Author: Nicholas Mee
Publisher: James Clarke & Co.
Release Date: 2012
Higgs Force tells the story of how physicists have unlocked the secrets of matter and the forces of nature to produce dramatic modern understandings of the cosmos. For centuries researchers have followed this quest and now there is just one component of the modern synthesis of particle physics whose existence is yet to be confirmed in the laboratory – the Higgs particle. It explains how a universe built on simple symmetrical principles engenders life and exhibits the diversity and complexity that we see all around us.
The hunt for the Higgs particle has involved the biggest, most expensive experiment ever. So exactly what is this particle? Why does it matter so much? What does it tell us about the Universe? Did the discovery announced on 4 July 2012 finish the search? And was finding it really worth all the effort? The short answer is yes. The Higgs field is proposed as the way in which particles gain mass - a fundamental property of matter. It's the strongest indicator yet that the Standard Model of physics really does reflect the basic building blocks of our Universe. Little wonder the hunt and discovery of this new particle produced such intense media interest. Here, Jim Baggott explains the science behind the discovery, looking at how the concept of a Higgs field was invented, how the vast experiment was carried out, and its implications on our understanding of all mass in the Universe.
The Standard Model explains how the universe works at distances a billion times smaller than the size of an atom. However, in the Standard Model, none of the particles have mass, yet one only has to look around to see that things do have mass. Explaining the source of mass has been the goal of particle physicists for over half a century, culminating in the discovery of the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider in 2012. Supporting the Next Generation Science Standards' emphasis on scientific collection and analysis of data and evidence-based theories, this book simplifies the difficult concept of the Higgs mechanism through analogies to everyday experiences as well as pictures, diagrams, and intuitive explanations.
Author: John V. Lee
Publisher: Nova Publishers
Release Date: 2006
The Higgs boson is an undiscovered elementary particle, thought to be a vital piece of the closely fitting jigsaw of particle physics. Like all particles, it has wave properties akin to those ripples on the surface of a pond which has been disturbed; indeed, only when the ripples travel as a well defined group is it sensible to speak of a particle at all. In quantum language the analogue of the water surface which carries the waves is called a field. Each type of particle has its own corresponding field. The Higgs field is a particularly simple one - it has the same properties viewed from every direction, and in important respects in indistinguishable from empty space. Thus physicists conceive of the Higgs field being switched on, pervading all of space and endowing it with grain like that of a plank of wood. The direction of the grain in undetectable, and only becomes important once the Higgs' interactions with other particles are taken into account. which case they move easily for large distances and may be observed as photons - that is, particles of light that we can see or record using a camera; or against, in which case their effective range is much shorter, and we call them W or Z particles. These play a central role in the physics of nuclear reactions, such as those occurring in the core of the sun. The Higgs field enables us to view these apparently unrelated phenomenon as two sides of the same coin; both may be described in terms of the properties of the same vector bosons. When particles of matter such as electrons or quarks (elementary constituents of protons and neutrons, which in turn constitute the atomic nucleus) travel through the grain, they are constantly flipped head-over-heels, this forces them to move more slowly than their natural speed, that of light, by making them heavy.
Author: G. L. Kane
Publisher: World Scientific
Release Date: 1997
The Standard Model of particle physics is extremely successful in describing nature. It is, however, incomplete in one major way: the masses of gauge bosons and fermions enter the Standard Model through the Higgs mechanism. That is completely satisfactory technically, but it is not understood physically. We do not yet know what nature really does to give mass to particles. Understanding Higgs physics is necessary in order to complete the Standard Model, and to learn how to extend it and improve its foundations.This book is a collection of current work and thinking about these questions by active workers. It speculates about what form the answers will take, as well as updates and extends previous books and reviews. Some chapters emphasize theoretical questions, some focus on connections with other areas of physics, and some discuss how we can get data to uncover nature's solution. This second edition adds information and insights from the last five years, including the recent indirect but statistically significant evidence for the existence of a Higgs boson from precision measurements. It contains contributions from Blondel, Quiros, Haber, Pokorski, Dawson, Janot, Mrenna, Gunion, Ibanez, Ross, Bigi, Carena, Wagner, Georgi, Chanowitz, Yuan, Hill, and others.
Author: G. L. Kane
Publisher: World Scientific
Release Date: 1993-01-01
The masses of fermions and gauge bosons enter the Standard Model through the Higgs mechanism, which is satisfactory technically but is not understood physically. We do not know what nature really does to give mass to particles, nor what experimental clues will lead us to nature's solution. Understanding Higgs physics is necessary in order to complete the Standard Model, and to learn how to extend it and improve its foundations.This book is a collection of current work and thinking about these questions by active workers. It speculates about what form the answers will take, as well as updates and extends previous books and reviews. Some chapters emphasize theoretical questions, some focus on connections with other areas of physics, and some discuss how we can get the data to uncover nature's solution.
Bachelor Thesis from the year 2013 in the subject Physics - Theoretical Physics, grade: 71 points, King`s College London, language: English, abstract: An overview of the steps that lead to the discovery of the Higgs boson is presented. Starting with the theoretical background framework, the Standard Model of particel physics, the Higgs field will be introduced as an addition. This extra field provides the mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking, that is needed to explain the existence of massive particles. An overview of the steps of the experimental search to the discovery of the Higgs boson is given in the second part of this article. Its mass has been measured to be 125.4 ± 0.4(stat) ± 0.5(sys) GeV. The Standard Model is briefly summarised. The Higgs mechanism is derived from an Abelian Model, applied to the gauge bosons of the electroweak model of Weinberg and Salam. A simple estimate of the Higgs mass is given by its derivation and the estimation of its self-coupling and vacuum expectation value. Experimental results will be presented from the CMS and ATLAS detectors at the LHC, alongside with a description of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN and possible directions for future experiments beyond the Standard Model.
It is well established that the forces between nucleons are transmitted by mesons. According to the meson theory, the quantitative explanation of the nuclear forces was extremely tentative and incomplete. But this theory presents a valuable point of view. It is fairly certain now that the nucleons within nuclear matter are in a state made rather different from their free condition by the proximity of other nucleons .Charge independence of nuclear forces demand the existence of neutral meson as amongst the same type of nucleons (P-P) or (N-N). This force demands the same spin and the same orbital angular momentum. The exchange interaction is produced by only a neutral meson. The involving mesons without electric charge that it gives exchange forces between protons and Neutrons. Also therefore maintains charge independence character. It is evident for the nature of the products that neutral mesons decay by both strong and weak interactions. It means that neutral mesons' constituents are responsible for the electromagnetic interaction. Dramatically neutral mesons play an important role for both electromagnetic and nuclear forces.
The Mortal Jigsaw puzzle follows the struggles of a heroic urban vice principal, as he attempts to control a large high school teetering on the verge of chaos. During the course of an infamous day known as Fat Lip Friday, the ghetto principal tries valiantly to keep control of his school in the midst of a full blown gang war. Immersed in an environment replete with urban music, violence, verbiage, and dress, the reader is bombarded with shocking images of life in the modern hood. As the visceral educational conflagration unfolds, the protagonist, Jose Perez, unexpectedly catches glimpses of a diabolical conspiracy of which street gangs are just a small part. Thanks to his keen senses, Mr. Perez slowly collects the pieces to a profoundly disturbing global puzzle comprised of codes, lyrics, art, and symbols of Egyptian, Masonic, and satanic origin. While attempting to place the gratuitous carnage and depravity of the inner city into perspective, Mr. Perez accidentally stumbles upon an interdisciplinary mind control plan which draws upon religion, politics, economics, psychology, marketing, history, and the occult. Alarmed by his findings, Mr. Perez warns his community of their pending doom, only to be hunted down by the very debt cattle whom he tries to save from oblivion. In the end, both his community and his nation are condemned to fall under this nefarious plot, as this educators quixotic mission abruptly ends with an ominous knock on his front door.
Author: Scientific American Editors
Publisher: Scientific American
Release Date: 2012-09-30
The Higgs Boson: Searching for the God Particle by the Editors of Scientific American Updated 2017 Edition! For the fifth anniversary of one of the biggest discoveries in physics, we’ve updated this eBook to include our continuing analysis of the discovery, of the questions it answers and those it raises. As the old adage goes, where there’s smoke, there’s fire. Where there is effect, there must be cause. The planet Neptune was found in 1846 because the mathematics of Newton's laws, when applied to the orbit of Uranus, said some massive body had to be there. Astronomers eventually found it, using the best telescopes available to peer into the sky. This same logic is applied to the search for the Higgs boson. One consequence of the prevailing theory of physics, called the Standard Model, is that there has to be some field that gives particles their particular masses. With that there has to be a corresponding particle, made by creating waves in the field, and this is the Higgs boson, the so-called God particle. This eBook chronicles the search – and demonstrates the power of a good theory. Based on the Standard Model, physicists believed something had to be there, but it wasn't until the Large Hadron Collider was built that anyone could see evidence of the Higgs – and finally in July 2012, they did. A Higgs-like particle was found near the energies scientists expected to find it. Now, armed with better evidence and better questions, the scientific process continues. This eBook gathers the best reporting and analysis from Scientific American to explain that process – the theories, the search, the ongoing questions. In essence, everything you need to know to separate Higgs from hype.
Everything is connected... We''re living in the midst of a scientific revolution that''s captured the general public''s attention and imagination. The aim of this new revolution is to develop a "theory of everything"- -- a set of laws of physics that will explain all that can be explained, ranging from the tiniest subatomic particle to the universe as a whole. Here, readers will learn the ideas behind the theories, and their effects upon our world, our civilization, and ourselves.