Author: Committee on Frontiers in Polar Biology
Publisher: National Academies Press
Release Date: 2003-07-22
As we enter the twenty-first century, the polar biological sciences stand well poised to address numerous important issues, many of which were unrecognized as little as 10 years ago. From the effects of global warming on polar organisms to the potential for life in subglacial Lake Vostok, the opportunities to advance our understanding of polar ecosystems are unprecedented. The era of genome-enabled biology is upon us, and new technologies will allow us to examine polar biological questions of unprecedented scope and to do so with extraordinary depth and precision. Frontiers in Polar Biology in the Genomic Revolution highlights research areas in polar biology that can benefit from genomic technologies and assesses the impediments to the conduct of polar genomic research. It also emphasizes the importance of ancillary technologies to the successful application of genomic technologies to polar studies. It recommends the development of a new initiative in polar genome sciences that emphasizes collaborative multidisciplinary research to facilitate genome analyses of polar organisms and coordinate research efforts.
Author: David Neville Thomas
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Release Date: 2008
There is now an increased awareness of the importance of polar regions in the Earth system, as well as their vulnerability to anthropogenic derived change, including of course global climate change. This new edition offers a concise but comprehensive introduction to polar ecology and has been thoroughly revised and updated throughout, providing expanded coverage of marine ecosystems and the impact of humans. It incorporates a detailed comparison of the Arctic and Antarctic systems, with a particular emphasis on the effects of climate change, and describes marine, freshwater, glacial, and terrestrial habitats. This breadth of coverage is unique in the polar biology literature. As with other titles in the Biology of Habitats Series, particular emphasis is placed on the organisms that dominate these extreme environments although pollution, conservation and experimental aspects are also considered. This accessible text is suitable for both senior undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in polar ecology, often as part of a wider marine biology degree programme. It will also be of value and use to the many professional ecologists and conservation biologists requiring a concise overview of the topic.
Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Science, State, Justice, and Commerce, and Related Agencies
Publisher: Government Printing Office
Release Date: 2005-01
Genre: Political Science
Author: John D. Castello
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Release Date: 2005
Based on a National Science Foundation-sponsored symposium organized by the editors in 2001, it comprises twenty chapters by internationally renowned scientists, including Russian experts whose decades of work has been rarely available in English."--Jacket.
Each issue of Transactions B is devoted to a specific area of the biological sciences, including clinical science. All papers are peer reviewed and edited to the highest standards. Published on the 29th of each month, Transactions B is essential reading for all biologists.
Author: Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health
Publisher: National Academies Press
Release Date: 2002-11-20
In this report, the Committee on Objectives for the National Plant Genome Initiative: 2003-2008 makes suggestions for the next phase of the National Plant Genome Initiative. To assist its deliberations, the committee organized a workshop at the National Academy of Sciences on June 6-7, 2002. The group that participated included plant geneticists and biochemists, evolutionary biologists, bioinformaticists, and investigators who study yeast, C. elegans, and human pathogens.
Author: Gregory Franklin
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Release Date: 2017-03-17
Hypericum is an important genus of the family Hypericaceae and includes almost 500 species of herbs, shrubs and trees. Being the home for many important bioactive compounds, these species have a long traditional value as medicinal plants. Currently, several species of this genus have been used in ailments as knowledge-based medicine in many countries. In the recent past, several pharmacological studies have been performed using crude extracts to evaluate the traditional knowledge. Results of those studies have revealed that Hypericum extract exert multiple pharmacological properties including antidepressant, antimicrobial, antitumor and wound healing effects. Phytochemical analyses revealed that these species produce a broad spectrum of valuable compounds, mainly naphthodianthrones (hypericin and pseudohypericin), phloroglucinols (hyperforin and adhyperforin), flavonoids (hyperoside, rutin and quercitrin), benzophenones/xanthones (garcinol and gambogic acid), and essential oils. Noticeably, Hypericum perforatum extracts have been used to treat mild to moderate depression from ancient to present times and the antidepressant efficacy of Hypericum extracts has been attributed to its hyperforin content, which is known to inhibit the re-uptake of aminergic transmitters such as serotonin and noradrenaline into synaptic nerve endings. Neurodegenerative diseases and inflammatory responses are also linked with Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production. A wide range of flavonoids present in Hypericum extracts, namely, rutin, quercetin, and quercitrin exhibit antioxidant/free radical scavenging activity. Hypericin, beside hyperforin, is the active molecule responsible for the antitumor ability of Hypericumextracts and is seen as a potent candidate to treat brain tumor. Recent attempts of using hypericin in patients with recurrent malignant brain tumors showed promising results. Collectively, Hypericum species contain multiple bioactive constituents, suggesting their potential to occupy a huge portion of the phytomedicine market. Today, studies on medicinal plants are rapidly increasing because of the search for new active molecules, and for the improvement in the production of plants and molecules for the herbal pharmaceutical industries. In the post genomic era, application of molecular biology and genomic tools revolutionized our understanding of major biosynthetic pathways, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Hypericum species and individual compounds. This special issue mainly focuses on the recent advancements made in the understanding of biosynthetic pathways, application of biotechnology, molecular biology, genomics, pharmacology and related areas.
Author: David S. Domozych
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Release Date: 2017-05-11
The charophytes are the group of green algae that are anestral and most closely related to land plants. Today, these organisms are not only important in evoutionary studies but have become outstanding model organisms for plant research.