Author: Andrew P. Dicks
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2016-04-19
The last decade has seen a huge interest in green organic chemistry, particularly as chemical educators look to "green" their undergraduate curricula. Detailing published laboratory experiments and proven case studies, this book discusses concrete examples of green organic chemistry teaching approaches from both lecture/seminar and practical perspectives. The experienced contributors address such topics as the elimination of solvents in the organic laboratory, organic reactions under aqueous conditions, organic reactions in non-aqueous media, greener organic reagents, waste management/recycling strategies, and microwave technology as a greener heating tool. This reference allows instructors to directly incorporate material presented in the text into their courses. Encouraging a stimulating organic chemistry experience, the text emphasizes the need for undergraduate education to: Focus on teaching sustainability principles throughout the curriculum Be flexible in the teaching of green chemistry, from modification of an existing laboratory experiment to development of a brand-new course Reflect modern green research areas such as microwave reactivity, alternative reaction solvents, solvent-free chemistry, environmentally friendly reagents, and waste disposal Train students in the "green chemistry decision-making" process Integrating recent research advances in green chemistry research and the Twelve Principles of Organic Chemistry into the lecture and laboratory environments, Green Organic Chemistry in Lecture and Laboratory highlights smaller, more cost-effective experiments with minimized waste disposal and reduced reaction times. This approach develops a fascinating and relevant undergraduate organic laboratory experience while focusing on real-world applications and problem-solving.
Industries worldwide have been impacted by environmental regulations, economics, and ultimately consumers, which has led to more thought about the development of sustainable products. The textile industry is no exception. The preparation, dyeing, and finishing of textile fibres requires large amounts of water and other chemicals which may be toxic or hazardous. Green chemistry along with other green technologies may now play a leading role in this process. This book emphasises the importance of plasma treatment as a green and sustainable technology. A Novel Green Treatment for Textiles: Plasma Treatment as a Sustainable Technology discusses the plasma treatment of textile fibres and its environmental, economic, and social benefits. The book reviews the general properties of textiles and provides a description of the current treatment methods typically used today. The author then introduces the concept of plasma and its application in treating textile materials. The application of plasma as a pretreatment as well as a treatment in dyeing textiles is discussed. The book summarizes the application of plasma treatment in the printing and finishing of textiles. Also explored is the concept of sustainability and its role in the development of plasma treatments in textile wet processing. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry are incorporated throughout the book.
Author: Thomas P. Umile, Ph.D
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2015-08-05
Catalysis for Sustainability: Goals, Challenges, and Impacts explores the intersection between catalytic science and sustainable technologies as a means to addressing current economic, social, and environmental problems. These problems include harnessing alternative energy sources, pollution prevention and remediation, and the manufacturing of commodity products. The book describes the nature of catalysis regarding sustainability and presents challenges to accomplishing sustainability as well as the significance of proven or potential success. The contributors have backgrounds in academia and industry to create a more integrated picture of the issues involving sustainability and catalysis. Broad in scope, the book covers topics such as traditional metal-mediated catalysis, organocatalysis, biocatalysis, biomimicry, and heterogeneous catalysis. It includes chapters dedicated to specific research areas of catalysis as they pertain to their effectiveness, their economic and environmental benefits, and the challenges researchers face in actualizing solutions. It also contains a chapter on the application of life cycle analysis to catalytic processes, demonstrating the need to holistically consider the sustainable impacts of a process. The book can be read in a straightforward fashion or skimmed without forfeiting understanding of the narrative on the strategies and intentions of research and development. Throughout the book the requirements of sustainability are measured by the triple bottom line of environmental, economic, and social impacts. It highlights real-world implementations of catalytic processes in drug development, manufacturing, polymers, and energy. Catalysis for Sustainability: Goals, Challenges, and Impacts is a strong and versatile text. It provides an introduction to the field and the issues with which it is concerned, as well as a detailed and far-reaching discussion on current achievements and future progress.
This contribution to SpringerBriefs in Green Chemistry outlines and discusses the four major green chemistry metrics (atom economy, reaction mass efficiency, E factor and process mass intensity), at a level that is comprehensible by upper-level undergraduates. Such students have previously received fundamental training in organic chemistry basics, and are ideally positioned to learn about green chemistry principles, of which metrics is one foundational pillar. Following this, other green metrics in common use are discussed, along with applications that allow important calculations to be easily undertaken. Finally, an introduction to metrics in the context of life cycle analyses is presented. It should be noted that no other available publication teaches green chemistry metrics in detail with an emphasis on educating undergraduates, whilst simultaneously providing a contemporary industrial flavour to the material.
Remediation of groundwater is complex and often challenging. But the cost of pump and treat technology, coupled with the dismal results achieved, has paved the way for newer, better technologies to be developed. Among these techniques is permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology, which allows groundwater to pass through a buried porous barrier that either captures the contaminants or breaks them down. And although this approach is gaining popularity, there are few references available on the subject. Until now. Permeable Reactive Barrier: Sustainable Groundwater Remediation brings together the information required to plan, design/model, and apply a successful, cost-effective, and sustainable PRB technology. With contributions from pioneers in this area, the book covers state-of-the-art information on PRB technology. It details design criteria, predictive modeling, and application to contaminants beyond petroleum hydrocarbons, including inorganics and radionuclides. The text also examines implementation stages such as the initial feasibility assessment, laboratory treatability studies (including column studies), estimation of PRB design parameters, and development of a long-term monitoring network for the performance evaluation of the barrier. It also outlines the predictive tools required for life cycle analysis and cost/performance assessment. A review of current PRB technology and its applications, this book includes case studies that exemplify the concepts discussed. It helps you determine when to recommend PRB, what information is needed from the site investigation to design it, and what regulatory validation is required.
Author: Javier GarcÃa-MartÃnez
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2015-05-04
This comprehensive collection of top-level contributions provides a thorough review of the vibrant field of chemistry education. Highly-experienced chemistry professors and chemistry education experts at universities all over the world cover the latest developments in chemistry learning and teaching, as well as the pivotal role of chemistry for shaping the future world. Adopting a practice-oriented approach, they offer a critical view of the current challenges and opportunities of chemistry education, highlighting the pitfalls that can occur, sometimes unconsciously, in teaching chemistry and how to circumvent them. The main topics discussed include the role of technology, best practices, science visualization, and project-based education. Hands-on tips on how to optimally implement novel methods of teaching chemistry at university and high-school level make this is a useful resource for professors with no formal training in didactics as well as for secondary school teachers.
The principal aim of this book is to introduce chemists through a tutorial approach to the use of microwaves by examining several experiments of microwave chemistry and materials processing. It will subsequently enable chemists to fashion their own experiments in microwave chemistry or materials processing. Microwave heating has become a popular methodology in introducing thermal energy in chemical reactions and material processing in laboratory-scale experiments. Several research cases where microwave heating has been used in a wide range of fields have been reported, including organic synthesis, polymers, nanomaterials, biomaterials, and ceramic sintering, among others. In most cases, microwave equipment is used as a simple heat source. Therefore the principal benefits of microwave radiation have seldom been taken advantage of. One reason is the necessity to understand the nature of electromagnetism, microwave engineering, and thermodynamics. However, it is difficult for a chemist to appreciate these in a short time, so they act as barriers for the chemist who might take an interest in the use of microwave radiation. This book helps to overcome these barriers by using figures and diagrams instead of equations as much as possible.
Author: Steven D. Levitt
Release Date: 2007
Sind Swimmingpools gefährlicher als Revolver? Warum betrügen Lehrer? Der preisgekrönte Wirtschaftswissenschaftler Steven D. Levitt kombiniert Statistiken, deren Zusammenführung und Gegenüberstellung auf den ersten Blick absurd erscheint, durch seine Analysetechnik aber zu zahlreichen Aha-Effekten führt. Ein äußerst unterhaltsamer Streifzug durch die Mysterien des Alltags, der uns schmunzeln lässt und stets über eindimensionales Denken hinausführt.
Die Katalyse ist als grundlegendes Prinzip zur Überwindung der kinetischen Hemmung chemischer Reaktionen von fundamentaler Bedeutung in der Chemie und die metallorganische Komplexkatalyse ist ein Eckpfeiler der modernen Chemie. Das trifft gleichermaßen für die Grundlagen- und angewandte Forschung wie für industrielle Anwendungen zu. Ausgehend von den Prinzipien der Katalyse und den katalytisch relevanten metallorganischen Elementarschritten werden wichtige metallkomplexkatalysierte Reaktionen behandelt, wobei das mechanistische Verständnis im Vordergrund steht. Besonderer Wert wird dabei auf aktuelle Entwicklungen gelegt. Asymmetrische Synthesen finden ausführlich Berücksichtigung und an ausgewählten Beispielen wird die katalytische Wirkung von Metalloenzymen aufgezeigt. Am Beispiel der Stickstofffixierung werden die drei großen Gebiete der Katalyse – die homogene, die heterogene und die enzymatische Katalyse – vergleichend betrachtet. In der 2. Auflage ist ein neues Kapitel zur Stickstofffixierung hinzugekommen. In diesem werden vergleichend die heterogen katalysierte Reaktion, die enzymatisch katalysierte Reaktion (Nitrogenasen) sowie die homogen katalysierte Reaktion gegenübergestellt.