Author: Maurice E F Bloch
Release Date: 2018-02-02
Genre: Social Science
These essays by one of anthropology's most original theorists consider such fundamental questions as: Is cognition language-based? How reliable a guide to memory are people's narratives about themselves? What connects the ?social recalling? studied by anthropologists to the ?autobiographical memory? studied by psychologists? Now gathered in accessible form for the first time and drawing frequently upon the author's fieldwork among the Zafimaniry of Madagascar for ethnographic examples, the twelve closely linked essays of How We Think They Think pose provocative challenges not only to conventional cognitive models but to the basic assumptions that underlie much of ethnography. This book will be read with interest by those who study culture and cognition, ethnographic theory and practice, and the peoples and cultures of Africa.
Author: Pekka Hakamies
Publisher: BoD - Books on Demand
Release Date: 2018-06-18
This book deals with 20th century resettlements in the western areas of the former USSR, in particular the territory of Karelia that was ceded by Finland in the WWII, Podolia in the Ukraine, and the North-West periphery of Russia in the Kola peninsula. Finns from Karelia emigrated to Finland, most of the Jews of Podolia were exterminated by Nazi Germany but the survivors later emigrated to Israel, and the sparsely populated territory beyond the Polar circle received the Societ conquerors of nature which they began to exploit. The empty areas were usually settled by planned state recruitment of relocated Soviet citizens, but in some cases also by spontaneous movement. Thus, a Ukrainian took over a Jewish house, a Chuvash kolkhos was dispersed along Finnish khutor houses, and youth in the town of Apatity began to prefer their home town in relation to the cities of Russia. Everywhere the settlers met new and strange surroundings, and they had to construct places and meanings for themselves in their new home and restructure their local identity in relation to their places of origin and current abodes. They also had to create images of the former inhabitants and explanations for various strange details they preceived around themselves. All articles within this volume are based on extensive field or archive work. This research project was funded by the Academy of Finland.
Author: Nathalie Gontier
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2006-07-25
For the first time in history, scholars working on language and culture from within an evolutionary epistemological framework, and thereby emphasizing complementary or deviating theories of the Modern Synthesis, were brought together. Of course there have been excellent conferences on Evolutionary Epistemology in the past, as well as numerous conferences on the topics of Language and Culture. However, until now these disciplines had not been brought together into one all-encompassing conference. Moreover, previously there never had been such stress on alternative and complementary theories of the Modern Synthesis. Today we know that natural selection and evolution are far from synonymous and that they do not explain isomorphic phenomena in the world. ‘Taking Darwin seriously’ is the way to go, but today the time has come to take alternative and complementary theories that developed after the Modern Synthesis, equally seriously, and, furthermore, to examine how language and culture can merit from these diverse disciplines. As this volume will make clear, a specific inter- and transdisciplinary approach is one of the next crucial steps that needs to be taken, if we ever want to unravel the secrets of phenomena such as language and culture.
Author: Jennifer Cole
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Release Date: 2010-12-01
Genre: Social Science
As much of the intense political and social changes in Madagascar revolve around urban youth, who view themselves as avatars of modernity, this book argues that traditional social science offers inadequate theorizations of generational change and its contribution to broader cultural historical processes.
Author: Khosrow Jahandarie
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
Release Date: 1999
Genre: Business & Economics
This volume presents a systematic, reasonably exhaustive, and critical view of the existing scientific literature on the differences between speech and writing and, particularly, the cognitive and cultural implications of these differences. It is unique in its multidisciplinary scope and analytical depth as it brings together, for the first time, this multiplicity of theory and evidence from varied disciplines.
Author: Jeffrey Carter
Publisher: A&C Black
Release Date: 2003-03-31
This volume provides a thorough introduction to the major classic and modern writings dealing with religious sacrifice. Collected here are twenty five influential selections, each with a brief introduction addressing the overall framework and assumptions of its author. As they present different theories and examples of sacrifice, these selections also discuss important concepts in religious studies such as the origin of religion, totemism, magic, symbolism, violence, structuralism and ritual performance. Students of comparative religion, ritual studies, the history of religions, the anthropology of religion and theories of religion will particularly value the historical organization and thematic analyses presented in this collection.
Author: Stephen Quirke
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2014-10-14
Genre: Literary Criticism
Exploring Religion in Ancient Egypt offers a stimulating overview of the study of ancient Egyptian religion by examining research drawn from beyond the customary boundaries of Egyptology and shedding new light on entrenched assumptions. Discusses the evolution of religion in ancient Egypt – a belief system that endured for 3,000 years Dispels several modern preconceptions about ancient Egyptian religious practices Reveals how people in ancient Egypt struggled to secure well-being in the present life and the afterlife
Author: Barbara Helen Miller
Publisher: University of Alberta
Release Date: 2015-12-22
The Sámi—indigenous people of northernmost Europe—have relied on traditional healing methods over generations. This pioneering volume documents, in accessible language, local healing traditions and demonstrates the effectiveness of using the resources local communities can provide. This collection of essays by ten experts also records how ancient healing traditions and modern health-care systems have worked together, and sometimes competed, to provide solutions for local problems. Idioms of Sámi Health and Healing is one of the first English-language studies of the traditional healing methods among the Sámi, and offers valuable insight and academic context to those in the fields of anthropology, medical anthropology, transcultural psychiatry, and circumpolar studies. Idioms of Sámi Health and Healing is the second volume in the Patterns of Northern Traditional Healing series. Contributors: Kjell Birkely Andersen, Anne Karen Hætta, Mona Anita Kiil, Britt Kramvig, Trine Kvitberg, Stein R. Mathisen, Barbara Helen Miller, Marit Myrvoll, Randi Inger Johanne Nymo, Sigvald Persen.
Author: Harry Walker
Publisher: Univ of California Press
Release Date: 2013
Genre: Social Science
"In this beautifully written study of Urarina mastery of life, Walker demonstrates the continued importance of careful ethnographic attention to historically emergent forms of subjectivity. Walker's perceptive attention to social values and organising principles helps us understand how the Urarina transcend predation, identity and difference. We are transported to the heart of a society both more individualising and more communalist than the ones we have grown up in."Laura Rival, author of "Trekking through history: The Huaorani of Amazonian Ecuador>/i> "A celebration of Urarina understandings of the individual and the social world, "Under a Watchful Eye" unveils the many paradoxes of native Amazonian sociality. Well-written and finely crafted, the book critically engages with issues raised by perspectivism, incorporation theory, and constructional approaches, proposing novel and stimulating insights on indigenous notions of living well."Fernando Santos-Granero, author of "Vital Enemies: Slavery, Predation, and the Amerindian Political Economy of Life" "This book is based on the sensitive and multi-layered ethnography which only real, long-term participant observation can produce. We are convinced by detailed supporting evidence and never lost, as is the case for some Amazonian ethnography, in formulations, which having acquired an academic life of their own, seem impossibly remote from the experience of shared human practice."Maurice Bloch, author of "How We Think They Think: Anthropological Studies in Cognition, Memory and Literacy" "
Author: Robert R. Desjarlais
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
Release Date: 2011-09-16
Genre: Social Science
Desjarlais shows us not anonymous faces of the homeless but real people. While it is estimated that 25 percent or more of America's homeless are mentally ill, their lives are largely unknown to us. What must life be like for those who, in addition to living on the street, hear voices, suffer paranoid delusions, or have trouble thinking clearly or talking to others. Shelter Blues is an innovative portrait of people residing in Boston's Station Street Shelter. It examines the everyday lives of more than 40 homeless men and women, both white and African-American, ranging in age from early 20s to mid-60s. Based on a sixteen-month study, it draws readers into the personal worlds of these individuals and, by addressing the intimacies of homelessness, illness, and abjection, picks up where most scholarship and journalism stops. Robert Desjarlais works against the grain of media representations of homelessness by showing us not anonymous stereotypes but individuals. He draws on conversations as well as observations, talking with and listening to shelter residents to understand how they relate to their environment, to one another, and to those entrusted with their care. His book considers their lives in terms of a complex range of forces and helps us comprehend the linkages between culture, illness, personhood, and political agency on the margins of contemporary American society. Shelter Blues is unlike anything else ever written about homelessness. It challenges social scientists and mental health professionals to rethink their approaches to human subjectivity and helps us all to better understand one of the most pressing problems of our time.
Author: Maurice Bloch
Release Date: 2015-11-17
Genre: Social Science
What is human sociality? How are universals such as truth and doubt variously demonstrated and negotiated in different cultures? This book offers an accessible introduction to these and other fundamental human questions. Bloch shows that the social consists of two very different things. One is a matter of continual adjustments between individuals who read each others' minds and thus, as in sex and birth, "go in and out of each other's minds and bodies." The other is a time defying system of roles and groups. Interaction at this level is created by ritual and is unique to humans. What is referred to by the word "religion" is a part of this, but it is not separate. The study of "religion" as such is therefore theoretically misleading. A second major theme is the way truth is established in different cultures. Bloch's arguments go against recent approaches in anthropology which have sought to relativize ideas of the social and religion.
Author: Jeanette Altarriba
Publisher: North Holland
Release Date: 1993
While the main source of knowledge of human cognition has come from studies of information processing in a single culture, primarily within the U.S. or within certain countries in Europe, much research has also been conducted in other parts of the world. Can the study of cognition across cultures lead us to interesting conclusions about human cognition in general? Surely any general theory of language processing, for example, must be able to explain phenomena observed across cultures and not just within a single one. This book is an attempt to look at this issue of universals in thinking and understanding by providing a compendium of cross cultural investigations in the four major areas of cognitive psychology: (1) memory and knowledge representation, (2) language processing, (3) perception, and (4) reasoning and problem solving. The differences found across cultures are also fascinating and extremely informative. A final chapter provides a summary of the major findings reported in each of these areas. The chapters included in this work were written for those interested in cross-cultural psychology and also those with an interest in cultural anthropology. The authors are well-known in the areas of cross-cultural psychology, cognitive psychology, linguistics, and anthropology. However, the reader need not be an expert in any one of these fields to understand the conclusions and implications of the work reported here.