 6. Getting Things Done for the Nation: The Challenge of Tribal Administration Stephen Cornell and Miriam Jorgensen Part 3 Reconceiving Key Functions 7. Managing the Boundary between Business and Politics: Strategies for Improving the Chances for Success in Tribally Owned Enterprises Kenneth Grant and Jonathan Taylor 8. Citizen Entrepreneurship: An Underutilized Development Resource Stephen Cornell, Miriam Jorgensen, Ian Wilson Record, and Joan Timeche 9. Governmental Services and Programs: Meeting Citizens' Needs Alyce S. Adams, Andrew J. Lee, and Michael Lipsky 10. Intergovernmental Relationships: Expressions of Tribal Sovereignty Sarah L. Hicks Part 4 Making It Happen 11. Rebuilding Native Nations: What Do Leaders Do? Manley A. Begay, Jr., Stephen Cornell, Miriam Jorgensen, and Nathan Pryor 12. Seizing the Future: Why Some Native Nations Do and Others Don't Stephen Cornell, Miriam Jorgensen, Joseph P. Kalt, and Katherine Spilde Contreras Afterword by Satsan (Herb George) References About the Contributors Index
A volume in the Remote Sensing Handbook series, Remotely Sensed Data Characterization, Classification, and Accuracies documents the scientific and methodological advances that have taken place during the last 50 years. The other two volumes in the series are Land Resources Monitoring, Modeling, and Mapping with Remote Sensing, and Remote Sensing of Water Resources, Disasters, and Urban Studies. This volume demonstrates the experience, utility, methods, and models used in studying a wide array of remotely sensed data characterization, classification, and accuracies for terrestrial applications. Leading experts on global geographic coverage, study areas, and array of satellite and sensors contribute to this unique handbook. This theoretical as well as highly practical book represents a thorough history of advancement in the field over last 50 years, bringing us to where we are now, and highlighting future possibilities. Highlights include: Fundamental and advanced topics in remote-sensing satellites and sensors Remote sensing data calibration, normalization, harmonization, and synthesis Optical, Radar, LiDAR, thermal, hyperspectral, and other satellite sensors, normalization of remotely sensed data, and data degradations Digital image processing, urban image classification, and image classification methods in land use\land cover, cropland, change detection studies Enhanced vegetation indices and standardization of vegetation indices Object-based image analysis (OBIA) and geospatial data integration LiDAR data processing and applications Geoprocessing, GIS, and GIScience GNSS applications Crowdsourcing and cloud computing Google Earth for Earth Sciences Map accuracies Remote-sensing law or space law, and a host of other topics Considered magnum opus on the subject, the three-volume Remote Sensing Handbook is edited by Dr. Prasad S. Thenkabail of the United States Geological Survey and a renowned international expert in remote sensing and GIScience, with contributions from the very best leading global experts, the handbook gives you a knowledge base on the evolution of remote sensing science, current state-of-the-art technology, and a future vision for the field.
This Child-Friendly Schools (CFS) Manual was developed during three-and-a-half years of continuous work, involving the United Nations Children's Fund education staff and specialists from partner agencies working on quality education. It benefits from fieldwork in 155 countries and territories, evaluations carried out by the Regional Offices and desk reviews conducted by headquarters in New York. The manual is a part of a total resource package that includes an e-learning package for capacity-building in the use of CFS models and a collection of field case studies to illustrate the state of the art in child-friendly schools in a variety of settings.
Author: Eric Brousseau
Publisher: MIT Press
Release Date: 2012
Genre: Business & Economics
Global public goods (GPGs)--the economic term for a broad range of goods and servicesthat benefit everyone, including stable climate, public health, and economic security--pose notablegovernance challenges. At the national level, public goods are often provided by government, but atthe global level there is no established state-like entity to take charge of their provision. Thecomplex nature of many GPGs poses additional problems of coordination, knowledge generation and theformation of citizen preferences. This book considers traditional public economy theory of publicgoods provision as oversimplified, because it is state centered and fiscally focused. It develops amultidisciplinary look at the challenges of understanding and designing appropriate governanceregimes for different types of goods in such areas as the environment, food security, anddevelopment assistance. The chapter authors, all leading scholars in the field, explore themisalignment between existing GPG policies and actors' incentives and understandings. They analyzethe complex impact of incentives, the involvement of stakeholders in collective decision making, andthe specific coordination needed for the generation of knowledge. The book shows that governance ofGPGs must be democratic, reflexive--emphasizing collective learning processes--and knowledge basedin order to be effective. The hardcover edition does not include a dustjacket.