Globetrotting

Author: Damion L. Thomas
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
ISBN: 9780252094293
Release Date: 2012-09-30
Genre: Social Science

Throughout the Cold War, the Soviet Union deplored the treatment of African Americans by the U.S. government as proof of hypocrisy in the American promises of freedom and equality. This probing history examines government attempts to manipulate international perceptions of U.S. race relations during the Cold War by sending African American athletes abroad on goodwill tours and in international competitions as cultural ambassadors and visible symbols of American values. Damion L. Thomas follows the State Department's efforts from 1945 to 1968 to showcase prosperous African American athletes including Jackie Robinson, Jesse Owens, and the Harlem Globetrotters as the preeminent citizens of the African Diaspora rather than as victims of racial oppression. With athletes in baseball, track and field, and basketball, the government relied on figures whose fame carried the desired message to countries where English was little understood. However, eventually African American athletes began to provide counter-narratives to State Department claims of American exceptionalism, most notably with Tommie Smith and John Carlos's famous black power salute at the 1968 Mexico City Olympics.

Cold War Games

Author: Toby C Rider
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
ISBN: 9780252098451
Release Date: 2016-05-30
Genre: History

It is the early Cold War. The Soviet Union appears to be in irresistible ascendance, and moves to exploit the Olympic Games as a vehicle for promoting international communism. In response, the United States conceives a subtle, far-reaching psychological warfare campaign to blunt the Soviet advance. Drawing on newly declassified materials and archives, Toby C. Rider chronicles how the US government used the Olympics to promote democracy and its own policy aims during the tense early phase of the Cold War. Rider shows how the government, though constrained by traditions against interference in the Games, eluded detection by cooperating with private groups, including secretly funded émigré organizations bent on liberating their home countries from Soviet control. At the same time, the United States appropriated Olympic host cities to hype the American economic and political system while, behind the scenes, the government attempted clandestine manipulation of the International Olympic Committee. Rider also details the campaigns that sent propaganda materials around the globe as the United States mobilized culture in general, and sports in particular, to fight the communist threat.

The Unlevel Playing Field

Author: David Kenneth Wiggins
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
ISBN: 0252028201
Release Date: 2003
Genre: Sports & Recreation

This extraordinarily rich compendium of primary sources charts the significant, intertwining history of African Americans and sport. The Unlevel Playing Field contains more than one hundred documents -- ranging chronologically from a challenge issued by prize fighter Tom Molineaux in the London Times in 1810 to a forward-looking interview with Harry Edwards in 2000. Introductions and head-notes provided by David K. Wiggins and Patrick B. Miller place each document in context, shaping an unrivaled narrative.Readers will find dozens of accounts taken from newspapers (both black and white), periodicals, and autobiographies, by literary and sports figures, activists, historians, and others. Frederick Douglass, W. E. B. DuBois, Booker T. Washington, Marcus Garvey, James Weldon Johnson, Richard Wright, A. S. "Doc" Young, Eldredge Cleaver, Nikki Giovanni, John Edgar Wideman, bell hooks, James Baldwin, Roy Wilkins, Henry Louis Gates, and Gerald Early are included here.Tracing the participation of blacks in American sport from the days of slavery, The Unlevel Playing Field touches on nearly every major sport and covers the full sweep of America's past. Documents include discussions of the color line in organized baseball during the Jim Crow era and athletics in the American army, as well as portraits of turn-of-the-century figures like the champion sprint cyclist Marshall "Major" Taylor and boxers George Dixon and Jack Johnson.Other selections tackle the National Tennis Association championship, high school basketball, debates over participation of black athletes in the 1968 Olympics, and the place of African American women in sport. Countless pioneering and modern-day African American athletes are spotlighted here, from Jackie Robinson, Jesse Owens, Joe Louis, Muhammad Ali, and Althea Gibson, to Michael Jordan, Tiger Woods, and Venus and Serena Williams.A thorough and informative bibliographical essay by Wiggins and Miller concludes the volume.

Beyond the Ring

Author: Jeffrey T. Sammons
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
ISBN: 0252061454
Release Date: 1990-01-01
Genre: Sports & Recreation

"Carefully documents the ruin waiting for almost all those ill-advised enough to become professional boxers. He confirms all the legends, of crime, of swindling, of the miserable economic rewards allotted to the vast majority of fighters. . . the traditional racism of the American ring. . . . No one, reading Sammons, can doubt that it is evil." -- Times Literary Supplement

Cowgirls of the Rodeo

Author: Mary Lou LeCompte
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
ISBN: 0252068742
Release Date: 2000
Genre: Social Science

In this first substantial study of rodeo women, Mary Lou Lecompte surveys the early rodeo cowgirls' achievements as professional athletes, the near demise of women's rodeo events during World War II, and the phenomenal success of the Women's Professional Rodeo Association in regaining lost ground for rodeo cowgirls. Recalling an extraordinary chapter in women's history as well as the history of American sport, Cowgirls of the Rodeo contributes to a deeper understanding of the challenges facing women in the American West and in American sport.

Qualifying Times

Author: Jaime Schultz
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
ISBN: 9780252095962
Release Date: 2014-03-15
Genre: Social Science

This perceptive, lively study explores U.S. women's sport through historical "points of change": particular products or trends that dramatically influenced both women's participation in sport and cultural responses to women athletes. Beginning with the seemingly innocent ponytail, the subject of the Introduction, scholar Jaime Schultz challenges the reader to look at the historical and sociological significance of now-common items such as sports bras and tampons and ideas such as sex testing and competitive cheerleading. Tennis wear, tampons, and sports bras all facilitated women’s participation in physical culture, while physical educators, the aesthetic fitness movement, and Title IX encouraged women to challenge (or confront) policy, financial, and cultural obstacles. While some of these points of change increased women's physical freedom and sporting participation, they also posed challenges. Tampons encouraged menstrual shame, sex testing (a tool never used with male athletes) perpetuated narrowly-defined cultural norms of femininity, and the late-twentieth-century aesthetic fitness movement fed into an unrealistic beauty ideal. Ultimately, Schultz finds that U.S. women's sport has progressed significantly but ambivalently. Although participation in sports is no longer uncommon for girls and women, Schultz argues that these "points of change" have contributed to a complex matrix of gender differentiation that marks the female athletic body as different than--as less than--the male body, despite the advantages it may confer.

Muhammad Ali the People s Champ

Author: Elliott J. Gorn
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
ISBN: 0252067215
Release Date: 1998-01-01
Genre: Biography & Autobiography

Ali as cultural icon, antiwar protestor, narcissist . . . this is the first book to comprehensively evaluate Ali's import outside the ring.

Rocky Marciano

Author: Russell Sullivan
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
ISBN: 9780252098192
Release Date: 2002-08-01
Genre: Biography & Autobiography

In this captivating and complex portrait of an American sports legend, Russell Sullivan confirms Rocky Marciano's place as a symbol and cultural icon of his era. As much as he embodied the wholesome, rags-to-riches patriotism of a true American hero, he also reflected the racial and ethnic tensions festering behind the country's benevolent facade. Spirited, fast-paced, and rich in detail, Rocky Marciano is the first book to place the boxer in the context of his times. Capturing his athletic accomplishments against the colorful backdrop of the 1950s fight scene, Sullivan examines how Marciano's career reflected the glamour and scandal of boxing as well as tenor of his times.

John L Sullivan and His America

Author: Michael T. Isenberg
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
ISBN: 0252064348
Release Date: 1994-01-01
Genre: Biography & Autobiography

Aims to make the reader feel the lure of the boxing ring.

The Olympics and the Cold War 1948 1968

Author: Erin Elizabeth Redihan
Publisher: McFarland
ISBN: 9781476667881
Release Date: 2017-02-22
Genre: Sports & Recreation

For Olympic athletes, fans and the media alike, the games bring out the best sport has to offer--unity, patriotism, friendly competition and the potential for stunning upsets. Yet wherever international competition occurs, politics are never far removed. Early in the Cold War, when all U.S.-Soviet interactions were treated as potential matters of life and death, each side tried to manipulate the International Olympic Committee. Despite the IOC's efforts to keep the games apolitical, they were quickly drawn into the superpowers' global struggle for supremacy, with medal counts the ultimate prize. Based on IOC, U.S. government and contemporary media sources, this book looks at six consecutive Olympiads to show how high the stakes became once the Soviets began competing in 1952, threatening America's athletic supremacy.

Viva Baseball

Author: Samuel Octavio Regalado
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
ISBN: 0252067126
Release Date: 1998
Genre: History

Chronicles the struggles of Latin American baseball players in the United States from the late 1800s to the present.

From Jack Johnson to LeBron James

Author: Chris Lamb
Publisher: U of Nebraska Press
ISBN: 9780803276802
Release Date: 2016
Genre: Social Science

"A collection of essays about the intersection of sports, race, and the media in the 20th century and beyond"--

The Nazi Olympics

Author: Richard D. Mandell
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
ISBN: 0252013255
Release Date: 1971
Genre: History

This book is an expose of one of the most bizarre festivals in sport history. It provides portraits of key figures including Adolf Hitler, Jesse Owens, Leni Riefenstahl, Helen Stephens, Kee Chung Sohn, and Avery Brundage. It also conveys the charade that reinforced and mobilized the hysterical patriotism of the German masses.

Sandlot Seasons

Author: Rob Ruck
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
ISBN: 0252063422
Release Date: 1993-01-01
Genre: Sports & Recreation

A new preface updates this richly detailed look at the major role sport played in shaping Pittsburgh's black community from the Roaring Twenties through the Korean War. Rob Ruck reveals how sandlot, amateur, and professional athletics helped black Pittsburgh realize its potential for self-organization, expression, and creativity.