Author: C. Philip Skardon
Publisher: Author House
Release Date: 2010-03-19
Even though it has faded in the minds of most, the Cold War was the dominant happening in the second half of the 20th Century. The underlying cause was the Soviet Union’s expansionism, which was driven by imperialist ambition overlaid with ideology. Combating this radical and highly threatening form of political and territorial aggrandizement made extraordinary demands on the Western nations, and especially the United States because of its strength and democratic tradition. These forces vied in the Hungary-Suez Crisis of 1956 as not before or after, when 200,000 Soviet troops intervened in Hungary to put down the revolution and the attendant Uprising, and, acting contrary to Western interests, Britain and France invaded the Canal Zone and the Israelis the Sinai, raising the crisis to a point of extreme danger as the East-West confrontation nearly burst its bounds. Had the allies not been halted in Egypt by the Eisenhower Administration’s use of the UN Charter and UN mechanisms for maintaining peace, and the Russians not deterred from invading Western Europe by threat of U.S. nuclear retaliation, it seemed possible that the world would experience a general war with nuclear weapons as a major component. “A Lesson for Our Times” focuses on this possibility. While it is about the steps taken by the United States to prevent the worst from occurring immediately, it is also about what was done to prevent a similar crisis from occurring in the future. To say that these actions were unique and effective is true but not enough. They were also unprecedented in the history of the nation, and surely the world, as well as proof that the peace-keeping system devised after World War II would function as intended if undergirded and augmented by U.S. prestige and wherewithal. Here, then, was Hungary-Suez in its totality. More should be known about the crisis for these reasons alone. This book seeks to meet that need while filling a large gap in the understanding of the Cold War. It also recalls a time when America’s conduct as the world’s primary superpower was as clear and visionary as it was purposeful and constructive, in a word, when American diplomacy was at its zenith.
Author: Daniel J. Svyantek
Release Date: 2014-03-01
Genre: Business & Economics
This Research in Organizational Sciences volume to explore and question the received wisdom of organizational sciences. The chapters in this volume (and the companion volume) seek to establish boundary conditions for important organizational constructs and processes. They illustrate the importance of context for interpreting the received wisdom of organizational science by showing when constructs must be adapted to changing circumstances. The volume begins with four chapters looking at the construct of leadership. Each of these addresses an important aspect of our understanding of leadership and its practice. The four chapters on leadership are followed by five chapters dealing with other organizational processes including motivation, organizational change, the role of diversity in organizations and organizational citizenship. The last three chapters deal with the issue of knowledge in large systems. Two chapters address how information may be transmitted across organizations and generations of workers. The final chapter deals with the use of information by organizational decisionmakers. The 12 papers in this volume all, in some way question received wisdom and present alternatives which expand our understanding of organizational behavior. These chapters each strive to present new ways of understanding organizational constructs, and in so doing reveal how received wisdom does not always lead to best practice in research or application. It is our hope that these chapters illustrate how challenging received wisdom in organizational studies can provide new ways of thinking about organizational processes. These new ways of thinking in turn can provide better understanding of the processes necessary to increase organizational effectiveness.
Author: Ji Zhaojin
Release Date: 2016-07-08
Genre: Business & Economics
As the center of capitalism in China, Shanghai banking provides a unique perspective for assessing the impact of the changes from financial capitalism to socialist planning banking in the early 1950s, and for evaluating the reform of China's banking system since the 1980s. This book offers a comprehensive history of Shanghai banking and capital markets from 1842 to 1952, and illustrates the non-financial elements that contributed to the revolutionary social and financial changes since the 1950s, as well as financial experiences that are significant to China's economic development today. The book describes the rise and fall of China's traditional native banks, the establishment of foreign banks, and the creation of modern state banks, while focusing on the colorful world of banking, finance, and international relations in modern Shanghai. It assesses the Chinese government's intervention in banking and finance during the Qing dynasty and the Republican era, as well as the concept of state capitalism after the establishment of the People's Republic. The author examines various modern-style Chinese banks through fascinating stories of Shanghai bankers. In addition, she provides detailed coverage of market-oriented international trade, banking associations, the conflicts between state and society, the government involvement in business, the management of foreign exchange, joint venture banks, wartime banking and finance, hyperinflation, corruption, and banking nationalization.
Author: Wolfgang Blösel
Publisher: Franz Steiner Verlag
Release Date: 2004
Herodot stellt den athenischen Strategen Themistokles als Retter der Griechen vor den Persern dar, der sich jedoch nach dem Wendepunkt bei Salamis ganzlich seiner Habsucht hingegeben habe. Die Studie weist nach, daa Herodot ihn zur Symbolfigur stilisiert und mit dem auffalligen Umschlag seines Charakterbildes die Entwicklung der Athener von den Vorkampfern fuer die Freiheit in den Perserkriegen zu den Unterdrueckern vieler Hellenen in der Pentekontaetie reflektiert hat. Dazu hat er die ihm vorliegenden Traditionen, die Themistokles mehrheitlich als Verrater diffamierten, wohl von Grund auf umgestaltet. Mit diesen Deutungen liefert die Studie einen grundlegenden Beitrag zum Verstandnis von Herodots Arbeitsweise und Darstellungszielen, mithin zur Entstehungsphase der griechischen Historiographie ueberhaupt. Daneben bietet sie neue Losungen fuer die historischen Probleme um das Flottenbauprogramm des Themistokles, den Beginn seines Niedergangs sowie die Chronologie der griechischen Abwehrmaanahmen und den Verlauf der Schlacht von Salamis. aInsgesamt hat B. eine anregende Untersuchung vorgelegt, die durch Neuinterpretation einer Reihe von Herodottexten in vielen Punkten zu einer Revision bisheriger Deutungen der Intentionen des eVaters der Geschichte' fuehren konnte.o Historische Zeitschrift aIm Ergebnis bringt Blosels Arbeit den Forschungsstand entscheidend weiter: Er gelangt zu einer revidierten Chronologie der Ereignisse zwischen 490 und 479 und wirft vor allem neues Licht auf die Aufnahme von Athens Vorgehen im Zeitalter der Pentekontaetie durch die griechische Offentlichkeit.o Das Historisch-Politische Buch .
Author: Dae Soon Kim
Release Date: 2013-07-18
Genre: Social Science
Unlike in other countries of Eastern Europe where the opposition to communism came in the form of single mass movements led by charismatic leaders such as Václav Havel and Lech Wałęsa, in Hungary the opposition was very fragmented, brought together and made effective only by the authoritative, significant but relatively unknown Árpád Göncz, who subsequently became Hungary’s first post-communist president. This book charts the political career of Árpád Göncz, outlining the outstanding contribution he made to Hungary’s transition to democracy. Drawing on a wide range of sources, including archives and interviews with Göncz himself and others, it shows how Göncz, unlike Havel who was a playwright and whose political role was largely symbolic, was a campaigning politician all his life, consistently advocating social democratic, but not communist, values. Imprisoned from 1956 for his participation in the 1956 uprising, Göncz was a highly-effective political operator in the transition period around 1989, and as president wielded real power effectively. As politics in Hungary are again marred by deep division and fragmentation, Göncz’s success in bringing rival groups together is even more pronounced.
Hungarian cinema began in cafes, and short films were projected at the Velence coffee-house in Budapest in the late 1890s. By 1912, a distinct film culture had formed in Hungary, which - unlike the imported American popular entertainment cinema - throughout its history has shown a commitment to the idea of film as art. This new book is a detailed historical, critical and appreciative account of the Hungarian cinema from its early days to the transforming 1990s, and provides an extended analysis of some 50 directors and their key films. It describes the ways in which the industry has developed, largely with the assistance of the state, especially since the Second World War, and shows how the Hungarian cinema has achieved an international success out of all proportion to its size, and despite the potential obstructions of language and culture. The author concludes with a survey of recent filmmaking activities, and a look towards the future in rapidly changing Eastern Europe. This book will appeal to all those interested in Hungarian and Eastern European film and history.
Author: Terry Cox
Release Date: 2013-09-13
Genre: Political Science
Marking the 50th anniversary of events in 1956, that were a major turning point in the history of communist-ruled Eastern Europe, this book contains a selection of some of the most recent research on those momentous events and their memory and legacy. The book contains edited contributions from historians and social scientists from Hungary, Poland the UK and the USA. Their contributions are the fruit of research which has only been possible since 1989. In the years since the fall of the communist regimes the state archives have been opened to researchers and it has been possible to collect the testimony of eye-witnesses without fear of repression and censorship. The outcome of 1956 led to Poland embarking on its own distinctive version of communist rule. Meanwhile 1956 in Hungary saw the first society-wide attempt to overthrow a ruling communist regime – only to be put down by Soviet military intervention. In both countries the events of 1956 had lasting repercussions for society and its relationship with the communist regime. In retrospect they can be seen as paving the way for the eventual fall of the communist regimes in East Central Europe in 1989.
Author: Richard J. Lawn
Release Date: 2013-03-20
Experiencing Jazz, Second Edition, is an integrated textbook with online resources for jazz appreciation and history courses. Through readings, illustrations, timelines, listening guides, and a streaming audio library, it immerses the reader in a journey through the history of jazz, while placing the music within a larger cultural and historical context. Designed to introduce the novice to jazz, Experiencing Jazz describes the elements of music, and the characteristics and roles of different instruments. Prominent artists and styles from the roots of jazz to present day are relayed in a story-telling prose. This new edition features expanded coverage of women in jazz, the rise of jazz as a world music, the influence of Afro-Cuban and Latin jazz, and streaming audio. Features: Important musical trends are placed within a broad cultural, social, political, and economic context Music fundamentals are treated as integral to the understanding of jazz, and concepts are explained easily with graphic representations and audio examples Comprehensive treatment chronicles the roots of jazz in African music to present day Commonly overlooked styles, such as orchestral jazz, Cubop, and third-stream jazz are included Expanded and up-to-date coverage of women in jazz The media-rich companion website presents a comprehensive streaming audio library of key jazz recordings by leading artists integrated with interactive listening guides. Illustrated musical concepts with web-based tutorials and audio interviews of prominent musicians acquaint new listeners to the sounds, styles, and figures of jazz. Course components The complete course comprises the textbook and Online Access to Music token, which are available to purchase separately. The textbook and Online Access to Music Token can also be purchased together in the Experiencing Jazz Book and Online Access to Music Pack. Book and Online Access to Music Pack: 978-0-415-65935-2 (Paperback and Online Access to Music) Book Only: 978-0-415-69960-0 (please note this does not include the Online Access to Music) Online Access to Music Token: 978-0-415-83735-4 (please note this does not include the textbook) eBook and Online Access to Music Pack: 978-0-203-37981-3 (available from the Taylor & Francis eBookstore) ebook: 978-0-203-37985-1 (please note this does not include the audio and is available from the Taylor & Francis eBookstore)
Author: Sarah Brown Ferrario
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2014-10-02
The 'great man' of later Greek historical thought is the long product of traceable changes in ancient ideas about the meaning and impact of an individual life. At least as early as the birth of the Athenian democracy, questions about the ownership of the motion of history were being publicly posed and publicly challenged. The responses to these questions, however, gradually shifted over time, in reaction to historical and political developments during the fifth and fourth centuries BC. These ideological changes are illuminated by portrayals of the roles played by individuals and groups in significant historical events, as depicted in historiography, funerary monuments, and inscriptions. The emergence in these media of the individual as an indispensable agent of history provides an additional explanation for the reception of Alexander 'the Great': the Greek world had long since been prepared to understand him as it did.