Frontiers in Polar Biology in the Genomics Era

Author: Committee on Frontiers in Polar Biology
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309512299
Release Date: 2003-07-22
Genre: Science

As we enter the twenty-first century, the polar biological sciences stand well poised to address numerous important issues, many of which were unrecognized as little as 10 years ago. From the effects of global warming on polar organisms to the potential for life in subglacial Lake Vostok, the opportunities to advance our understanding of polar ecosystems are unprecedented. The era of “genome-enabled” biology is upon us, and new technologies will allow us to examine polar biological questions of unprecedented scope and to do so with extraordinary depth and precision. Frontiers in Polar Biology in the Genomic Revolution highlights research areas in polar biology that can benefit from genomic technologies and assesses the impediments to the conduct of polar genomic research. It also emphasizes the importance of ancillary technologies to the successful application of genomic technologies to polar studies. It recommends the development of a new initiative in polar genome sciences that emphasizes collaborative multidisciplinary research to facilitate genome analyses of polar organisms and coordinate research efforts.

Frontiers in Understanding Climate Change and Polar Ecosystems

Author: Committee for the Workshop on Frontiers in Understanding Climate Change and Polar Ecosystems
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309210874
Release Date: 2011-05-02
Genre: Nature

The polar regions are experiencing rapid changes in climate. These changes are causing observable ecological impacts of various types and degrees of severity at all ecosystem levels, including society. Even larger changes and more significant impacts are anticipated. As species respond to changing environments over time, their interactions with the physical world and other organisms can also change. This chain of interactions can trigger cascades of impacts throughout entire ecosystems. Evaluating the interrelated physical, chemical, biological, and societal components of polar ecosystems is essential to understanding their vulnerability and resilience to climate forcing. The Polar Research Board (PRB) organized a workshop to address these issues. Experts gathered from a variety of disciplines with knowledge of both the Arctic and Antarctic regions. Participants were challenged to consider what is currently known about climate change and polar ecosystems and to identify the next big questions in the field. A set of interdisciplinary "frontier questions" emerged from the workshop discussions as important topics to be addressed in the coming decades. To begin to address these questions, workshop participants discussed the need for holistic, interdisciplinary systems approach to understanding polar ecosystem responses to climate change. As an outcome of the workshop, participants brainstormed methods and technologies that are crucial to advance the understanding of polar ecosystems and to promote the next generation of polar research. These include new and emerging technologies, sustained long-term observations, data synthesis and management, and data dissemination and outreach.

Bioinformatics Research and Applications

Author: Ion Măndoiu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540720300
Release Date: 2007-04-26
Genre: Computers

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Bioinformatics Research and Applications, ISBRA 2007, held in Atlanta, GA, USA in May 2007. The 55 revised full papers presented together with three invited talks cover a wide range of topics, including clustering and classification, gene expression analysis, gene networks, genome analysis, motif finding, pathways, protein structure prediction, protein domain interactions, phylogenetics, and software tools.

Future Science Opportunities in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean

Author: Committee on Future Science Opportunities in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309214698
Release Date: 2011-11-28
Genre: Nature

Antarctica and the surrounding Southern Ocean remains one of the world's last frontiers. Covering nearly 14 million km² (an area approximately 1.4 times the size of the United States), Antarctica is the coldest, driest, highest, and windiest continent on Earth. While it is challenging to live and work in this extreme environment, this region offers many opportunities for scientific research. Ever since the first humans set foot on Antarctica a little more than a century ago, the discoveries made there have advanced our scientific knowledge of the region, the world, and the Universe--but there is still much more to learn. However, conducting scientific research in the harsh environmental conditions of Antarctica is profoundly challenging. Substantial resources are needed to establish and maintain the infrastructure needed to provide heat, light, transportation, and drinking water, while at the same time minimizing pollution of the environment and ensuring the safety of researchers. Future Science Opportunities in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean suggests actions for the United States to achieve success for the next generation of Antarctic and Southern Ocean science. The report highlights important areas of research by encapsulating each into a single, overarching question. The questions fall into two broad themes: (1) those related to global change, and (2) those related to fundamental discoveries. In addition, the report identified key science questions that will drive research in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean in coming decades, and highlighted opportunities to be leveraged to sustain and improve the U.S. research efforts in the region.

The biology of polar regions

Author: David Neville Thomas
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: UOM:49015003449957
Release Date: 2008
Genre: Nature

There is now an increased awareness of the importance of polar regions in the Earth system, as well as their vulnerability to anthropogenic derived change, including of course global climate change. This new edition offers a concise but comprehensive introduction to polar ecology and has been thoroughly revised and updated throughout, providing expanded coverage of marine ecosystems and the impact of humans. It incorporates a detailed comparison of the Arctic and Antarctic systems, with a particular emphasis on the effects of climate change, and describes marine, freshwater, glacial, and terrestrial habitats. This breadth of coverage is unique in the polar biology literature. As with other titles in the Biology of Habitats Series, particular emphasis is placed on the organisms that dominate these extreme environments although pollution, conservation and experimental aspects are also considered. This accessible text is suitable for both senior undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in polar ecology, often as part of a wider marine biology degree programme. It will also be of value and use to the many professional ecologists and conservation biologists requiring a concise overview of the topic.

International polar year

Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science. Subcommittee on Research
ISBN: PSU:000058944110
Release Date: 2006-01
Genre: Nature

Life in Ancient Ice

Author: John D. Castello
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691074755
Release Date: 2005
Genre: Science

Based on a National Science Foundation-sponsored symposium organized by the editors in 2001, it comprises twenty chapters by internationally renowned scientists, including Russian experts whose decades of work has been rarely available in English."--Jacket.

Philosophical Transactions

ISBN: CORNELL:31924101588337
Release Date: 2007
Genre: Biology

Each issue of Transactions B is devoted to a specific area of the biological sciences, including clinical science. All papers are peer reviewed and edited to the highest standards. Published on the 29th of each month, Transactions B is essential reading for all biologists.

Molecular and Biotechnological Advancements in Hypericum Species

Author: Gregory Franklin
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 9782889451173
Release Date: 2017-03-17

Hypericum is an important genus of the family Hypericaceae and includes almost 500 species of herbs, shrubs and trees. Being the home for many important bioactive compounds, these species have a long traditional value as medicinal plants. Currently, several species of this genus have been used in ailments as knowledge-based medicine in many countries. In the recent past, several pharmacological studies have been performed using crude extracts to evaluate the traditional knowledge. Results of those studies have revealed that Hypericum extract exert multiple pharmacological properties including antidepressant, antimicrobial, antitumor and wound healing effects. Phytochemical analyses revealed that these species produce a broad spectrum of valuable compounds, mainly naphthodianthrones (hypericin and pseudohypericin), phloroglucinols (hyperforin and adhyperforin), flavonoids (hyperoside, rutin and quercitrin), benzophenones/xanthones (garcinol and gambogic acid), and essential oils. Noticeably, Hypericum perforatum extracts have been used to treat mild to moderate depression from ancient to present times and the antidepressant efficacy of Hypericum extracts has been attributed to its hyperforin content, which is known to inhibit the re-uptake of aminergic transmitters such as serotonin and noradrenaline into synaptic nerve endings. Neurodegenerative diseases and inflammatory responses are also linked with Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production. A wide range of flavonoids present in Hypericum extracts, namely, rutin, quercetin, and quercitrin exhibit antioxidant/free radical scavenging activity. Hypericin, beside hyperforin, is the active molecule responsible for the antitumor ability of Hypericumextracts and is seen as a potent candidate to treat brain tumor. Recent attempts of using hypericin in patients with recurrent malignant brain tumors showed promising results. Collectively, Hypericum species contain multiple bioactive constituents, suggesting their potential to occupy a huge portion of the phytomedicine market. Today, studies on medicinal plants are rapidly increasing because of the search for new active molecules, and for the improvement in the production of plants and molecules for the herbal pharmaceutical industries. In the post genomic era, application of molecular biology and genomic tools revolutionized our understanding of major biosynthetic pathways, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Hypericum species and individual compounds. This special issue mainly focuses on the recent advancements made in the understanding of biosynthetic pathways, application of biotechnology, molecular biology, genomics, pharmacology and related areas.