How the Police Generate False Confessions

Author: James L. Trainum
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 9781442244658
Release Date: 2016-07-15
Genre: Law

Despite the rising number of confirmed false confession cases, most people have a hard time grasping why someone would confess to a crime they did not commit, or even why a guilty person would admit to something that could put them in jail for life. How the Police Generate False Confessions takes you inside the interrogation room, exposing the tactics that law enforcement uses to make confessions happen. James L. Trainum reveals how innocent people can become suspects and then confessed criminals even when they have not committed a crime. Using real stories, he looks at the inherent coerciveness of the interrogation process and why so many false confessions contain so many of the details that only the true perpetrator would know. More disturbingly, the book examines how these same processes corrupt witness and victim statements, create lying informants and cooperators, and induce innocent people to plead guilty. Trainum also offers recommendations for change in the U.S. by looking at how other countries are changing the process to prevent such miscarriages of justice. The reasons that people falsely confess can be complex and varied; throughout How the Police Generate False Confessions Trainum encourages readers to critically evaluate confessions on their own by gaining a better understanding of the interrogation process.

Kids Cops and Confessions

Author: Barry C. Feld
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 9781479816385
Release Date: 2014-09-22
Genre: Law

Juveniles possess less maturity, intelligence, and competence than adults, heightening their vulnerability in the justice system. For this reason, states try juveniles in separate courts and use different sentencing standards than for adults. Yet, when police bring kids in for questioning, they use the same interrogation tactics they use for adults, including trickery, deception, and lying to elicit confessions or to produce incriminating evidence against the defendants. In Kids, Cops, and Confessions, Barry Feld offers the first report of what actually happens when police question juveniles. Drawing on remarkable data, Feld analyzes interrogation tapes and transcripts, police reports, juvenile court filings and sentences, and probation and sentencing reports, describing in rich detail what actually happens in the interrogation room. Contrasting routine interrogation and false confessions enables police, lawyers, and judges to identify interrogations that require enhanced scrutiny, to adopt policies to protect citizens, and to assure reliability and integrity of the justice system. Feld has produced an invaluable look at how the justice system really works.

Police Interrogation and American Justice

Author: Richard A Leo
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674033702
Release Date: 2009-06-30
Genre: Law

Read him his rights. We all recognize this line from cop dramas. But what happens afterward? In this book, Leo sheds light on a little-known corner of our criminal justice system--the police interrogation. An important study of the criminal justice system, this book provides interesting answers and raises some unsettling questions.

Police Interrogations and False Confessions

Author: G. Daniel Lassiter
Publisher: Amer Psychological Assn
ISBN: 1433807432
Release Date: 2010
Genre: Law

Although it is generally believed that wrongful convictions based on false confessions are relatively rare-the 1989 Central Park jogger "wilding" case being the most notorious example-recent exonerations of the innocent through DNA testing are increasing at a rate that few in the criminal justice system might have speculated. Because of the growing realization of the false confession phenomenon, psychologists, sociologists, and legal/law-enforcement scholars and practitioners have begun to examine the factors embedded in American criminal investigations and interrogations that may lead innocent people to implicate themselves in crimes they did not commit. Police Interrogations and False Confessions brings together a group of renowned scholars and practitioners in the fields of social psychology, cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, criminology, clinical-forensic psychology, and law to examine three salient dimensions of false confessions: interrogation tactics and the problem of false confessions; review of Supreme Court decisions regarding Miranda warnings and custodial interrogations; and new research on juvenile confessions and deception in interrogative interviews. Chapters include well-recognized programs of research on the topics of interrogative interviewing, false confessions, the detection of deception in forensic interviews, individual differences, and clinical-forensic evaluations. The book concludes with policy recommendations to attenuate the institutional and social psychological persistence (and pervasiveness) of the various inducements and impediments that have informed law enforcement's interrogation techniques and the types of false confessions they encourage.

Three False Convictions Many Lessons

Author: David C Anderson
Publisher: Waterside Press
ISBN: 9781909976351
Release Date: 2016-09-21
Genre: Psychology

A new perspective on the roles of psychopathology, confirmation bias, false confessions, the media and internet (amongst other causes) of unjust accusations. Putting lack of empathy at the fore in terms of police, prosecutors and others, it considers a wide range of other psychopathological aspects of miscarriages of justice. By looking at three high profile cases, those of Amanda Knox and Raffaele Sollecito (Italy), Stefan Kiszko (UK) and Darlie Routier (USA)—the authors show that motive forces are a mind-set in which psychopathy (what they term ‘constitutional negative empathy’) may be present and the need to reinforce existing supposition or lose face plays a large part.

The Psychology of Interrogations Confessions and Testimony

Author: Gisli H. Gudjonsson
Publisher: Wiley
ISBN: 0471961779
Release Date: 1999-04-22
Genre: Psychology

Based upon scientific findings, using both a theoretical and practical approach, it provides excellent guidance regarding interrogation--its effects and implications. Presents full coverage of police interrogation methods and the processes by which false confessions are elicited plus demonstrates how they are more frequent than generally believed. Features a number of well-known contemporary cases including the ``Guildford Four'', ``Birmingham Six'' and ``Tottenham Three'' in which the author has been personally involved.

The Psychology of Criminal Investigation

Author: Andy Griffiths
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781317267355
Release Date: 2018-05-20
Genre: Psychology

The contribution of psychological research to the prevention of miscarriages of justice and the development of effective investigative techniques is now established to a point where law enforcement agencies in numerous countries either employ psychologists as part of their staff, or work in cooperation with academic institutions. The application of psychology to investigation is particularly effective when academics and practitioners work together. This book brings together leading experts to discuss the application of psychology to criminal investigation. This book offers an overview of models of investigation from a psychological and practical view point, covering topics such as investigative decision making, the presentation of evidence, witness testimony, the detection of deception, interviewing suspects and evidence-based police training. It is essential reading for students, researchers and practitioners engaged with police practice, investigation and forensic psychology.

Blind Injustice

Author: Mark Godsey
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520962958
Release Date: 2017-10-10
Genre: Social Science

In this unprecedented view from the trenches, prosecutor turned champion for the innocent Mark Godsey takes us inside the frailties of the human mind as they unfold in real-world wrongful convictions. Drawing upon stories from his own career, Godsey shares how innate psychological flaws in judges, police, lawyers, and juries coupled with a “tough on crime” environment can cause investigations to go awry, leading to the convictions of innocent people. In Blind Injustice, Godsey explores distinct psychological human weaknesses inherent in the criminal justice system—confirmation bias, memory malleability, cognitive dissonance, bureaucratic denial, dehumanization, and others—and illustrates each with stories from his time as a hard-nosed prosecutor and then as an attorney for the Ohio Innocence Project. He also lays bare the criminal justice system’s internal political pressures. How does the fact that judges, sheriffs, and prosecutors are elected officials influence how they view cases? How can defense attorneys support clients when many are overworked and underpaid? And how do juries overcome bias leading them to believe that police and expert witnesses know more than they do about what evidence means? This book sheds a harsh light on the unintentional yet routine injustices committed by those charged with upholding justice. Yet in the end, Godsey recommends structural, procedural, and attitudinal changes aimed at restoring justice to the criminal justice system.

The Wrong Guys

Author: Tom Wells
Publisher:
ISBN: UCSC:32106019868139
Release Date: 2008
Genre: True Crime

Exposes a harrowing vulnerability in the criminal justice system and the practice of coercive interrogation as reflected by a 1997 murder case involving four innocent Navy servicemen who were separately forced to confess to the crime and are still serving sentences even though the real killer has been caught. 15,000 first printing.

Trials of Walter Ogrod

Author: Thomas Lowenstein
Publisher: Chicago Review Press
ISBN: 9781613738047
Release Date: 2017-04-01
Genre: True Crime

This engrossing investigation into the tragic 1988 murder of four-year-old Barbara Jean Horn and its aftermath leads readers through the facts of the case in compelling, compassionate, and riveting fashion. Award-winning journalist Thomas Lowenstein makes an evenhanded case for the wrongful conviction of Walter Ogrod, a man with autism spectrum disorder who has been on death row since 1996. Informed by police records, court transcripts, interviews, letters and journals, and more, Lowenstein relates how Ogrod was convicted based solely on a confession he signed after 36 hours without sleep and how his fate was sealed by an infamous jailhouse snitch. Presenting explosive new evidence, Lowenstein exposes a larger pattern of prosecutorial misconduct in Philadelphia.

Crime and Justice

Author: Carolyn Boyes-Watson
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 9781538106914
Release Date: 2018-03-08
Genre: Social Science

Crime and Justice offers a comprehensive introduction to the U.S criminal justice system through fifteen historical and contemporary case studies. The third edition has been revised and streamlined throughout, featuring new material on race, the war on drugs, police violence, “stand your ground” laws and gun laws, and more. Each chapter opens with an engaging case study followed by an explanatory chapter that teaches core concepts, key terms, and critical issues. The cases serve multiple learning objectives: illustrating concepts applied in real life; exploring sociological issues of race, class, gender, and power; and teaching students the law and processes of the justice system. Crime and Justice is excellent for any course that introduces students to the criminal justice system. A complimentary Instructor’s Manual and Test Bank are available, as well as an open-access Companion Website for students that includes interactive flashcards, links to online video and media, and other learning material. Visit http://textbooks.rowman.com/boyes-watson3e or email [email protected] for more information.

Criminal Interrogation and Confessions

Author: Fred E. Inbau
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Publishers
ISBN: 9780763799366
Release Date: 2011-09-26
Genre: Law

Criminal Interrogation and Confessions, Fifth Edition presents the Reid Technique of interviewing and interrogation and is the standard used in the field. This updated Fifth Edition presents interviewing and interrogation techniques, based on actual criminal cases, which have been used successfully by thousands of criminal investigators. This practical text is built around simple psychological principles and examines interrogation as a nine-step process that is easily understood by the reader. New and Key Features of the updated Fifth Edition: -The text contains updated photographs throughout to illustrate behavior symptoms; the proper room setting and positioning; as well as the placement of electronic recording equipment. -Every chapter of the text includes updated information. -Chapter 9 (Behavior Symptom Analysis) contains new research that has been conducted on the efficacy of behavior symptom analysis, as well as building for the reader the behavioral model of the truthful individual versus the subject who is withholding or fabricating relevant information. -Chapters 7 through 12 discuss in detail how to build the investigative interview, including the proper use of both investigative and behavior provoking questions, as well as guidelines for evaluating the credibility of allegations, and the proper use of follow-up and bait questions. -Chapter 15 (Distinguishing between True and False Confessions) has been updated to include new cases throughout and contains two new sections; "The Issue of False Confessions in the Courtroom – The Testimony of Expert Witnesses" and “The Issue of False Confessions in the Courtroom – Court Decisions”. -Chapter 17 discusses all of the legal issues related to interrogation and confession law, including Miranda, the meaning of custody, the use of threats and/or promises, the use of deception, and confession voluntariness. The chapter contains update legal references including 2011 court decisions.

Wrongful Convictions and the DNA Revolution

Author: Daniel S. Medwed
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781108138673
Release Date: 2017-03-30
Genre: Law

For centuries, most people believed the criminal justice system worked - that only guilty defendants were convicted. DNA technology shattered that belief. DNA has now freed more than three hundred innocent prisoners in the United States. This book examines the lessons learned from twenty-five years of DNA exonerations and identifies lingering challenges. By studying the dataset of DNA exonerations, we know that precise factors lead to wrongful convictions. These include eyewitness misidentifications, false confessions, dishonest informants, poor defense lawyering, weak forensic evidence, and prosecutorial misconduct. In Part I, scholars discuss the efforts of the Innocence Movement over the past quarter century to expose the phenomenon of wrongful convictions and to implement lasting reforms. In Part II, another set of researchers looks ahead and evaluates what still needs to be done to realize the ideal of a more accurate system.

Prosecutors and Democracy

Author: Máximo Langer
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781107187559
Release Date: 2017-10-26
Genre: Law

Focusing on the relationship between prosecutors and democracy, this volume throws light on key questions about prosecutors and the role they should play in liberal self-government. Internationally distinguished scholars discuss how prosecutors can strengthen democracy, how they sometimes undermine it, and why it has proven so challenging to hold prosecutors accountable while insulating them from politics. The contributors explore the different ways legal systems have addressed that challenge in the United States, the United Kingdom, and continental Europe. Contrasting those strategies allows an assessment of their relative strengths - and a richer understanding of the contested connections between law and democratic politics. Chapters are in explicit conversation with each other, facilitating comparison and deepening the analysis. This is an important new resource for legal scholars and reformers, political philosophers, and social scientists.

Effective Interviewing and Interrogation Techniques

Author: William L. Fleisher
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123819873
Release Date: 2010-10-01
Genre: Social Science

Effective Interviewing and Interrogation Techniques believably answers the question, How do you know when someone is lying? It also provides a guide for interviewing probable suspects and interrogating likely perpetrators on techniques and tradecraft. This book covers topics about searching for truth and revealing lies. It presents forensic assessments based on psychophysiology, and assessments on the basis of non-verbal behavior. The book also covers interview and interrogation preparation, as well as question formulation. It discusses the Morgan Interview Theme Technique or MITT, and the Forensic Assessment Interview or FAINT. The book addresses techniques for interviewing children and the mentally challenged, and offers information about pre-employment interviews. It also explains how to understand aggressive behavior and how to deal with angry people. The book concludes by presenting future methods for searching for the truth. Law enforcement and security professionals, as well as prosecutors, criminal defense lawyers, and civil litigators will find this book invaluable. The only book to address FAINT, IIT, and MITT in one source Enables the interviewer to obtain a confession that can stand up in court Includes an online workbook with practical exercises to assist the reader