Author: James L. Trainum
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
Release Date: 2016-07-15
Despite the rising number of confirmed false confession cases, most people have a hard time grasping why someone would confess to a crime they did not commit, or even why a guilty person would admit to something that could put them in jail for life. How the Police Generate False Confessions takes you inside the interrogation room, exposing the tactics that law enforcement uses to make confessions happen. James L. Trainum reveals how innocent people can become suspects and then confessed criminals even when they have not committed a crime. Using real stories, he looks at the inherent coerciveness of the interrogation process and why so many false confessions contain so many of the details that only the true perpetrator would know. More disturbingly, the book examines how these same processes corrupt witness and victim statements, create lying informants and cooperators, and induce innocent people to plead guilty. Trainum also offers recommendations for change in the U.S. by looking at how other countries are changing the process to prevent such miscarriages of justice. The reasons that people falsely confess can be complex and varied; throughout How the Police Generate False Confessions Trainum encourages readers to critically evaluate confessions on their own by gaining a better understanding of the interrogation process.
The contribution of psychological research to the prevention of miscarriages of justice and the development of effective investigative techniques is now established to a point where law enforcement agencies in numerous countries either employ psychologists as part of their staff, or work in cooperation with academic institutions. The application of psychology to investigation is particularly effective when academics and practitioners work together. This book brings together leading experts to discuss the application of psychology to criminal investigation. This book offers an overview of models of investigation from a psychological and practical view point, covering topics such as investigative decision making, the presentation of evidence, witness testimony, the detection of deception, interviewing suspects and evidence-based police training. It is essential reading for students, researchers and practitioners engaged with police practice, investigation and forensic psychology.
Author: Mark Godsey
Publisher: University of California Press
Release Date: 2019-02-05
Genre: Social Science
In this unprecedented view from the trenches, prosecutor turned champion for the innocent Mark Godsey takes us inside the frailties of the human mind as they unfold in real-world wrongful convictions. Drawing upon stories from his own career, Godsey shares how innate psychological flaws in judges, police, lawyers, and juries coupled with a “tough on crime” environment can cause investigations to go awry, leading to the convictions of innocent people. In Blind Injustice, Godsey explores distinct psychological human weaknesses inherent in the criminal justice system—confirmation bias, memory malleability, cognitive dissonance, bureaucratic denial, dehumanization, and others—and illustrates each with stories from his time as a hard-nosed prosecutor and then as an attorney for the Ohio Innocence Project. He also lays bare the criminal justice system’s internal political pressures. How does the fact that judges, sheriffs, and prosecutors are elected officials influence how they view cases? How can defense attorneys support clients when many are overworked and underpaid? And how do juries overcome bias leading them to believe that police and expert witnesses know more than they do about what evidence means? This book sheds a harsh light on the unintentional yet routine injustices committed by those charged with upholding justice. Yet in the end, Godsey recommends structural, procedural, and attitudinal changes aimed at restoring justice to the criminal justice system.
Author: Richard A Leo
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Release Date: 2009-06-30
Read him his rights. We all recognize this line from cop dramas. But what happens afterward? In this book, Leo sheds light on a little-known corner of our criminal justice system--the police interrogation. An important study of the criminal justice system, this book provides interesting answers and raises some unsettling questions.
Author: Marc Louis Miller
Publisher: Aspen Pub
Release Date: 2007
Criminal Procedures: Cases, Statutes, and Executive Materials, Fourth Edition, is noted for its comprehensive coverage, its excellent selection and editing of cases and other materials, and its extremely helpful notes and introductory materials. Offering traditional coverage and organization, this respected casebook also explores the interaction between the U.S. Supreme Court and other institutional actors. In the new edition, the authors retain the vitality and contemporary approach of Criminal Procedures: Cases, Statutes, and Executive Materials with an updated selection of cases and statutes and expanded discussions of timely topics. Known for its special focus on teachable chunks and its engaging writing style, this casebook offers: A rich selection of materials from multiple institutions, including primary materials from U.S. Supreme Court cases, state high court cases, state and federal statutes, rules of procedure, and police and prosecutorial policies as well as materials from social science studies, that highlight procedural variety, focus on real process topics, provide the political context, and consider the impact of procedures on the various parties involved. Cases that are chosen for their contemporary accuracy and appeal, paired with essential cases of historical value. The scholarly expertise and experience of the authors, which is especially reflected in the Criminal Procedure II materials, including coverage of prosecutorial charging, plea bargaining, and sentencing. The authors' summary of the majority and minority views of the states as well as the federal view for each topic. The frequent use of Problems to give the instructor options for applying concepts and doctrines in realistic practice settings. The highly accessible authors provide valuable support for both students and teachers: The excellent TM retains chapter overviews, suggestions for pacing, teaching strategies, answers to questions posed in casebook problems, and sample syllabi A password-protected website for teachers provides an electronic version of the TM and teaching materials, including suggested examination materials. A separate website for students, provides practice problems, topics to explore in further depth, sample exams, articles, and a virtual library of policies and other materials to illustrate casebook themes. New to the Fourth Edition: Expanded coverage of the impact of race on criminal law enforcement. Emphasis on the interaction of criminal procedure and immigration enforcement ;including treatment of Arizona's immigration initiative. Reorganized and expanded coverage of plea negotiations and guilty pleas. Streamlined coverage of wiretapping and technology issues. An adept integration of the casebook with the internet-based materials through regular notes that direct students to the student website for further reading and practice.
Author: G. Daniel Lassiter
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2006-07-19
Coerced confessions have long been a staple of TV crime dramas, and have also been the subject of recent news stories. The complexity of such situations, however, is rarely explored even in the scientific literature. Now in softcover, Interrogations, Confessions, and Entrapment remains one of the best syntheses of the scientific, legal, and ethical findings in this area, uncovering subtle yet powerful forces that often compromise the integrity of the criminal justice system. Editor G. Daniel Lassiter identifies the exposure of psychological coercion as an emerging frontier in legal psychology, citing its roots in the "third degree" approach of former times, and noting that its techniques carry little scientific validity. A team of psychologists, criminologists, and legal scholars asks—and goes a long way toward answering—important questions such as: - What forms of psychological coercion are involved in interrogation? - Are some people more susceptible to falsely confessing than others? - What are the effects of psychological manipulation on innocent suspects? - Are coercive tactics ever justified with minors? - Can jurors recognize psychological coercion and unreliable confessions? - Can entrapment techniques encourage people to commit crimes? - What steps can law enforcement take to minimize coercion? Throughout this progressive volume, readers will find important research-based ideas for educating the courts, changing policy, and implementing reform, from improving police interrogation skills to better methods of evaluating confession evidence. For the expert witness, legal consultant, or student of forensic psychology, this is material whose relevance will only increase with time.
Author: Michael P. Toglia
Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc Incorporated
Release Date: 2007
The Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology presents a survey of research and legal opinions from international experts on the rapidly expanding scientific literature addressing the accuracy and limitations of eyewitnesses as a source of evidence for the courts. For the first time, extensive reviews of factors influencing witnesses of all ages—children, adults, and the elderly—are compiled in a single pair of volumes. The disparate research currently being conducted in eyewitness memory in psychology, criminal justice, and legal studies is coherently presented in this work. Controversial topics such as the use of hypnosis, false and recovered memories, the impact of stress, and the accuracy of psychologically impaired witnesses are expertly examined. Leading eyewitness researchers also discuss the subjects of conversational memory, alibi evidence, witness credibility, facial memory, earwitness testimony, lineup theory, and expert testimony. The impact of witness testimony in court is considered, and each volume concludes with a legal commentary chapter. The Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology is an invaluable aid to researchers, legal scholars, and practicing lawyers who need access to the most recent research in the field, accompanied by the interpretations and commentary of many of the world's leading authorities on these topics.
Author: Marc Louis Miller
Publisher: Aspen Publishers
Release Date: 1999
Now there is a timely and effective book designed for today's Criminal Procedure I course on police practices. In CRIMINAL PROCEDURES - THE POLICE, Marc Miller and Ronald Wright draw selectively from their successful comprehensive criminal procedure casebook to focus exclusively on the crucial role of the police. This succinct paperback: -reflects the current redirection of criminal procedure away from federal constitutional adjudication and toward state courts, legislatures, and executive agencies -includes both major U.S. Supreme Court cases and important state cases -emphasized the way the courts are handling criminal procedure through up-to-the-minute materials -illustrates key issues with provocative nd interesting cases -is accompanied by a thorough Teacher's Manual to help you adapt the material to specific course needs and teaching approaches CRIMINAL PROCEDURES - THE POLICE opens with a chapter on daily interactions between citizens and police, followed by: -searches and stops -arrests -remedies for unresonable searches and seizures -the impact of technology and politics -interrogations -identifications -complex investigations -defense counsel (using the highly praised chapter from their comprehensive casebook) As current as tomorrow's headlines, CRIMINAL PROCEDURES - THE POLICE has just the right scope and depth of coverage for a meaningful - and manageable - course on police practices.