This is a book about how ecologists can integrate remote sensing and GIS in their daily work. It will allow ecologists to get started with the application of remote sensing and to understand its potential and limitations. Using practical examples, the book covers all necessary steps from planning field campaigns to deriving ecologically relevant information through remote sensing and modelling of species distributions. All practical examples in this book rely on OpenSource software and freely available data sets. Quantum GIS (QGIS) is introduced for basic GIS data handling, and in-depth spatial analytics and statistics are conducted with the software packages R and GRASS. Readers will learn how to apply remote sensing within ecological research projects, how to approach spatial data sampling and how to interpret remote sensing derived products. The authors discuss a wide range of statistical analyses with regard to satellite data as well as specialised topics such as time-series analysis. Extended scripts on how to create professional looking maps and graphics are also provided. This book is a valuable resource for students and scientists in the fields of conservation and ecology interested in learning how to get started in applying remote sensing in ecological research and conservation planning.
Author: Andy Hector
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2015
Statistical methods are a key tool for all scientists working with data, but learning the basic mathematical skills can be one of the most challenging components of a biologist's training. This accessible book provides a contemporary introduction to the classical techniques and modern extensions of linear model analysis: one of the most useful approaches in the analysis of scientific data in the life and environmental sciences. It emphasizes an estimation-based approach that accounts for recent criticisms of the over-use of probability values, and introduces alternative approaches using information criteria. Statistics are introduced through worked analyses performed in R, the free open source programming language for statistics and graphics, which is rapidly becoming the standard software in many areas of science and technology. These analyses use real data sets from ecology, evolutionary biology and environmental science, and the data sets and R scripts are available as support material. The book's structure and user friendly style stem from the author's 20 years of experience teaching statistics to life and environmental scientists at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. The New Statistics with R is suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students, professional researchers, and practitioners in the fields of ecology, evolution, environmental studies, and computational biology.
Author: Colin D. MacLeod
Release Date: 2014-02-05
This book is the third companion volume to 'An Introduction To Using GIS In Marine Biology'. It is designed to augment the information on using GIS in marine biology provided in that book, and, indeed, to be used alongside it rather than to be used independently as a stand-alone volume. Therefore, this book will be of most interest to those who have already read 'An Introduction To Using GIS In Marine Biology'. This book consists of five exercises covering the practical use of GIS in marine biology using ERSI's ArcGIS(r) 10.2 GIS software and R statistical software. These exercises are based around integrating GIS and Species Distribution Modelling (SDM), and work through an example of an SDM from processing your survey data, through making raster data layers of environmental variables to constructing an SDM, visualising its predicted spatial distribution and validating its predictive ability. The exercises are designed to be followed in the order they are presented, and work with a specific data set, which can be downloaded separately for free. Working through these five exercises will help the novice GIS user obtain experience in creating and using SDMs, and so develop their GIS skills. Unlike most other GIS tutorials, this information is specifically presented in a marine biological context and all the exercises use real data from a marine biological study. Therefore, these exercises are more likely to provide the kind of experience in using GIS that marine biologists will find useful and applicable to their own research. These exercises are presented in the same easy-to-follow flow diagram-based format first introduced in the 'How To...' section of 'An Introduction To Using GIS In Marine Biology'. They are accompanied by images which show the user how their GIS project should look as they progress through the exercises, allowing them to compare their own work to the expected results. This is part of the PSLS series of books which use Task-Oriented Learning (TOL) to teach the practical application of research skills to the life sciences. This involves demonstrating how these skills can be used in the specific circumstances in which they are likely to be required rather than concentrating on teaching theoretical frameworks or on teaching skills in a generic or abstract manner. By seeing how the similar processes are used to achieve a variety of different goals within a specific field, it becomes easier for the reader to identify the general rules behind the practical application of these processes and, therefore, to transfer them to novel situations they may encounter in the futur
GIS for Environmental Applications provides a practical introduction to the principles, methods, techniques and tools in GIS for spatial data management, analysis, modelling and visualisation, and their applications in environmental problem solving and decision making. It covers the fundamental concepts, principles and techniques in spatial data, spatial data management, spatial analysis and modelling, spatial visualisation, spatial interpolation, spatial statistics, and remote sensing data analysis, as well as demonstrates the typical environmental applications of GIS, including terrain analysis, hydrological modelling, land use analysis and modelling, ecological modelling, and ecosystem service valuation. Case studies are used in the text to contextualise these subjects in the real world, examples and detailed tutorials are provided in each chapter to show how the GIS techniques and tools introduced in the chapter can be implemented using ESRI ArcGIS (a popular GIS software system for environmental applications) and other third party extensions to ArcGIS to address. The emphasis is placed on how to apply or implement the concepts and techniques of GIS through illustrative examples with step-by-step instructions and numerous annotated screen shots. The features include: Over 350 figures and tables illustrating how to apply or implement the concepts and techniques of GIS Learning objectives along with the end-of-chapter review questions Authoritative references at the end of each chapter GIS data files for all examples as well as PowerPoint presentations for each chapter downloadable from the companion website. GIS for Environmental Applications weaves theory and practice together, assimilates the most current GIS knowledge and tools relevant to environmental research, management and planning, and provides step-by-step tutorials with practical applications. This volume will be an indispensable resource for any students taking a module on GIS for the environment.
Author: Chris Brunsdon
Release Date: 2015-01-22
Genre: Social Science
"In an age of big data, data journalism and with a wealth of quantitative information around us, it is not enough for students to be taught only 100 year old statistical methods using 'out of the box' software. They need to have 21st-century analytical skills too. This is an excellent and student-friendly text from two of the world leaders in the teaching and development of spatial analysis. It shows clearly why the open source software R is not just an alternative to commercial GIS, it may actually be the better choice for mapping, analysis and for replicable research. Providing practical tips as well as fully working code, this is a practical 'how to' guide ideal for undergraduates as well as those using R for the first time. It will be required reading on my own courses." - Richard Harris, Professor of Quantitative Social Science, University of Bristol R is a powerful open source computing tool that supports geographical analysis and mapping for the many geography and ‘non-geography’ students and researchers interested in spatial analysis and mapping. This book provides an introduction to the use of R for spatial statistical analysis, geocomputation and the analysis of geographical information for researchers collecting and using data with location attached, largely through increased GPS functionality. Brunsdon and Comber take readers from ‘zero to hero’ in spatial analysis and mapping through functions they have developed and compiled into R packages. This enables practical R applications in GIS, spatial analyses, spatial statistics, mapping, and web-scraping. Each chapter includes: Example data and commands for exploring it Scripts and coding to exemplify specific functionality Advice for developing greater understanding - through functions such as locator(), View(), and alternative coding to achieve the same ends Self-contained exercises for students to work through Embedded code within the descriptive text. This is a definitive 'how to' that takes students - of any discipline - from coding to actual applications and uses of R.
Author: Jason Matthiopoulos
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2011-04-12
Ecological research is becoming increasingly quantitative, yet students often opt out of courses in mathematics and statistics, unwittingly limiting their ability to carry out research in the future. This textbook provides a practical introduction to quantitative ecology for students and practitioners who have realised that they need this opportunity. The text is addressed to readers who haven't used mathematics since school, who were perhaps more confused than enlightened by their undergraduate lectures in statistics and who have never used a computer for much more than word processing and data entry. From this starting point, it slowly but surely instils an understanding of mathematics, statistics and programming, sufficient for initiating research in ecology. The book’s practical value is enhanced by extensive use of biological examples and the computer language R for graphics, programming and data analysis. Key Features: Provides a complete introduction to mathematics statistics and computing for ecologists. Presents a wealth of ecological examples demonstrating the applied relevance of abstract mathematical concepts, showing how a little technique can go a long way in answering interesting ecological questions. Covers elementary topics, including the rules of algebra, logarithms, geometry, calculus, descriptive statistics, probability, hypothesis testing and linear regression. Explores more advanced topics including fractals, non-linear dynamical systems, likelihood and Bayesian estimation, generalised linear, mixed and additive models, and multivariate statistics. R boxes provide step-by-step recipes for implementing the graphical and numerical techniques outlined in each section. How to be a Quantitative Ecologist provides a comprehensive introduction to mathematics, statistics and computing and is the ideal textbook for late undergraduate and postgraduate courses in environmental biology. "With a book like this, there is no excuse for people to be afraid of maths, and to be ignorant of what it can do." —Professor Tim Benton, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, UK
Author: Toshiro Tango
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2010-01-09
This book is intended to provide a text on statistical methods for detecting clus ters and/or clustering of health events that is of interest to ?nal year undergraduate and graduate level statistics, biostatistics, epidemiology, and geography students but will also be of relevance to public health practitioners, statisticians, biostatisticians, epidemiologists, medical geographers, human geographers, environmental scien tists, and ecologists. Prerequisites are introductory biostatistics and epidemiology courses. With increasing public health concerns about environmental risks, the need for sophisticated methods for analyzing spatial health events is immediate. Further more, the research area of statistical tests for disease clustering now attracts a wide audience due to the perceived need to implement wide ranging monitoring systems to detect possible health related bioterrorism activity. With this background and the development of the geographical information system (GIS), the analysis of disease clustering of health events has seen considerable development over the last decade. Therefore, several excellent books on spatial epidemiology and statistics have re cently been published. However, it seems to me that there is no other book solely focusing on statistical methods for disease clustering. I hope that readers will ?nd this book useful and interesting as an introduction to the subject.
Author: Colin D. MacLeod
Release Date: 2015-05-31
This book is the seventh companion volume to 'An Introduction To Using GIS In Marine Biology'. It is designed to augment the information on using GIS in marine biology provided in that book, and, indeed, to be used alongside it rather than to be used independently as a stand-alone volume. Therefore, this book will be of most interest to those who have already read 'An Introduction To Using GIS In Marine Biology'. This supplementary workbook contains five exercises covering the practical use of GIS in marine biology. These exercises aim to introduce marine biologists to using QGIS (or Quantum GIS), a freely-available, open-source GIS software package, and range from making a simple map of the locations where a species was recorded for inclusion in a publication, or presentation to creating grids of species presence-absence, richness and abundance, and grids of environmental variables. The exercises are designed to be followed in the order they are presented, and work with a specific data set which can be downloaded separately for free. Working through these five exercises will help the novice GIS user obtain experience in working with GIS and so develop their GIS skills. Unlike most other GIS tutorials, this information is specifically presented in a marine biological context and all the exercises use real data from a marine biological study. Therefore, these exercises are more likely to provide the kind of experience in using GIS that marine biologists will find useful and applicable to their own research. These exercises are presented in the same easy-to-follow flow diagram-based format first introduced in the 'How To...' section of 'An Introduction To Using GIS In Marine Biology'. They are accompanied by images which show the user how their GIS project should look as they progress through the exercises, allowing them to compare their own work to the expected results. This is part of the PSLS series of books which use Task-Oriented Learning (TOL) to teach the practical application of research skills to the life sciences. This involves demonstrating how these skills can be used in the specific circumstances in which they are likely to be required rather than concentrating on teaching theoretical frameworks or on teaching skills in a generic or abstract manner. By seeing how the similar processes are used to achieve a variety of different goals within a specific field, it becomes easier for the reader to identify the general rules behind the practical application of these processes and, therefore, to transfer them to novel situations they may encounter in the future.
Author: Sarah E. Gergel
Release Date: 2017-03-30
This title meets a great demand for training in spatial analysis tools accessible to a wide audience. Landscape ecology continues to grow as an exciting discipline with much to offer for solving pressing and emerging problems in environmental science. Much of the strength of landscape ecology lies in its ability to address challenges over large areas, over spatial and temporal scales at which decision-making often occurs. As the world tackles issues related to sustainability and global change, the need for this broad perspective has only increased. Furthermore, spatial data and spatial analysis (core methods in landscape ecology) are critical for analyzing land-cover changes world-wide. While spatial dynamics have long been fundamental to terrestrial conservation strategies, land management and reserve design, mapping and spatial themes are increasingly recognized as important for ecosystem management in aquatic, coastal and marine systems. This second edition is purposefully more applied and international in its examples, approaches, perspectives and contributors. It includes new advances in quantifying landscape structure and connectivity (such as graph theory), as well as labs that incorporate the latest scientific understanding of ecosystem services, resilience, social-ecological landscapes, and even seascapes. Of course, as before, the exercises emphasize easy-to-use, widely available software.
Author: Donald L. Grebner
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2012-12-31
Genre: Technology & Engineering
Introduction to Forestry and Natural Resources presents a broad overview of the profession of forestry. The book details several key fields within forestry, including forest health, economics, policy, utilization, and forestry careers. Chapters deal specifically with forest products and harvesting, recreation, wildlife habitats, tree anatomy and physiology, and ethics. These topics are ideal for undergraduate introductory courses and include numerous examples (mainly graphical) and questions for students to ponder. Unlike other introductory forestry texts, which focus largely on forest ecology rather than practical forestry concepts, Introduction to Forestry and Natural Resources encompasses economic, ecological, and social aspects providing a uniquely balanced text. The wide range of experience of the contributing authors equips them especially well to identify missing content from other texts in the area and address topics currently covered in corresponding college courses. 300 original illustrations including line art, graphs, tables and maps Syllabus-planning assistance for adopting professors so that they can add the content to their course materials via the companion website's question-and-answer material for each chapter Contributors are experienced textbook authors with diverse professional backgrounds in forestry
Author: Keith Wilson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2010-03-04
This best-selling undergraduate textbook provides an introduction to key experimental techniques from across the biosciences. It uniquely integrates the theories and practices that drive the fields of biology and medicine, comprehensively covering both the methods students will encounter in lab classes and those that underpin recent advances and discoveries. Its problem-solving approach continues with worked examples that set a challenge and then show students how the challenge is met. New to this edition are case studies, for example, that illustrate the relevance of the principles and techniques to the diagnosis and treatment of individual patients. Coverage is expanded to include a section on stem cells, chapters on immunochemical techniques and spectroscopy techniques, and additional chapters on drug discovery and development, and clinical biochemistry. Experimental design and the statistical analysis of data are emphasised throughout to ensure students are equipped to successfully plan their own experiments and examine the results obtained.
Author: Dr Murray Logan
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2011-09-20
R — the statistical and graphical environment is rapidly emerging as an important set of teaching and research tools for biologists. This book draws upon the popularity and free availability of R to couple the theory and practice of biostatistics into a single treatment, so as to provide a textbook for biologists learning statistics, R, or both. An abridged description of biostatistical principles and analysis sequence keys are combined together with worked examples of the practical use of R into a complete practical guide to designing and analyzing real biological research. Topics covered include: simple hypothesis testing, graphing exploratory data analysis and graphical summaries regression (linear, multi and non-linear) simple and complex ANOVA and ANCOVA designs (including nested, factorial, blocking, spit-plot and repeated measures) frequency analysis and generalized linear models. Linear mixed effects modeling is also incorporated extensively throughout as an alternative to traditional modeling techniques. The book is accompanied by a companion website www.wiley.com/go/logan/r with an extensive set of resources comprising all R scripts and data sets used in the book, additional worked examples, the biology package, and other instructional materials and links.
Author: Susan M. Galatowitsch
Publisher: Sinauer Associates Incorporated
Release Date: 2012-01
Ecological Restoration provides an overview of the strategies being used globally to reverse human impacts on landscapes, ecosystems, and species. Using research-based knowledge and lessons learned from 20 actual restorations, this book aims to improve the outcomes of restorations by strengthening the connections between theory and practice.
Author: C. Kenneth Dodd
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2010
This practical manual of amphibian ecology and conservation brings together a distinguished, international group of amphibian researchers to provide a state-of-the-art review of the many new and exciting techniques used to study amphibians and to track their conservation status and population trends. The integration of ecology and conservation is a natural outcome of the types of questions posed by these disciplines: how amphibians can and should be sampled, marked, and followed through time; how abundance and population trends are measured; what are the robust statistical methods that can be used in ecology and conservation; what roles do amphibians play in community structure and function; how do animals function in their environment; and what affects the long-term persistence of species assemblages? Although emphasizing field ecology, sections on physiological ecology, genetics, landscape ecology, and disease analysis are also included. The book describes the latest statistical approaches in amphibian field ecology and conservation, as well as the use of models in interpreting field research. Much of this information is scattered in the scientific literature or not readily available, and the intention is to provide an affordable, comprehensive synthesis for use by graduate students, researchers, and practising conservationists worldwide.