Halophytic and Salt Tolerant Feedstuffs

Author: Hassan M. El Shaer
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781498709217
Release Date: 2015-11-18
Genre: Nature

Naturally occurring salt tolerant and halophytic plants (trees, shrubs, grasses, and forbs) have always been utilized by livestock as a supplement or drought reserve. Salt tolerant forage and fodder crops are now being planted over wide areas. Increasingly, large-scale production of fodder on formerly abandoned irrigated cropland has allowed salt tolerant and halophytic feedstuffs to be mainstreamed into the supply chain for feedlots. Feeding salty feeds to livestock has been evaluated in many countries with good outcomes especially as a way to improve livestock nutrition and productivity. Better ways have been devised to use these potentially valuable feed resources. These feedstuffs are best fed in mixed rations. Substituting conventional fodder with up to 30 percent of the diets comprising halophytic feedstuffs have proved most successful for ruminant livestock but special formulations have been devised for poultry and rabbits. There are big savings on the import of costly feedstuffs and benefits to livelihoods of those dependent on scattered, sparse and unreliable forage/fodder in the world’s drylands that cover about 40 percent of the world’s land surface. This book is written by leading authorities from many different countries. It reviews past and current work on the animal-oriented aspects of the utilization of feedstuffs derived from salt tolerant and halophytic plants. It brings to the reader (scientist, researcher, academics and their students, policy makers, and livestock operators) an up-to-date analysis of the important issues related to salt-rich feedstuffs (nutrition, productivity, and reproduction).

Halophytes as a resource for livestock and for rehabilitation of degraded lands

Author: Victor Squires
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401108188
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

Desertification (land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting mainly from adverse human impacts) is the main environmental problem of dry lands, which occupy more than 40 per cent of the total global land area. The phenomenon threatens about 3.6 billion hectares and currently affects the livelihood of about 900 million people. Thl! world is now losing annually about 1.5 million hectares of total irrigated lands (240 million hectares) due mostly to salinization, mainly in drylands. Salt affected soils are widely distributed throughout the arid and semi-arid regions, and particularly severe in China (7 million ha), India (20 million ha), Pakistan (3.2 million ha), USA (5.2 million ha), as well as Near East, southern Europe and elsewhere. Demands on production have increased the pressure on existing productive land and moved the limits of production onto increasingly marginal lands. Wise land-use practices have yet to be developed for such conditions. The Executive Director of UNEP reported to the Governing Council in February 1992 concerning the "Status of Desertification and Implementation of the United Nations Plan of Action to Comtat Desertification (PACD)". The Report concludes that major efforts to implement the PACD had gJne into supporting measures rather than concrete corrective field operations. Little evidence of progrl!ss was found in irrigated croplands, rainfed croplands or rangelands. It was recommended that every piece of land should be used in keeping with its ecological characteristics, natural capabilities and constraints.

Halophytes and Biosaline Agriculture

Author: Choukr-AllAh
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0824796640
Release Date: 1995-09-13
Genre: Science

"Delineates the unique ability of halophytes to revegetate salt-affected land. Provides easy access to current information concerning the biology, biogeography, ecophysiology, productivity, and utilization of halophytes. Offers a low-cost approach to reclaiming and rehabilitating saline habitats previously regarded as useless."

Biosaline Agriculture and Salinity Tolerance in Plants

Author: Münir Öztürk
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783764376109
Release Date: 2007-06-10
Genre: Science

This volume focuses on reclamation, management, and utilization of salt-affected soils, their sustainable use, and evaluation of plants inhabiting naturally occurring saline habitats. It is of interest to scientists and students as well as agricultural institutions and farmers to increase the awareness of salinity problems. The volume is supported by UNESCO Doha, Qatar, and has an international authorship.

Ecophysiology of High Salinity Tolerant Plants

Author: M. Ajmal Khan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402040180
Release Date: 2006-05-16
Genre: Science

The halophytes are highly specialized plants, which have greater tolerance to salt. They can germinate, grow and reproduce successfully in saline areas which would cause the death of regular plants. Most halophytic species are found in salt marsh systems along seashores or around landlocked inland lakes and flat plains with high evaporation. The halophytes play very significant role in the saline areas specially in the coast by overcoming the salinity in different ways, viz. with regulating mechanisms in which excess salts are excreted and with out regulating mechanism, which may include succulents or cumulative types. Besides that they protect coast from erosion and cyclones, provide feeding ground and nursery for fish, shrimps and birds. Halophytes get increasing attention today because of the steady increase of the salinity in irrigation systems in the arid and semi-arid regions where the increasing population reaches the limits of freshwater availability. In many countries, halophytes have been successfully grown on saline wasteland to provide animal fodder and have the potential for rehabilitation and even reclamation of these sites. The value of certain salt-tolerant grass species has been recognized by their incorporation in pasture improvement programs in many salt affected regions throughout the world. There have been recent advances in selecting species with high biomass and protein levels in combination with their ability to survive a wide range of environmental conditions, including salinity.

Halophytes for Food Security in Dry Lands

Author: Muhammad Ajmal Khan
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780128018804
Release Date: 2015-09-15
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Halophytes for Food Security in Dry Lands addresses the concerns surrounding global food scarcity, especially focusing on those living in arid and dry lands The book touches on food crises in dry regions of the world and proposes halophytes as an alternate source of consumption for such areas. Halophytes, those plants that thrive in saline soil and provide either food source options themselves, or positively enhance an eco-system’s ability to produce food, and are thus an important and increasingly recognized option for addressing the needs of the nearly 1/6 of the world’s population that lives in these arid and semi-arid climates. Including presentations from the 2014 International Conference on Halophytes for Food Security in Dry Lands, this book features insights from the leading researchers in the subject. It is a valuable resource that includes information on the nutritional value of halophytes, their genetic basis and potential enhancement, adaption of halophytes, and lessons learned thus far. Provides comprehensive coverage of the importance and utilization of halophytes to compensate the demand of food in whole world especially in the dry regions Contains insights from ecological to molecular fields Includes edible halophytes as well as those that enhance food-producing eco-systems Presents information for improving abiotic stress tolerance in plants

Salinity and Water Stress

Author: M. Ashraf
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402090653
Release Date: 2008-12-26
Genre: Science

Salinity and water stress limit crop productivity worldwide and generate substantial economic losses each year, yet innovative research on crop and natural resource management can reveal cost-effective ways in which farmers can increase both their productivity and their income. Presenting recent research findings on salt stress, water stress and stress-adapted plants, this book offers insights into new strategies for increasing the efficiency of crops under stressful environments. The strategies are based on conventional breeding and advanced molecular techniques used by plant physiologists, and are discussed using specific case studies to illustrate their potential. The book emphasizes the effects of environmental factors on specific stages of plant development, and discusses the role of plant growth regulators, nutrients, osmoprotectants and antioxidants in counteracting their adverse affects. Synthesising updated information on mechansisms of stress tolerance at cell, tissue and whole-plant level, this book provides a useful reference text for post graduate students and researchers involved in the fields of stress physiology and plant physiology in general, with additional readership amongst researchers in horticulture, agronomy, crop science, conservation, environmental management and ecological restoration.

Plant Adaptation and Phytoremediation

Author: M. Ashraf
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9048193702
Release Date: 2010-08-17
Genre: Science

The problems engendered by the conflicting imperatives of development and ecology show no sign of ending, and every day more locations are added to the list of landscapes poisoned by human activity. This vital book, featuring an international set of authors, is a key reference for researchers and environmental managers, as well as anyone involved in the mining industry or landscape remediation. The comprehensive coverage of current approaches to phytoremediation begins by examining the problem. It looks at natural and human-induced toxins, and their effects on natural vegetation as well as agricultural crops. Particular attention is paid to the two largest challenges to remediation – heavy metals, and the salt stress that is impeding agricultural productivity worldwide. The text moves on to focus on the efficacy of different plant species in removing toxic pollutants from the environment. Along with analysis of a number of case studies, this section includes new and updated information on the mechanism of toxin-tolerance in plants.

Prospects for Saline Agriculture

Author: R. Ahmad
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401700672
Release Date: 2013-11-09
Genre: Science

Saline land is a resource capable of significant production. Recent advances in research in breeding for salt tolerance in wheat, biotechnology in rice, and selection and rehabilitation of salt-tolerant plants are of economic importance in arid/saline conditions. This book gives some practical approaches for saline agriculture and afforestation, and describes examples of cultivating salt-tolerant/halophytic plants for commercial interest on salt-affected land or with highly salinized water in Australia, China, Central Asia, Egypt, Pakistan, and Russia. It also explores the possibilities of arid/saline agriculture and afforestation in UAE.

Environmental Adaptations and Stress Tolerance of Plants in the Era of Climate Change

Author: Parvaiz Ahmad
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461408156
Release Date: 2011-12-02
Genre: Science

Climate change is a complex phenomenon with a wide range of impacts on the environment. Biotic and abiotic stress are a result of climate change. Abiotic stress is caused by primary and secondary stresses which are an impediment to plant productivity. Prolonged exposure to these stresses results in altered metabolism and damage to biomolecules. Plants evolve defense mechanisms to withstand these stresses, e.g. synthesis of osmolytes, osmoprotectants, and antioxidants. Stress responsive genes and gene products including expressed proteins are implicated in conferring tolerance to the plant. This volume will provide the reader with a wide spectrum of information, including vital references. It also provides information as to how phytoconstituents, hormones and plant associated microbes help the plants to tolerate the stress. This volume also highlights the use of plant resources for ameliorating soil contaminants such as heavy metals. Dr. Parvaiz is Assistant professor in Botany at A.S. College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. He has completed his post-graduation in Botany in 2000 from Jamia Hamdard New Delhi India. After his Ph.D from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, India in 2007 he joined the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi. He has published more than 20 research papers in peer reviewed journals and 4 book chapters. He has also edited a volume which is in press with Studium Press Pvt. India Ltd., New Delhi, India. Dr. Parvaiz is actively engaged in studying the molecular and physio-biochemical responses of different plants (mulberry, pea, Indian mustard) under environmental stress. Prof. M.N.V. Prasad is a Professor in the Department of Plant Sciences at the University of Hyderabad, India. He received B.Sc. (1973) and M.Sc. (1975) degrees from Andhra University, India, and the Ph.D. degree (1979) in botany from the University of Lucknow, India. Prasad had published 216 articles in peer reviewed journals and 82 book chapters and conference proceedings in the broad area of environmental botany and heavy metal stress in plants. He is the author, co-author, editor, or co-editor for eight books. He is the recipient of Pitamber Pant national Environment Fellowship of 2007 awarded by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India.

Soil Salinity Management in Agriculture

Author: S. K. Gupta
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781771884440
Release Date: 2017-03-16
Genre: Science

This important volume, Soil Salinity Management in Agriculture, addresses the crucial issue of soil salinity of potential farmland and provides a comprehensive picture of the saline environment and plant interactions, along with management and reclamation methods and policies. With contributions from researchers from the fields of agricultural chemistry, soil science, biotechnology, agronomy, environmental sciences, and plant breeding and genetics, the volume emphasizes a multidisciplinary approach.

Halophytes An Integrative Anatomical Study

Author: Marius-Nicusor Grigore
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319057293
Release Date: 2014-06-13
Genre: Science

This book focuses on morphological and anatomical strategies developed by halophytes during evolution that allow them to survive in high-salt environments. These adaptive strategies refer to well integrated structural features, such as succulence, salt secretion (salt glands and vesicular hairs), aerenchyma, Kranz anatomy, bulliform cells, successive cambia, tracheoidioblasts and endodermis with pronounced Casparian strips. The authors present cross sections of the roots, stems and leaves of 62 halophyte species belonging to 18 families from different habitats and climates (temperate, Mediterranean). They also discuss the ecological, physiological and evolutionary aspects of the various adaptive structures in an integrative way. Beginning with the structural level, this book offers novel insights into the ecology of halophytes and opens new perspectives for the identification of salt-tolerant crop plants or halophytes that can be used for ecological purposes, such as bio-remediation and revegetation.

Plant Signal Transduction

Author: Dierk Scheel
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199638799
Release Date: 2002-03-28
Genre: Science

Plant growth and development is controlled by environmental cues (e.g. light, salinity) that are sensed by the plant via a variety of signal transduction pathways. This book gives an up-to-date summary of the large amount of information that is now available on the processes involved in the communication of plants with their environment.