Frontiers in Polar Biology in the Genomics Era

Author: Committee on Frontiers in Polar Biology
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309087278
Release Date: 2003-07-08
Genre: Science

As we enter the twenty-first century, the polar biological sciences stand well poised to address numerous important issues, many of which were unrecognized as little as 10 years ago. From the effects of global warming on polar organisms to the potential for life in subglacial Lake Vostok, the opportunities to advance our understanding of polar ecosystems are unprecedented. The era of "genome-enabled" biology is upon us, and new technologies will allow us to examine polar biological questions of unprecedented scope and to do so with extraordinary depth and precision. Frontiers in Polar Biology in the Genomic Revolution highlights research areas in polar biology that can benefit from genomic technologies and assesses the impediments to the conduct of polar genomic research. It also emphasizes the importance of ancillary technologies to the successful application of genomic technologies to polar studies. It recommends the development of a new initiative in polar genome sciences that emphasizes collaborative multidisciplinary research to facilitate genome analyses of polar organisms and coordinate research efforts.

Frontiers in Understanding Climate Change and Polar Ecosystems

Author: Committee for the Workshop on Frontiers in Understanding Climate Change and Polar Ecosystems
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309210874
Release Date: 2011-05-02
Genre: Nature

The polar regions are experiencing rapid changes in climate. These changes are causing observable ecological impacts of various types and degrees of severity at all ecosystem levels, including society. Even larger changes and more significant impacts are anticipated. As species respond to changing environments over time, their interactions with the physical world and other organisms can also change. This chain of interactions can trigger cascades of impacts throughout entire ecosystems. Evaluating the interrelated physical, chemical, biological, and societal components of polar ecosystems is essential to understanding their vulnerability and resilience to climate forcing. The Polar Research Board (PRB) organized a workshop to address these issues. Experts gathered from a variety of disciplines with knowledge of both the Arctic and Antarctic regions. Participants were challenged to consider what is currently known about climate change and polar ecosystems and to identify the next big questions in the field. A set of interdisciplinary "frontier questions" emerged from the workshop discussions as important topics to be addressed in the coming decades. To begin to address these questions, workshop participants discussed the need for holistic, interdisciplinary systems approach to understanding polar ecosystem responses to climate change. As an outcome of the workshop, participants brainstormed methods and technologies that are crucial to advance the understanding of polar ecosystems and to promote the next generation of polar research. These include new and emerging technologies, sustained long-term observations, data synthesis and management, and data dissemination and outreach.

Bioinformatics Research and Applications

Author: Ion Măndoiu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540720300
Release Date: 2007-04-26
Genre: Computers

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Bioinformatics Research and Applications, ISBRA 2007, held in Atlanta, GA, USA in May 2007. The 55 revised full papers presented together with three invited talks cover a wide range of topics, including clustering and classification, gene expression analysis, gene networks, genome analysis, motif finding, pathways, protein structure prediction, protein domain interactions, phylogenetics, and software tools.

Review of the Department of Energy s Genomics GTL Program

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309180716
Release Date: 2006-04-19
Genre: Science

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes scientific and technological innovation to advance the national, economic, and energy security of the United States. Recognizing the potential of microorganisms to offer new energy alternatives and remediate environmental contamination, DOE initiated the Genomes to Life program, now called Genomics: GTL, in 2000. The program aims to develop a predictive understanding of microbial systems that can be used to engineer systems for bioenergy production and environmental remediation, and to understand carbon cycling and sequestration. This report provides an evaluation of the program and its infrastructure plan. Overall, the report finds that GTL’s research has resulted in and promises to deliver many more scientific advancements that contribute to the achievement of DOE’s goals. However, the DOE’s current plan for building four independent facilities for protein production, molecular imaging, proteome analysis, and systems biology sequentially may not be the most cost-effective, efficient, and scientifically optimal way to provide this infrastructure. As an alternative, the report suggests constructing up to four institute-like facilities, each of which integrates the capabilities of all four of the originally planned facility types and focuses on one or two of DOE’s mission goals. The alternative infrastructure plan could have an especially high ratio of scientific benefit to cost because the need for technology will be directly tied to the biology goals of the program.

The National Plant Genome Initiative

Author: Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309085212
Release Date: 2002-11-20
Genre: Science

In this report, the Committee on Objectives for the National Plant Genome Initiative: 2003-2008 makes suggestions for the next phase of the National Plant Genome Initiative. To assist its deliberations, the committee organized a workshop at the National Academy of Sciences on June 6-7, 2002. The group that participated included plant geneticists and biochemists, evolutionary biologists, bioinformaticists, and investigators who study yeast, C. elegans, and human pathogens.

The biology of polar regions

Author: David Neville Thomas
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: UOM:49015003449957
Release Date: 2008
Genre: Nature

There is now an increased awareness of the importance of polar regions in the Earth system, as well as their vulnerability to anthropogenic derived change, including of course global climate change. This new edition offers a concise but comprehensive introduction to polar ecology and has been thoroughly revised and updated throughout, providing expanded coverage of marine ecosystems and the impact of humans. It incorporates a detailed comparison of the Arctic and Antarctic systems, with a particular emphasis on the effects of climate change, and describes marine, freshwater, glacial, and terrestrial habitats. This breadth of coverage is unique in the polar biology literature. As with other titles in the Biology of Habitats Series, particular emphasis is placed on the organisms that dominate these extreme environments although pollution, conservation and experimental aspects are also considered. This accessible text is suitable for both senior undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in polar ecology, often as part of a wider marine biology degree programme. It will also be of value and use to the many professional ecologists and conservation biologists requiring a concise overview of the topic.

Life in Ancient Ice

Author: John D. Castello
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691074755
Release Date: 2005
Genre: Science

Based on a National Science Foundation-sponsored symposium organized by the editors in 2001, it comprises twenty chapters by internationally renowned scientists, including Russian experts whose decades of work has been rarely available in English."--Jacket.

A Strategic Vision for NSF Investments in Antarctic and Southern Ocean Research

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309373708
Release Date: 2015-10-28
Genre: Nature

Antarctic and Southern Ocean scientific research has produced a wide array of important and exciting scientific advances. Spanning oceanography to tectonics, microbiology to astrophysics, the extreme Antarctic environment provides unique opportunities to expand our knowledge about how our planet works and even the very origins of the universe. Research on the Southern Ocean and the Antarctic ice sheets is becoming increasingly urgent not only for understanding the future of the region but also its interconnections with and impacts on many other parts of the globe. The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) provides U.S. researchers with broad access to the continent and its surrounding ocean. A Strategic Vision for NSF Investments in Antarctic and Southern Ocean Research identifies priorities and strategic steps forward for Antarctic research and observations for the next decade. This survey presents a decadal vision for strategic investments in compelling research and the infrastructure most critical for supporting this research. This report makes recommendations for high-priority, larger-scale, community-driven research initiatives that address questions poised for significant advance with the next decades. This report also outlines a roadmap through which the vision and these priorities can be met.

International Polar Year

Author: United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation
ISBN: UCSD:31822038357620
Release Date: 2012
Genre: Climatic changes

International polar year

Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science. Subcommittee on Research
ISBN: PSU:000058944110
Release Date: 2006-01
Genre: Nature

Optogenetic Tools in the Molecular Spotlight

Author: Tilo Mathes
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 9782889198993
Release Date: 2016-08-09

The rise of optogenetics as a standard technique to non-invasively probe and monitor biological function created an immense interest in the molecular function of photosensory proteins. These photoreceptors are usually protein/pigment complexes that translate light into biological information and have become essential tools in cell biology and neurobiology as their function is genetically encoded and can be conveniently delivered into a given cell. Like for fluorescent proteins that quickly became invaluable as genetically encodable reporters in microscopy and imaging, variants of photosensory proteins with customized sensitivity and functionality are nowadays in high demand. In this ebook we feature reviews and original research on molecular approaches from synthetic biology and molecular spectroscopy to computational molecular modelling that all aspire to elucidate the molecular prerequisites for the photosensory function of the given proteins. The principle property of changing activity of biological function simply by application of light is not only very attractive for cell biology, it also offers unique opportunities for molecular studies as excitation can be controlled with high time precision. Especially in spectroscopy the usually fully reversible photoactivation of photosensory proteins allows researchers to to perform time resolved studies with up to femtosecond resolution. In addition, functional variants can be investigated and quickly screened in common biochemical experiments. The insights that are obtained by the here presented various yet complementary methods will ultimately allow us write the script for a molecular movie from excitation of the protein by a photon to activation of its biological function. Such deep understanding does not only provide unique insights into the dynamics of protein function, it will also ultimately enable us to rationally design novel optogenetic tools to be used in cell biology and therapy.