How the Indians Lost Their Land

Author: Stuart BANNER
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674020535
Release Date: 2009-06-30
Genre: History

Between the early seventeenth century and the early twentieth, nearly all the land in the United States was transferred from American Indians to whites. How did Indians actually lose their land? Stuart Banner argues that neither simple coercion nor simple consent reflects the complicated legal history of land transfers. Instead, time, place, and the balance of power between Indians and settlers decided the outcome of land struggles.

Frontier Democracy

Author: Silvana R. Siddali
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781107090767
Release Date: 2015-10-31
Genre: History

Frontier Democracy examines the debates over state constitutions in the antebellum Northwest (Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin) from the 1820s through the 1850s. This is a book about conversations: in particular, the fights and negotiations over the core ideals in the constitutions that brought these frontier communities to life. Silvana R. Siddali argues that the Northwestern debates over representation and citizenship reveal two profound commitments: the first to fair deliberation, and the second to ethical principles based on republicanism, Christianity, and science. Some of these ideas succeeded brilliantly: within forty years, the region became an economic and demographic success story. However, some failed tragically: racial hatred prevailed everywhere in the region, in spite of reformers' passionate arguments for justice, and resulted in disfranchisement and even exclusion for non-white Northwesterners that lasted for generations.

The World of the Revolutionary American Republic

Author: Andrew Shankman
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781317814979
Release Date: 2014-04-16
Genre: History

In its early years, the American Republic was far from stable. Conflict and violence, including major land wars, were defining features of the period from the Revolution to the outbreak of the Civil War, as struggles over who would control land and labor were waged across the North American continent. The World of the Revolutionary American Republic brings together original essays from an array of scholars to illuminate the issues that made this era so contested. Drawing on the latest research, the essays examine the conflicts that occurred both within the Republic and between the different peoples inhabiting the continent. Covering issues including slavery, westward expansion, the impact of Revolutionary ideals, and the economy, this collection provides a diverse range of insights into the turbulent era in which the United States emerged as a nation. With contributions from leading scholars in the field, both American and international, The World of the Revolutionary American Republic is an important resource for any scholar of early America.

Ethnic Cleansing and the Indian

Author: Gary Clayton Anderson
Publisher: University of Oklahoma Press
ISBN: 9780806145082
Release Date: 2014-03-10
Genre: History

Mention “ethnic cleansing” and most Americans are likely to think of “sectarian” or “tribal” conflict in some far-off locale plagued by unstable or corrupt government. According to historian Gary Clayton Anderson, however, the United States has its own legacy of ethnic cleansing, and it involves American Indians. In Ethnic Cleansing and the Indian, Anderson uses ethnic cleansing as an analytical tool to challenge the alluring idea that Anglo-American colonialism in the New World constituted genocide. Beginning with the era of European conquest, Anderson employs definitions of ethnic cleansing developed by the United Nations and the International Criminal Court to reassess key moments in the Anglo-American dispossession of American Indians. Euro-Americans’ extensive use of violence against Native peoples is well documented. Yet Anderson argues that the inevitable goal of colonialism and U.S. Indian policy was not to exterminate a population, but to obtain land and resources from the Native peoples recognized as having legitimate possession. The clashes between Indians, settlers, and colonial and U.S. governments, and subsequent dispossession and forcible migration of Natives, fit the modern definition of ethnic cleansing. To support the case for ethnic cleansing over genocide, Anderson begins with English conquerors’ desire to push Native peoples to the margin of settlement, a violent project restrained by the Enlightenment belief that all humans possess a “natural right” to life. Ethnic cleansing comes into greater analytical focus as Anderson engages every major period of British and U.S. Indian policy, especially armed conflict on the American frontier where government soldiers and citizen militias alike committed acts that would be considered war crimes today. Drawing on a lifetime of research and thought about U.S.-Indian relations, Anderson analyzes the Jacksonian “Removal” policy, the gold rush in California, the dispossession of Oregon Natives, boarding schools and other “benevolent” forms of ethnic cleansing, and land allotment. Although not amounting to genocide, ethnic cleansing nevertheless encompassed a host of actions that would be deemed criminal today, all of which had long-lasting consequences for Native peoples.

Die M hlen der Zivilisation

Author: James C. Scott
Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag
ISBN: 9783518761526
Release Date: 2019-05-13
Genre: Social Science

Uns modernen Menschen erscheint die Sesshaftigkeit so natürlich wie dem Fisch das Wasser. Wie selbstverständlich gehen wir und auch weite Teile der historischen Forschung davon aus, dass die neolithische Revolution, in deren Verlauf der Mensch seine nomadische Existenz aufgab und zum Ackerbauer und Viehzüchter wurde, ein bedeutender zivilisatorischer Fortschritt war, dessen Früchte wir noch heute genießen. James C. Scott erzählt in seinem provokanten Buch eine ganz andere Geschichte. Gestützt auf archäologische Befunde, entwickelt er die These, dass die ersten bäuerlichen Staaten aus der Kontrolle über die Reproduktion entstanden und ein hartes Regime der Domestizierung errichteten, nicht nur mit Blick auf Pflanzen und Tiere. Auch die Bürger samt ihrer Sklaven und Frauen wurden der Herrschaft dieser frühesten Staaten unterworfen. Sie brachte Strapazen, Epidemien, Ungleichheiten und Kriege mit sich. Einzig die »Barbaren« haben sich gegen die Mühlen der Zivilisation gestemmt, sich der Sesshaftigkeit und den neuen Besteuerungssystemen verweigert und damit der Unterordnung unter eine staatliche Macht. Sie sind die heimlichen Helden dieses Buches, das unseren Blick auf die Menschheitsgeschichte verändert.

The Virginian

Author: Owen Wister
Publisher: BookRix
ISBN: 9783955008321
Release Date: 2012-11-28
Genre: Fiction

The Virginian ist die Geschichte eines einzelgängerischen Cowboys in Wyoming um 1880, der sich trotz des im Westen vorherrschenden Faustrechts an seinen persönlichen Ehrenkodex hält und so allerlei Unbilden übersteht. Owen Wister war der Sohn von Sarah und Owen Wister Sr. einer Patrizierfamilie aus Philadelphia und genoss so eine privilegierte Kindheit. Seine Großmutter war die britische Bühnenschauspielerin Fanny Kemble. Nach Schulaufenthalten in der Schweiz und in England studierte er an der renommierten St. Paul's School in Concord (New Hampshire) sowie später an der Harvard University. Dort begann er mit Beiträgen für die studentische Satirezeitschrift The Harvard Lampoon seine schriftstellerische Laufbahn und lernte seinen langjährigen Freund und späteren Präsidenten der USA, Theodore Roosevelt, kennen. 1882–1884 verbrachte er zwei Jahre in Paris. Nach seiner Rückkehr ließ er sich zunächst in New York nieder, wo er in einer Bank Anstellung fand. 1885 begann er ein Zweitstudium an der Harvard Law School. Seine Approbation als Rechtsanwalt erhielt er 1888. In dieser Zeit begann sich Wister verstärkt mit dem amerikanischen Westen zu beschäftigen. Dieses Thema entsprach ganz dem Zeitgeist; der Historiker Frederick Jackson Turner verklärte in dem einflussreichen Aufsatz The Significance of the Frontier in American History (1893) die Frontier, also die weiße Siedlungrenze im Westen, zum Geburtsort des amerikanischen Gemüts und des ihm angeblich eigenen Freiheits- und Selbstbehauptungswillens. Roosevelt legte in seinem Werk The Winning of the West (1889-96) die Bedeutung der Westexpansion für das Wohl der amerikanischen Nation dar. Während die "Zivilisierung" des Westens voranschritt, also die Vertreibung der indianischen Ureinwohner, die Besiedlung durch Weiße, und die politische Organisation der Westterritorien in US-Bundesstaaten, machte sich Wister an die Verklärung dieser verschwindenden Welt und prägte mit seinem ersten Roman The Virginian (1902; dt. Der Virginier, 1955)) den in dieser Zeit entstehenden Mythos vom "Wilden Westen" entscheidend mit.

George Washington

Author: Joseph J. Ellis
Publisher: C.H.Beck
ISBN: 9783406707131
Release Date: 2017-02-03
Genre: Biography & Autobiography

George Washington gehört zu den großen Gestalten der Weltgeschichte. Er führte als General die Revolutionsarmee zum Sieg und errang so die amerikanische Unabhängigkeit. Als erster amerikanischer Präsident steuerte er die junge Nation durch ihre unsicherste und schwierigste Phase. Joseph J. Ellis schildert in seiner meisterhaften Biographie die außergewöhnliche Persönlichkeit des Mannes, der zum berühmtesten Amerikaner der Geschichte werden sollte. Joseph J. Ellis entwirft ein ebenso umfassendes wie vielschichtiges Porträt George Washingtons. Er beschreibt nicht nur seine Anfänge, die militärischen Jahre erst im French and Indian War und dann im Unabhängigkeitskrieg sowie seine beiden Amtszeiten als erster Präsident der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika. Mit großer Sensibilität spürt er auch der komplexen Persönlichkeit Washingtons nach, die heute fast ganz hinter der Ikone verschwunden ist. Ellis’ psychologischer Scharfsinn und vor allem seine viel gerühmte Erzählkunst lassen einen Mann wieder hautnah lebendig werden, der wie kein anderer die Geschichte Amerikas geprägt hat.

Ninigret Sachem of the Niantics and Narrangansetts

Author: Julie A. Fisher
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 9780801470462
Release Date: 2014-05-09
Genre: History

Ninigret was a sachem of the Niantic and Narragansett Indians of what is now Rhode Island from the mid-1630s through the mid-1670s. For Ninigret and his contemporaries, Indian Country and New England were multipolar political worlds shaped by ever-shifting intertribal rivalries. In the first biography of Ninigret, Julie A. Fisher and David J. Silverman assert that he was the most influential Indian leader of his era in southern New England. As such, he was a key to the balance of power in both Indian-colonial and intertribal relations. Ninigret was at the center of almost every major development involving southern New England Indians between the Pequot War of 1636–37 and King Philip’s War of 1675–76. He led the Narrangansetts’ campaign to become the region’s major power, including a decades-long war against the Mohegans led by Uncas, Ninigret’s archrival. To offset growing English power, Ninigret formed long-distance alliances with the powerful Mohawks of the Iroquois League and the Pocumtucks of the Connecticut River Valley. Over the course of Ningret’s life, English officials repeatedly charged him with plotting to organize a coalition of tribes and even the Dutch to roll back English settlement. Ironically, though, he refused to take up arms against the English in King Philip’s War. Ninigret died at the end of the war, having guided his people through one of the most tumultuous chapters of the colonial era.

Black Slaves Indian Masters

Author: Barbara Krauthamer
Publisher: UNC Press Books
ISBN: 9781469607115
Release Date: 2013-08-01
Genre: Social Science

From the late eighteenth century through the end of the Civil War, Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians bought, sold, and owned Africans and African Americans as slaves, a fact that persisted after the tribes' removal from the Deep South to Indian Territory. The tribes formulated racial and gender ideologies that justified this practice and marginalized free black people in the Indian nations well after the Civil War and slavery had ended. Through the end of the nineteenth century, ongoing conflicts among Choctaw, Chickasaw, and U.S. lawmakers left untold numbers of former slaves and their descendants in the two Indian nations without citizenship in either the Indian nations or the United States. In this groundbreaking study, Barbara Krauthamer rewrites the history of southern slavery, emancipation, race, and citizenship to reveal the centrality of Native American slaveholders and the black people they enslaved. Krauthamer's examination of slavery and emancipation highlights the ways Indian women's gender roles changed with the arrival of slavery and changed again after emancipation and reveals complex dynamics of race that shaped the lives of black people and Indians both before and after removal.

Empire by Treaty

Author: Saliha Belmessous
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199391806
Release Date: 2014-10-30
Genre: History

Most histories of European appropriation of indigenous territories have, until recently, focused on conquest and occupation, while relatively little attention has been paid to the history of treaty-making. Yet treaties were also a means of extending empire. To grasp the extent of European legal engagement with indigenous peoples, Empire by Treaty: Negotiating European Expansion, 1600-1900 looks at the history of treaty-making in European empires (Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese, French and British) from the early 17th to the late 19th century, that is, during both stages of European imperialism. While scholars have often dismissed treaties assuming that they would have been fraudulent or unequal, this book argues that there was more to the practice of treaty-making than mere commercial and political opportunism. Indeed, treaty-making was also promoted by Europeans as a more legitimate means of appropriating indigenous sovereignties and acquiring land than were conquest or occupation, and therefore as a way to reconcile expansion with moral and juridical legitimacy. As for indigenous peoples, they engaged in treaty-making as a way to further their interests even if, on the whole, they gained far less than the Europeans from those agreements and often less than they bargained for. The vexed history of treaty-making presents particular challenges for the great expectations placed in treaties for the resolution of conflicts over indigenous rights in post-colonial societies. These hopes are held by both indigenous peoples and representatives of the post-colonial state and yet, both must come to terms with the complex and troubled history of treaty-making over 300 years of empire. Empire by Treaty looks at treaty-making in Dutch colonial expansion, the Spanish-Portuguese border in the Americas, aboriginal land in Canada, French colonial West Africa, and British India.