Halophytic and Salt Tolerant Feedstuffs

Author: Hassan M. El Shaer
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781498709217
Release Date: 2015-11-18
Genre: Nature

Naturally occurring salt tolerant and halophytic plants (trees, shrubs, grasses, and forbs) have always been utilized by livestock as a supplement or drought reserve. Salt tolerant forage and fodder crops are now being planted over wide areas. Increasingly, large-scale production of fodder on formerly abandoned irrigated cropland has allowed salt tolerant and halophytic feedstuffs to be mainstreamed into the supply chain for feedlots. Feeding salty feeds to livestock has been evaluated in many countries with good outcomes especially as a way to improve livestock nutrition and productivity. Better ways have been devised to use these potentially valuable feed resources. These feedstuffs are best fed in mixed rations. Substituting conventional fodder with up to 30 percent of the diets comprising halophytic feedstuffs have proved most successful for ruminant livestock but special formulations have been devised for poultry and rabbits. There are big savings on the import of costly feedstuffs and benefits to livelihoods of those dependent on scattered, sparse and unreliable forage/fodder in the world’s drylands that cover about 40 percent of the world’s land surface. This book is written by leading authorities from many different countries. It reviews past and current work on the animal-oriented aspects of the utilization of feedstuffs derived from salt tolerant and halophytic plants. It brings to the reader (scientist, researcher, academics and their students, policy makers, and livestock operators) an up-to-date analysis of the important issues related to salt-rich feedstuffs (nutrition, productivity, and reproduction).

Halophytes for Food Security in Dry Lands

Author: Muhammad Ajmal Khan
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780128018804
Release Date: 2015-09-15
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Halophytes for Food Security in Dry Lands addresses the concerns surrounding global food scarcity, especially focusing on those living in arid and dry lands The book touches on food crises in dry regions of the world and proposes halophytes as an alternate source of consumption for such areas. Halophytes, those plants that thrive in saline soil and provide either food source options themselves, or positively enhance an eco-system’s ability to produce food, and are thus an important and increasingly recognized option for addressing the needs of the nearly 1/6 of the world’s population that lives in these arid and semi-arid climates. Including presentations from the 2014 International Conference on Halophytes for Food Security in Dry Lands, this book features insights from the leading researchers in the subject. It is a valuable resource that includes information on the nutritional value of halophytes, their genetic basis and potential enhancement, adaption of halophytes, and lessons learned thus far. Provides comprehensive coverage of the importance and utilization of halophytes to compensate the demand of food in whole world especially in the dry regions Contains insights from ecological to molecular fields Includes edible halophytes as well as those that enhance food-producing eco-systems Presents information for improving abiotic stress tolerance in plants

Halophytes as a resource for livestock and for rehabilitation of degraded lands

Author: Victor Squires
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401108188
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

Desertification (land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting mainly from adverse human impacts) is the main environmental problem of dry lands, which occupy more than 40 per cent of the total global land area. The phenomenon threatens about 3.6 billion hectares and currently affects the livelihood of about 900 million people. Thl! world is now losing annually about 1.5 million hectares of total irrigated lands (240 million hectares) due mostly to salinization, mainly in drylands. Salt affected soils are widely distributed throughout the arid and semi-arid regions, and particularly severe in China (7 million ha), India (20 million ha), Pakistan (3.2 million ha), USA (5.2 million ha), as well as Near East, southern Europe and elsewhere. Demands on production have increased the pressure on existing productive land and moved the limits of production onto increasingly marginal lands. Wise land-use practices have yet to be developed for such conditions. The Executive Director of UNEP reported to the Governing Council in February 1992 concerning the "Status of Desertification and Implementation of the United Nations Plan of Action to Comtat Desertification (PACD)". The Report concludes that major efforts to implement the PACD had gJne into supporting measures rather than concrete corrective field operations. Little evidence of progrl!ss was found in irrigated croplands, rainfed croplands or rangelands. It was recommended that every piece of land should be used in keeping with its ecological characteristics, natural capabilities and constraints.

Ecophysiology of High Salinity Tolerant Plants

Author: M. Ajmal Khan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402040180
Release Date: 2006-05-16
Genre: Science

The halophytes are highly specialized plants, which have greater tolerance to salt. They can germinate, grow and reproduce successfully in saline areas which would cause the death of regular plants. Most halophytic species are found in salt marsh systems along seashores or around landlocked inland lakes and flat plains with high evaporation. The halophytes play very significant role in the saline areas specially in the coast by overcoming the salinity in different ways, viz. with regulating mechanisms in which excess salts are excreted and with out regulating mechanism, which may include succulents or cumulative types. Besides that they protect coast from erosion and cyclones, provide feeding ground and nursery for fish, shrimps and birds. Halophytes get increasing attention today because of the steady increase of the salinity in irrigation systems in the arid and semi-arid regions where the increasing population reaches the limits of freshwater availability. In many countries, halophytes have been successfully grown on saline wasteland to provide animal fodder and have the potential for rehabilitation and even reclamation of these sites. The value of certain salt-tolerant grass species has been recognized by their incorporation in pasture improvement programs in many salt affected regions throughout the world. There have been recent advances in selecting species with high biomass and protein levels in combination with their ability to survive a wide range of environmental conditions, including salinity.

Halophytes and Biosaline Agriculture

Author: Choukr-AllAh
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0824796640
Release Date: 1995-09-13
Genre: Science

"Delineates the unique ability of halophytes to revegetate salt-affected land. Provides easy access to current information concerning the biology, biogeography, ecophysiology, productivity, and utilization of halophytes. Offers a low-cost approach to reclaiming and rehabilitating saline habitats previously regarded as useless."

Biosaline Agriculture and Salinity Tolerance in Plants

Author: Münir Öztürk
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783764376109
Release Date: 2007-06-10
Genre: Science

This volume focuses on reclamation, management, and utilization of salt-affected soils, their sustainable use, and evaluation of plants inhabiting naturally occurring saline habitats. It is of interest to scientists and students as well as agricultural institutions and farmers to increase the awareness of salinity problems. The volume is supported by UNESCO Doha, Qatar, and has an international authorship.

Elucidation of Abiotic Stress Signaling in Plants

Author: Girdhar K. Pandey
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9781493922116
Release Date: 2015-05-30
Genre: Science

​Abiotic stresses such as high temperature, low-temperature, drought, and salinity limit crop productivity worldwide. Understanding plant responses to these stresses is essential for rational engineering of crop plants. In Arabidopsis, the signal transduction pathways for abiotic stresses, light, several phytohormones and pathogenesis have been elucidated. A significant portion of plant genomes (most studies are Arabidopsis and rice genome) encodes for proteins involves in signaling such as receptor, sensors, kinases, phosphatases, transcription factors and transporters/channels. Despite decades of physiological and molecular effort, knowledge pertaining to how plants sense and transduce low and high temperature, low-water availability (drought), water-submergence and salinity signals is still a major question before plant biologists. One major constraint hampering our understanding of these signal transduction processes in plants has been the lack or slow pace of application of molecular genomic and genetics knowledge in the form of gene function. In the post-genomic era, one of the major challenges is investigation and understanding of multiple genes and gene families regulating a particular physiological and developmental aspect of plant life cycle. One of the important physiological processes is regulation of stress response, which leads to adaptation or adjustment in response to adverse stimuli. With the holistic understanding of the signaling pathways involving not only one gene family but multiple genes or gene families, plant biologists can lay a foundation for designing and generating future crops that can withstand the higher degree of environmental stresses (especially abiotic stresses, which are the major cause of crop loss throughout the world) without losing crop yield and productivity.

Sabkha Ecosystems

Author: M. Ajmal Khan
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9789400774117
Release Date: 2014-05-12
Genre: Science

Sustainable development is the key for the survival in 21st century. The natural resources are finite and cannot be used with impunity because we are the custodian of these resources and have responsibility to pass these to the next generation. This monumental task requires several major commitments and most important of them is to arrest population explosion which has already reached seven billion. Natural resources like air to breath, food to eat, and water to drink, and fossil fuel to maintain this life style are being overexploited. Unrestrained consuming culture will accelerate undesired situation. This situation will have more dire consequences in resource limited ecosystems like dry lands. Given the severe scarcity of water, ever increasing population and soil salinization out of the box solutions for the provision of food and clean energy is required to spare meager fresh water resources for conventional agriculture. This volume contains a number of articles dealing with halophyte ecology, bio-geography, ecophysiology, hyper-saline soils, biofuels, biosaline agriculture, biosaline landscaping, climate change mitigation, and biodiversity. It also contains the communication of innovative ideas, such as the research into floating mangroves, seagrass terraces, as well as a World Halophyte Garden containing all known salt-tolerant plant species. It is hoped that the information provided will not only advance vegetation science, but that it will truly generate more interdisciplinarity, networking, awareness, and inspire farmers, and agricultural and landscaping stakeholders to seriously engage in halophyte cash crop production in coastal hyper-saline areas.

Animal Welfare in Animal Agriculture

Author: Wilson G. Pond
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439848425
Release Date: 2011-11-23
Genre: Medical

What constitutes animal welfare? With animals being used for companionship, service, research, food, fiber, and by-products, animal welfare is a topic of great interest and importance to society. As the world’s population continues to increase, a major challenge for society is the maintenance of a strong and viable food system, which is linked to the well-being and comfort of food animals. Animal Welfare in Animal Agriculture: Husbandry, Stewardship, and Sustainability in Animal Production explores the pressing issue of farm animal welfare in animal production systems in the United States and globally. A framework for open discussion on animal welfare, this multidisciplinary book brings together the perspectives of 40 highly qualified and recognized experts in their respective fields. Fourteen chapters address a range of topics that includes ethics, sociology, food safety, ecology, feed resources, biotechnology, government regulations, and sustainability, as well as animal comfort, health, and contributions to society. The book also offers a historical perspective on the growth of animal agriculture from family farms to industrial animal agriculture—and the impact this has had on society. Illustrating the diversity of viewpoints, the concept of animal welfare is defined from the perspectives of an ethicist and philosopher, a research scientist, a veterinarian, an industrialist, and an activist, as well as from the perspective of sustainability and product quality. Written primarily for students, but also highly relevant for professionals in varying fields of academia and industry, this timely book reveals important insights into animal welfare and animal agriculture. Unique in its depth, breadth, and balance, it underscores the need for dialogue on wide-ranging and often contentious issues related to animal production systems.

Salinity and Water Stress

Author: M. Ashraf
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402090653
Release Date: 2008-12-26
Genre: Science

Salinity and water stress limit crop productivity worldwide and generate substantial economic losses each year, yet innovative research on crop and natural resource management can reveal cost-effective ways in which farmers can increase both their productivity and their income. Presenting recent research findings on salt stress, water stress and stress-adapted plants, this book offers insights into new strategies for increasing the efficiency of crops under stressful environments. The strategies are based on conventional breeding and advanced molecular techniques used by plant physiologists, and are discussed using specific case studies to illustrate their potential. The book emphasizes the effects of environmental factors on specific stages of plant development, and discusses the role of plant growth regulators, nutrients, osmoprotectants and antioxidants in counteracting their adverse affects. Synthesising updated information on mechansisms of stress tolerance at cell, tissue and whole-plant level, this book provides a useful reference text for post graduate students and researchers involved in the fields of stress physiology and plant physiology in general, with additional readership amongst researchers in horticulture, agronomy, crop science, conservation, environmental management and ecological restoration.

Halophytes An Integrative Anatomical Study

Author: Marius-Nicusor Grigore
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319057293
Release Date: 2014-06-13
Genre: Science

This book focuses on morphological and anatomical strategies developed by halophytes during evolution that allow them to survive in high-salt environments. These adaptive strategies refer to well integrated structural features, such as succulence, salt secretion (salt glands and vesicular hairs), aerenchyma, Kranz anatomy, bulliform cells, successive cambia, tracheoidioblasts and endodermis with pronounced Casparian strips. The authors present cross sections of the roots, stems and leaves of 62 halophyte species belonging to 18 families from different habitats and climates (temperate, Mediterranean). They also discuss the ecological, physiological and evolutionary aspects of the various adaptive structures in an integrative way. Beginning with the structural level, this book offers novel insights into the ecology of halophytes and opens new perspectives for the identification of salt-tolerant crop plants or halophytes that can be used for ecological purposes, such as bio-remediation and revegetation.

Natural Sinks of CO2

Author: Joe Wisniewski
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401127936
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

Most of the attention with respect to the increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations centers around three issues: human-generated sources of carbon, mostly from burning fossil fuels; tropical deforestation, which accelerates the production of atmospheric carbon while causting havoc with biodiversity and the economic development of tropical countries; and the temperature increase that may accompany increased atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. This is the first book to focus extensively on the reverse to emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), i.e. the sequestering of atmospheric carbon by aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Natural ecosystems are currently sequestering carbon and it is economically feasible to manage existing and additional terrestrial (forest, soil, saline land) and aquatic (coastal, wetland and ocean) ecosystems to substantially increase the level of carbon storage. The prospect of managing natural systems to absorb additional carbon should begin to change the mindset under which scientists, policy makers and society deal with the issue of further greenhouse gas increases.

Biosaline Agriculture and High Salinity Tolerance

Author: Chedly Abdelly
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3764385545
Release Date: 2008-04-18
Genre: Technology & Engineering

A major, worldwide threat to agricultural productivity is undoubtedly due to environments with stressful factors, including drought, salinity, and extreme temperatures. Based on contributions presented at the International Conference on Biosaline Agriculture and High Salinity Tolerance, held in Gammarth, Tunisia, November 2006, this book reviews the current state of knowledge in biosaline agriculture and high salinity tolerance in plants.

Forage Plant Ecophysiology

Author: Cory Matthew
Publisher: MDPI
ISBN: 9783038424888
Release Date: 2018-03-16
Genre: Technology & Engineering

This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Forage Plant Ecophysiology" that was published in Agriculture

Trace Elements as Contaminants and Nutrients

Author: M. N. V. Prasad
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470355091
Release Date: 2008-08-20
Genre: Science

Access state-of-the-art research about trace element contamination and its impact on human health in Trace Elements as Contaminants and Nutrients: Consequences in Ecosystems and Human Health. In this ground-breaking guide, find exhaustive evidence of trace element contamination in the environment with topics like the functions and essentiality of trace metals, bioavailability and uptake biochemistry, membrane biochemistry and transport mechanisms, and enzymology. Find case studies that will reinforce the fundamentals of mineral nutrition in plants and animals and current information about fortified foods and nutrient deficiencies.