Author: Eric Klinenberg
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Release Date: 2015-05-06
Genre: Social Science
On Thursday, July 13, 1995, Chicagoans awoke to a blistering day in which the temperature would reach 106 degrees. The heat index, which measures how the temperature actually feels on the body, would hit 126 degrees by the time the day was over. Meteorologists had been warning residents about a two-day heat wave, but these temperatures did not end that soon. When the heat wave broke a week later, city streets had buckled; the records for electrical use were shattered; and power grids had failed, leaving residents without electricity for up to two days. And by July 20, over seven hundred people had perished-more than twice the number that died in the Chicago Fire of 1871, twenty times the number of those struck by Hurricane Andrew in 1992—in the great Chicago heat wave, one of the deadliest in American history. Heat waves in the United States kill more people during a typical year than all other natural disasters combined. Until now, no one could explain either the overwhelming number or the heartbreaking manner of the deaths resulting from the 1995 Chicago heat wave. Meteorologists and medical scientists have been unable to account for the scale of the trauma, and political officials have puzzled over the sources of the city's vulnerability. In Heat Wave, Eric Klinenberg takes us inside the anatomy of the metropolis to conduct what he calls a "social autopsy," examining the social, political, and institutional organs of the city that made this urban disaster so much worse than it ought to have been. Starting with the question of why so many people died at home alone, Klinenberg investigates why some neighborhoods experienced greater mortality than others, how the city government responded to the crisis, and how journalists, scientists, and public officials reported on and explained these events. Through a combination of years of fieldwork, extensive interviews, and archival research, Klinenberg uncovers how a number of surprising and unsettling forms of social breakdown—including the literal and social isolation of seniors, the institutional abandonment of poor neighborhoods, and the retrenchment of public assistance programs—contributed to the high fatality rates. The human catastrophe, he argues, cannot simply be blamed on the failures of any particular individuals or organizations. For when hundreds of people die behind locked doors and sealed windows, out of contact with friends, family, community groups, and public agencies, everyone is implicated in their demise. As Klinenberg demonstrates in this incisive and gripping account of the contemporary urban condition, the widening cracks in the social foundations of American cities that the 1995 Chicago heat wave made visible have by no means subsided as the temperatures returned to normal. The forces that affected Chicago so disastrously remain in play in America's cities, and we ignore them at our peril. For the Second Edition Klinenberg has added a new Preface showing how climate change has made extreme weather events in urban centers a major challenge for cities and nations across our planet, one that will require commitment to climate-proofing changes to infrastructure rather than just relief responses.
Author: Jesse Russell
Publisher: Book on Demand Limited
Release Date: 2012-05
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! The 1995 Chicago heat wave was a heat wave which led to approximately 750 heat-related deaths in Chicago over a period of five days.Eric Klinenberg, author of the 2002 book Heat Wave: A Social Autopsy of Disaster in Chicago, has noted that in the United States, the loss of human life in hot spells in summer exceeds that caused by all other weather events combined, including lightning, rain, floods, hurricanes, and tornadoes. The heat wave heavily impacted the wider Midwestern region, with additional deaths in both St. Louis, Missouri and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, as well.
Author: Eric Klinenberg
Publisher: Metropolitan Books
Release Date: 2007-01-09
Genre: Social Science
A groundbreaking investigative work by a critically acclaimed sociologist on the corporate takeover of local news and what it means for all Americans For the residents of Minot, North Dakota, Clear Channel Communications is synonymous with disaster. Early in the morning of January 18, 2002, a train derailment sent a cloud of poisonous gas drifting toward the small town. Minot's fire and rescue departments attempted to reach Clear Channel, which owned and operated all six local commercial radio stations, to warn residents of the approaching threat. But in the age of canned programming and virtual DJs, there was no one in the conglomerate's studio to take the call. The people of Minot were taken unawares. The result: one death and more than a thousand injuries. Opening with the story of the Minot tragedy, Eric Klinenberg's Fighting for Air takes us into the world of preprogrammed radio shows, empty television news stations, and copycat newspapers to show how corporate ownership and control of local media has remade American political and cultural life. Klinenberg argues that the demise of truly local media stems from the federal government's malign neglect, as the agencies charged with ensuring diversity and open competition have ceded control to the very conglomerates that consistently undermine these values and goals. Such "big media" may not be here to stay, however. Fighting for Air delivers a call to action, revealing a rising generation of new media activists and citizen journalists—a coalition of liberals and conservatives—who are demanding and even creating the local coverage they need and deserve.
Author: Charna R. Epstein
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2014-12-19
Genre: Political Science
For effective preparedness, emergency managers must comprehend how a disaster impacts not only the physical infrastructure of the affected community but also the population. They must understand how the people interact with one another, how they interact with government, and how they react to the disaster event. In other words, they must have social intelligence. Emergency Management and Social Intelligence: A Comprehensive All-Hazards Approach provides a comprehensive framework for understanding a community before, during, and after a disaster in order to best mitigate the effect of a disaster on its people. After an overview of what we’ve learned and what we haven’t learned from past events, the book provides detailed case studies on a spectrum of disasters spanning a century, including hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, and oil spills. This context provides a framework for understanding a host of essential issues, including: The interplay between how people perceive people in their communities, the public policy which results from socially constructed views, and the issues which surface during and after disaster as a result The base logic of Social Intelligence which is rooted in the U.S. national security and intelligence apparatus The application of the intelligence cycle in emergency management and how to develop and understand situational awareness Baseline data points applicable to any community or jurisdiction and how they can be woven together to build on existing jurisdictional competence and real-time situational awareness How geographic information systems (GISs) are used in emergency management, along with their limitations and the different software programs available Modeling for disasters and how this helps the emergency management community plan for and respond to disasters How emergency managers can use social intelligence to build resiliency at the local level and harness preexisting community strength before, during, and after a disaster The insight presented in this volume supplies emergency managers, policy makers, and elected officials with a powerful blueprint for implementing social intelligence in any community or organization, maximizing the effectiveness of disaster recovery efforts. Equally important, this volume supplies emergency managers, municipalities, government organizations, and private sector entities with a framework to understand and identify social and economic fault lines in communities.
Author: Peter F. Burns
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Release Date: 2015-10-27
Hurricane Katrina devastated New Orleans in 2005, but in the subsequent ten years, the city has demonstrated both remarkable resilience and frustrating stagnation. In Reforming New Orleans, Peter F. Burns and Matthew O. Thomas chart the city's recovery and assess how successfully officials at the local, state, and federal levels transformed the Big Easy in the wake of disaster. Focusing on reforms in four key sectors of urban governance—economic development, education, housing, and law enforcement—both before and after Katrina, they find lessons for cities hit by sudden shocks, such as natural disasters or large-scale financial crises. One of their key insights is that post-disaster recovery tends to limit local control. State and federal officials, national foundations, and local actors excluded by pre-Katrina politics used their resources and authority to displace entrenched local interests and implement a public agenda focused on institutional and governmental change. Burns and Thomas also make clear reform in New Orleans was already underway before Katrina hit, but that it had focused largely on upper- and middle-class residents, a trend that accelerated after the storm. The market-centered nature of the reforms have ensured that they largely benefited city and regional elites while not significantly aiding the city's working-class and impoverished populations. Thus reform has come at a cost and that cost, in the long term, could undermine the political gains of the post-Katrina era.
Author: Richard C. Keller
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Release Date: 2015-05-07
In a cemetery on the southern outskirts of Paris lie the bodies of nearly a hundred of what some have called the first casualties of global climate change. They were the so-called abandoned victims of the worst natural disaster in French history, the devastating heat wave that struck in August 2003, leaving 15,000 dead. They died alone in Paris and its suburbs, and were then buried at public expense, their bodies unclaimed. They died, and to a great extent lived, unnoticed by their neighbors--their bodies undiscovered in some cases until weeks after their deaths. Fatal Isolation tells the stories of these victims and the catastrophe that took their lives. It explores the multiple narratives of disaster--the official story of the crisis and its aftermath, as presented by the media and the state; the life stories of the individual victims, which both illuminate and challenge the ways we typically perceive natural disasters; and the scientific understandings of disaster and its management. Fatal Isolation is both a social history of risk and vulnerability in the urban landscape and a story of how a city copes with emerging threats and sudden, dramatic change.
Disasters impose enormous misery on children, the most vulnerable members of the community. Records show that two million children have died as a direct consequence of armed conflict over the past decade. Globally, millions more have suffered death, disease, and dislocation as a result of such natural disasters as earthquakes, droughts, and floods. And even when emergency relief is available, permanent human damage remains; all too often, families fall apart, women are assaulted and degraded, and children are left to take care of themselves. In November 2008, the Center for Rebuilding Sustainable Communities after Disasters at the University of Massachusetts Boston, USA, hosted an international conference to examine how to reconstruct sustainable communities that would be safe and secure for children and their families after disasters. This volume collects some of the papers that were presented at the conference. It is remarkable for the sheer assortment of topics covered. These include the role of gender equality in alleviating poverty and assisting children, their families and their communities after disasters; war and child soldiers; lessons from Hurricane Katrina and the Tsunami; the nature of psychosocial resilience and its significance for managing mass emergencies, disasters and terrorism; and, the promotion of human dignity in the creation of sustainable environments that empower families in the aftermath of disasters.
Heat islands are urban and suburban areas that are significantly warmer than their surroundings. Traditional, highly absorptive construction materials and a lack of effective landscaping are their main causes. Heat island problems, in terms of increased energy consumption, reduced air quality and effects on human health and mortality, are becoming more pressing as cities continue to grow and sprawl. This comprehensive book brings together the latest information about heat islands and their mitigation. The book describes how heat islands are formed, what problems they cause, which technologies mitigate heat island effects and what policies and actions can be taken to cool communities. Internationally renowned expert Lisa Gartland offers a comprehensive source of information for turning heat islands into cool communities. The author includes sections on cool roofing and cool paving, explains their benefits in detail and provides practical guidelines for their selection and installation. The book also reviews how and why to incorporate trees and vegetation around buildings, in parking lots and on green roofs.
Author: Elizabeth Shove
Release Date: 2009-09-01
Genre: Social Science
Has material civilization spun out of control, becoming too fast for our own well-being and that of the planet? This book confronts these anxieties and examines the changing rhythms and temporal organization of everyday life. How do people handle hurriedness, burn-out and stress? Are slower forms of consumption viable? In case studies covering the United States, Asia and Europe, international experts follow routines and rhythms, their emotional and political dynamics and show how they are anchored in material culture and everyday practice. Running themes of the book are questions of coordination and disruption; cycles and seasons; and the interplay between power and freedom, and between material and natural forces. The result is a volume that brings studies of practice, temporality and material culture together to open up a new intellectual agenda.
From the bestselling author of Ecohouse, this fully revised edition of Adapting Buildings and Cities for Climate Change provides unique insights into how we can protect our buildings, cities, infra-structures and lifestyles against risks associated with extreme weather and related social, economic and energy events. Three new chapters present evidence of escalating rates of environmental change. The authors explore the growing urgency for mitigation and adaptation responses that deal with the resulting challenges. Theoretical information sits alongside practical design guidelines, so architects, designers and planners can not only see clearly what problems they face, but also find the solutions they need, in order to respond to power and water supply needs. Considers use of materials, structures, site issues and planning in order to provide design solutions. Examines recent climate events in the US and UK and looks at how architecture was successful or not in preventing building damage. Adapting Buildings and Cities for Climate Change is an essential source, not just for architects, engineers and planners facing the challenges of designing our building for a changing climate, but also for everyone involved in their production and use.
Author: Joshua L. Miller
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Release Date: 2012-02-21
Disaster responders treat more than just the immediate emotional and psychological trauma of victims: they empower individuals and families to heal themselves long into a disaster's aftermath. This requires rebuilding the ability of survivors to meet their emotional and psychological needs, not only for themselves but also for others, and necessitates a careful consideration of survivors' social, economic, and political realities so healing and recovery can outlast the reverberations of disaster.
Author: Christopher A. Sanford
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Release Date: 2008-08-05
Prevent, evaluate, and manage diseases that can be acquired in tropical environments and foreign countries with The Travel and Tropical Medicine Manual. This pragmatic, pocket-sized resource equips medical providers with the knowledge they need to offer effective aid, covering key topics in pre- and post-travel medicine, caring for immigrants and refugees, and working in low-resource settings. It's also the perfect source for travelers seeking quick, easy access to the latest travel medicine information. Dynamic images illustrate key concepts for an enhanced visual understanding. Evidence-based treatment recommendations enable you to manage diseases confidently. Pocket-sized format provides access to need-to-know information quickly and easily. Highlights new evidence and content surrounding mental health and traveling. Covers emerging hot topics such as Ebola virus disease, viral hemorrhagic fevers, the role of point-of-care testing in travel medicine, and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in returning travelers and students traveling abroad. Includes an enhanced drug appendix in the back of the book.
Author: Andrew C. Isenberg
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2014-09-18
The field of environmental history emerged just decades ago but has established itself as one of the most innovative and important new approaches to history, one that bridges the human and natural world, the humanities and the sciences. With the current trend towards internationalizing history, environmental history is perhaps the quintessential approach to studying subjects outside the nation-state model, with pollution, global warming, and other issues affecting the earth not stopping at national borders. With 25 essays, this Handbook is global in scope and innovative in organization, looking at the field thematically through such categories as climate, disease, oceans, the body, energy, consumerism, and international relations.