Author: Andrew P. Dicks
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2016-04-19
The last decade has seen a huge interest in green organic chemistry, particularly as chemical educators look to "green" their undergraduate curricula. Detailing published laboratory experiments and proven case studies, this book discusses concrete examples of green organic chemistry teaching approaches from both lecture/seminar and practical perspectives. The experienced contributors address such topics as the elimination of solvents in the organic laboratory, organic reactions under aqueous conditions, organic reactions in non-aqueous media, greener organic reagents, waste management/recycling strategies, and microwave technology as a greener heating tool. This reference allows instructors to directly incorporate material presented in the text into their courses. Encouraging a stimulating organic chemistry experience, the text emphasizes the need for undergraduate education to: Focus on teaching sustainability principles throughout the curriculum Be flexible in the teaching of green chemistry, from modification of an existing laboratory experiment to development of a brand-new course Reflect modern green research areas such as microwave reactivity, alternative reaction solvents, solvent-free chemistry, environmentally friendly reagents, and waste disposal Train students in the "green chemistry decision-making" process Integrating recent research advances in green chemistry research and the Twelve Principles of Organic Chemistry into the lecture and laboratory environments, Green Organic Chemistry in Lecture and Laboratory highlights smaller, more cost-effective experiments with minimized waste disposal and reduced reaction times. This approach develops a fascinating and relevant undergraduate organic laboratory experience while focusing on real-world applications and problem-solving.
Industries worldwide have been impacted by environmental regulations, economics, and ultimately consumers, which has led to more thought about the development of sustainable products. The textile industry is no exception. The preparation, dyeing, and finishing of textile fibres requires large amounts of water and other chemicals which may be toxic or hazardous. Green chemistry along with other green technologies may now play a leading role in this process. This book emphasises the importance of plasma treatment as a green and sustainable technology. A Novel Green Treatment for Textiles: Plasma Treatment as a Sustainable Technology discusses the plasma treatment of textile fibres and its environmental, economic, and social benefits. The book reviews the general properties of textiles and provides a description of the current treatment methods typically used today. The author then introduces the concept of plasma and its application in treating textile materials. The application of plasma as a pretreatment as well as a treatment in dyeing textiles is discussed. The book summarizes the application of plasma treatment in the printing and finishing of textiles. Also explored is the concept of sustainability and its role in the development of plasma treatments in textile wet processing. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry are incorporated throughout the book.
Author: Thomas P. Umile, Ph.D
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2015-08-05
Catalysis for Sustainability: Goals, Challenges, and Impacts explores the intersection between catalytic science and sustainable technologies as a means to addressing current economic, social, and environmental problems. These problems include harnessing alternative energy sources, pollution prevention and remediation, and the manufacturing of commodity products. The book describes the nature of catalysis regarding sustainability and presents challenges to accomplishing sustainability as well as the significance of proven or potential success. The contributors have backgrounds in academia and industry to create a more integrated picture of the issues involving sustainability and catalysis. Broad in scope, the book covers topics such as traditional metal-mediated catalysis, organocatalysis, biocatalysis, biomimicry, and heterogeneous catalysis. It includes chapters dedicated to specific research areas of catalysis as they pertain to their effectiveness, their economic and environmental benefits, and the challenges researchers face in actualizing solutions. It also contains a chapter on the application of life cycle analysis to catalytic processes, demonstrating the need to holistically consider the sustainable impacts of a process. The book can be read in a straightforward fashion or skimmed without forfeiting understanding of the narrative on the strategies and intentions of research and development. Throughout the book the requirements of sustainability are measured by the triple bottom line of environmental, economic, and social impacts. It highlights real-world implementations of catalytic processes in drug development, manufacturing, polymers, and energy. Catalysis for Sustainability: Goals, Challenges, and Impacts is a strong and versatile text. It provides an introduction to the field and the issues with which it is concerned, as well as a detailed and far-reaching discussion on current achievements and future progress.
Author: B. Trémillon
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Arising no doubt from its pre-eminence as a natural liquid, water has always been considered by chemists as the original solvent in which very varied chemical reactions can take place, both for preparational and for analytical purposes. This explains the very long-standing interest shown in the study of aqueous solutions. In this con nection, it must be stressed that the theory of Arrhenius and Ostwald (1887-1894) on electrolytic dissociation, was originally devised solely for solutions in water and that the first true concept of acidity resulting from this is linked to the use of this solvent. The more recent development of numerous physico-chemical measurement methods has made possible an increase of knowledge in this area up to an extremely advanced degree of systematization. Thus today we have available both a very large amount of experimental data, together with very refined methods of deduction and of quantitative treatment of chemical reactions in solution which enable us to make the fullest use of this data. Nevertheless, . it appears quite evident at present that there are numerous chemical processes which cannot take place in water, and that its use as a solvent imposes 2 INTRODUCTION limitations. In order to overcome these limitations, it was natural that interest should be attracted to solvents other than water and that the new possibilities thus opened up should be explored.
Author: Kenneth Hall
Publisher: Jessica Kingsley Pub
Release Date: 2001
Genre: Health & Fitness
Kenneth Hall was diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome at the age of eight. Here he describes some of the inner experiences and perceptions of autism in childhood. He has a warm and positive attitude which other children will find inspiring. Insights, struggles and joys are recounted vividly in a frank and humorous way.
Author: James H Clark
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Release Date: 2017-05-10
Solvents are ubiquitous throughout the chemical industry and are found in many consumer products. As a result, interest in solvents and their environmental impact has been steadily increasing. However, in order to achieve maximum integration of new green solvents into the relevant chemical sectors, clarification of the social, economic, and environmental implications of solvent substitution are needed. This book explores the solvent life cycle, highlighting the challenges faced at various points, from production, through the supply-chain and downstream use to end-of-life treatment. It also discusses the potential benefits that a green chemistry and bio-based economy approach could bring. The current state-of-the-art of green solvents is evaluated along these lines, in addition to reviewing their applications with an appreciation of sustainability criteria. Providing a critical assessment on emerging solvents and featuring case studies and perspectives from different sectors, this is an important reference for academics and industrialists working with solvents, as well as policy-makers involved in bio-based initiatives.
This contribution to SpringerBriefs in Green Chemistry outlines and discusses the four major green chemistry metrics (atom economy, reaction mass efficiency, E factor and process mass intensity), at a level that is comprehensible by upper-level undergraduates. Such students have previously received fundamental training in organic chemistry basics, and are ideally positioned to learn about green chemistry principles, of which metrics is one foundational pillar. Following this, other green metrics in common use are discussed, along with applications that allow important calculations to be easily undertaken. Finally, an introduction to metrics in the context of life cycle analyses is presented. It should be noted that no other available publication teaches green chemistry metrics in detail with an emphasis on educating undergraduates, whilst simultaneously providing a contemporary industrial flavour to the material.
Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
Release Date: 2007-02-12
Going green is a hot topic in both chemistry and chemical engineering. Green chemistry is the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. Green engineering is the development and commercialization of economically feasible industrial processes that reduce the risk to human health and the environment. This book summarizes a workshop convened by the National Research Council to explore the widespread implementation of green chemistry and chemical engineering concepts into undergraduate and graduate education and how to integrate these concepts into the established and developing curricula. Speakers highlighted the most effective educational practices to date and discussed the most promising educational materials and software tools in green chemistry and engineering. The goal of the workshop was to inform the Chemical Sciences Roundtable, which provides a science-oriented, apolitical forum for leaders in the chemical sciences to discuss chemically related issues affecting government, industry, and universities.
This book highlights the potential and scope of green chemistry for clean and sustainable development. Covering the basics, the book introduces readers to the need and the many applications and benefits and advantages of environmentally friendly chemical practice and application in industry. The book addresses such topics as ecologically safe products, catalysts and solvents, conditions needed to produce such products, types of chemical processes that are conducive to green chemistry, and much more.
Remediation of groundwater is complex and often challenging. But the cost of pump and treat technology, coupled with the dismal results achieved, has paved the way for newer, better technologies to be developed. Among these techniques is permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology, which allows groundwater to pass through a buried porous barrier that either captures the contaminants or breaks them down. And although this approach is gaining popularity, there are few references available on the subject. Until now. Permeable Reactive Barrier: Sustainable Groundwater Remediation brings together the information required to plan, design/model, and apply a successful, cost-effective, and sustainable PRB technology. With contributions from pioneers in this area, the book covers state-of-the-art information on PRB technology. It details design criteria, predictive modeling, and application to contaminants beyond petroleum hydrocarbons, including inorganics and radionuclides. The text also examines implementation stages such as the initial feasibility assessment, laboratory treatability studies (including column studies), estimation of PRB design parameters, and development of a long-term monitoring network for the performance evaluation of the barrier. It also outlines the predictive tools required for life cycle analysis and cost/performance assessment. A review of current PRB technology and its applications, this book includes case studies that exemplify the concepts discussed. It helps you determine when to recommend PRB, what information is needed from the site investigation to design it, and what regulatory validation is required.
Author: Paul T. Anastas
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2000-11-23
A guide to designing safer polymers based on the principles of green chemistry and the EPA's Polymer Exemption Rule Green chemistry, the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances, is a powerful tool in designing safer polymers. By adhering to the principles of green chemistry, manufacturers can produce polymers that are better for the environment, and can do so in an economically sound manner. The Polymer Exemption Rule delineates types of polymers that are expected to be of reduced risk. By following the guidelines contained within the Polymer Exemption Rule, manufacturers may decrease their regulatory requirements while designing polymers that are environmentally benign. This valuable guide approaches the manufacture of polymers from two perspectives, incorporating the principles of green chemistry with the guidance of the Polymer Exemption Rule to design environmentally benign polymers. Designing Safer Polymers is an indispensable working resource for polymer scientists and engineers, as well as corporate decision makers working in the polymer and chemical industries.
Author: Sanjay K Sharma
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Release Date: 2011-06-20
Scientists are conducting active research in different fields of engineering, science and technology by adopting the Green Chemistry Principles and methodologies to devise new processes, with a view to help protect and ultimately save the environment from further anthropogenic interruptions and damage. With this in mind, the book provides an up-to-date, coherently written and objectively presented set of chapters from eminent international researchers who are actively involved in academic and technological research in the synthesis, (bio)degradation, testing and applications of biodegradable polymers and biopolymers. This pool of the latest ideas, recent research and technological progress, together with a high level of thinking with a comprehensive perspective, makes the emerging field of biodegradable polymer science and engineering (or bio-based polymers) linked to environmental sustainability, the essence of this key publication. The handbook consists of chapters written and contributed by international experts from academia who are world leaders in research and technology in sustainability and biopolymer and biodegradable polymer synthesis, characterisation, testing and use. The book highlights the following areas: green polymers; biopolymers and bionanocomposites; biodegradable and injectable polymers; biodegradable polyesters; synthesis and physical properties; discovery and characterization of biopolymers; degradable bioelastomers, lactic acid based biodegradable polymers; enzymatic degradation of biodegradable polymers; biodegradation of polymers in the composting environment; recent development in biodegradable polymers; research and applications and biodegradable foams. The book is aimed at technical, research-orientated and marketing people in industry, universities and institutions. It will also be of value to the worldwide public interested in sustainability issues and biopolymer development as well as others interested in the practical means that are being used to reduce the environmental impacts of chemical processes and products, to further eco-efficiency, and to advance the utilization of renewable resources for a bio-based production and supplier chain. Readers will gain a comprehensive and consolidated overview of the immense potential and ongoing research in bio-based and biodegradable polymer science, engineering and technology to make the world greener.
Author: Vânia Zuin
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Release Date: 2015-06-01
Educating the next generation of chemists about green chemistry issues, such as waste minimisation and clean synthesis, is vital for environmental sustainability. This book enables green issues to be taught from the underlying principles of all chemistry courses rather than in isolation. Chapters contributed by green chemistry experts from across the globe, with experience in teaching at different academic levels, provide a coherent overview of possible approaches to incorporate green chemistry into existing curriculums. Split into three sections, the book first introduces sustainability and green chemistry education , before focussing on high school green chemistry education initiatives and green chemistry education at undergraduate and post-graduate levels. Useful laboratory experiments and in-class activities to aid teaching are included. This book is a valuable resource for chemical educators worldwide who wish to integrate green chemistry into chemical education in a systematic and holistic way. It is also of interest to anyone wanting to learn more about the different approaches adopted around the world in sustainability education.
Author: Paul T. Anastas
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Release Date: 2000-01-01
''As the summary of a vision, the book is brilliant. One can feel the enthusiasm of the authors throughout...I see it as a vehicle for initiating a fruitful dialogue between chemical producers and regulatory enforcers without the confrontation, which often characterizes such interactions.' ' -Martyn Poliakoff, Green Chemistry, February ' Its is an introductory text taking a broad view and intergrating a wide range of topics including synthetic methodologies, alternative solvents and catalysts, biosynthesis and alternative feedstocks. There are exercises for students and the last chapter deals with future trends' Aslib