Identifying and Interpreting Animal Bones

Author: April M. Beisaw
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
ISBN: 9781623490829
Release Date: 2013-10-16
Genre: Social Science

Offering a field-tested analytic method for identifying faunal remains, along with helpful references, images, and examples of the most commonly encountered North American species, Identifying and Interpreting Animal Bones: A Manual provides an important new reference for students, avocational archaeologists, and even naturalists and wildlife enthusiasts. Using the basic principles outlined here, the bones of any vertebrate animal, including humans, can be identified and their relevance to common research questions can be better understood. Because the interpretation of archaeological sites depends heavily on the analysis of surrounding materials—soils, artifacts, and floral and faunal remains—it is important that non-human remains be correctly distinguished from human bones, that distinctions between domesticated and wild or feral animals be made correctly, and that evidence of the reasons for faunal remains in the site be recognized. But the ability to identify and analyze animal bones is a skill that is not easy to learn from a traditional textbook. In Identifying and Interpreting Animal Bones, veteran archaeologist and educator April Beisaw guides readers through the stages of identification and analysis with sample images and data, also illustrating how specialists make analytical decisions that allow for the identification of the smallest fragments of bone. Extensive additional illustrative material, from the author’s own collected assemblages and from those in the Archaeological Analytical Research Facility at Binghamton University in New York, are also available in the book’s online supplement. There, readers can view and interact with images to further understanding of the principles explained in the text.

The Archaeology of Animal Bones

Author: Terence Patrick O'Connor
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
ISBN: 1603440844
Release Date: 2008-07-01
Genre: Social Science

Animal ecologists can observe the present and reconstruct the last one or two centuries from historical sources, but the study of animal bones adds valuable insight into the peoples and landscapes of the past while telling much about the evolution of human-animal relationships. In this standard work, now available in paperback, O’Connor offers a detailed overview of the study of animal bones. He analyzes bone composition and structure and the archaeological evidence left by the processes of life, death, and decomposition. He goes on to look at how bone is excavated, examined, described, identified, measured, and reassembled into skeletons. The bulk of the book is devoted to the interpretation of bone fragments, which tell much about the animals themselves—their health, growth, diet, injuries, and age at death.

Animal bones in Australian archaeology

Author: Melanie Fillios
Publisher: Sydney University Press
ISBN: 9781743324332
Release Date: 2015-12-02
Genre: Social Science

Zooarchaeology has emerged as a powerful way of reconstructing the lives of past societies. Through the analysis of animal bones found on a site, zooarchaeologists can uncover important information on the economy, trade, industry, diet, and other fascinating facts about the people who lived there. Animal bones in Australian archaeology is an introductory bone identification manual written for archaeologists working in Australia. This field guide includes 16 species commonly encountered in both Indigenous and historical sites. Using diagrams and flow charts, it walks the reader step-by-step through the bone identification process. Combining practical and academic knowledge, the manual also provides an introductory insight into zooarchaeological methodology and the importance of zooarchaeological research in understanding human behaviour through time.

Mammal Bones and Teeth

Author: Simon Hillson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781315424996
Release Date: 2016-06-16
Genre: Social Science

This guide is designed as an introduction to the basic methods for identifying mammal bones and teeth. It is intended to highlight for beginners the main points on which identifications can be made on the bulk of bones and teeth from a small range of common Old World mammals.

The Archaeology of Institutional Life

Author: April M. Beisaw
Publisher: University of Alabama Press
ISBN: 9780817355166
Release Date: 2009-03-22
Genre: Social Science

Institutions pervade social life. They express community goals and values by defining the limits of socially acceptable behavior. Institutions are often vested with the resources, authority, and power to enforce the orthodoxy of their time. But institutions are also arenas in which both orthodoxies and authority can be contested. Between power and opposition lies the individual experience of the institutionalized. Whether in a boarding school, hospital, prison, almshouse, commune, or asylum, their experiences can reflect the positive impact of an institution or its greatest failings. This interplay of orthodoxy, authority, opposition, and individual experience are all expressed in the materiality of institutions and are eminently subject to archaeological investigation. A few archaeological and historical publications, in widely scattered venues, have examined individual institutional sites. Each work focused on the development of a specific establishment within its narrowly defined historical context; e.g., a fort and its role in a particular war, a schoolhouse viewed in terms of the educational history of its region, an asylum or prison seen as an expression of the prevailing attitudes toward the mentally ill and sociopaths. In contrast, this volume brings together twelve contributors whose research on a broad range of social institutions taken in tandem now illuminates the experience of these institutions. Rather than a culmination of research on institutions, it is a landmark work that will instigate vigorous and wide-ranging discussions on institutions in Western life, and the power of material culture to both enforce and negate cultural norms.

Quantitative Paleozoology

Author: R. Lee Lyman
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139471121
Release Date: 2008-03-31
Genre: Social Science

Quantitative Paleozoology describes and illustrates how the remains of long-dead animals recovered from archaeological and paleontological excavations can be studied and analyzed. The methods range from determining how many animals of each species are represented to determining whether one collection consists of more broken and more burned bones than another. All methods are described and illustrated with data from real collections, while numerous graphs illustrate various quantitative properties.

Shells

Author: Cheryl Claassen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521578523
Release Date: 1998-11-28
Genre: Science

This book contains everything students and professional archaeologists could possibly want to know about the practicalities of shell analysis in archaeology, as well as the biology of freshwater and marine molluscs. The author also, however, discusses the potential of this class of evidence to tell us surprising things about seasonal patterns of life, the woods around a long-forgotten burial mound and the swirling patterns of life which circled around the humblest of creatures; the snail.

Race

Author: Ian Tattersall
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
ISBN: 1603444777
Release Date: 2011-09-01
Genre: Science

Race has provided the rationale and excuse for some of the worst atrocities in human history. Yet, according to many biologists, physical anthropologists, and geneticists, there is no valid scientific justification for the concept of race. To be more precise, although there is clearly some physical basis for the variations that underlie perceptions of race, clear boundaries among “races” remain highly elusive from a purely biological standpoint. Differences among human populations that people intuitively view as “racial” are not only superficial but are also of astonishingly recent origin. In this intriguing and highly accessible book, physical anthropologist Ian Tattersall and geneticist Rob DeSalle, both senior scholars from the American Museum of Natural History, explain what human races actually are—and are not—and place them within the wider perspective of natural diversity. They explain that the relative isolation of local populations of the newly evolved human species during the last Ice Age—when Homo sapiens was spreading across the world from an African point of origin—has now begun to reverse itself, as differentiated human populations come back into contact and interbreed. Indeed, the authors suggest that all of the variety seen outside of Africa seems to have both accumulated and started reintegrating within only the last 50,000 or 60,000 years—the blink of an eye, from an evolutionary perspective. The overarching message of Race? Debunking a Scientific Myth is that scientifically speaking, there is nothing special about racial variation within the human species. These distinctions result from the working of entirely mundane evolutionary processes, such as those encountered in other organisms.

Stone Age Spear and Arrow Points of the Midcontinental and Eastern United States

Author: Noel D. Justice
Publisher: Indiana University Press
ISBN: 0253209854
Release Date: 1995
Genre: History

"This is an important new reference work for the professional archaeologist as well as the student and collector." —Central States Archaeological Journal "Justice... admirably synthesizes the scientific information integrating it with the popular approach. The result is a publication that readers on both sides of the spectrum should enjoy as well as comprehend." —Choice "... an indispensable guide to the literature. Attractive layout, design, and printing accent the useful text.... it should remain the standard reference on point typology of the midwest and eastern United States for many years to come." —Pennsylvania Archaeologist Archaeologists and amateur collectors alike will rejoice at this important reference work that surveys, describes, and categorizes the projectile points and cutting tools used in prehistory by the Indians in what are now the middle and eastern sections of the United States, from 12,000 B.C. to the beginning of the historic period. Mr. Justice describes over 120 separate types of stone arrowheads and spear points according to period, culture, and region. His detailed drawings show how Native Americans shaped their tools, what styles were peculiar to which regions, and how the various types can best be identified. There are over 485 drawings organized by type cluster and other identifying characteristics. The work also includes distribution maps and 111 examples in color.

The Osteology of Infants and Children

Author: Brenda J. Baker
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
ISBN: 1585444650
Release Date: 2005-07-27
Genre: Social Science

Most archaeologists and bioarchaeologists receive little or no training in the recognition of skeletal remains of fetuses, infants, and children. Yet many research sites may contain such materials. Without a framework for identifying the bones or the excavation techniques suited to their recovery, archaeologists may often overlook subadult skeletal remains or even confuse them with animal bones. The Osteology of Infants and Children fills the need for a field and lab manual on this important topic and provides a supplemental textbook for human osteology courses. Focusing on juvenile skeletons, their recovery and identification, and siding in both field and lab settings, the volume provides basic descriptions and careful illustrations of each skeletal element at varying stages of development, along with sections on differentiation from other bones and siding tips. The book offers detailed treatment of the skull and teeth, including the cranial vault and facial bones, and examines the infracranial skeleton: vertebrae, pelvis, chest, shoulders, arms, hands, legs, and feet. A quick reference guide explains age estimation and identification templates. The illustrations are enhanced by photographs from two recent archaeology projects in Egypt, at Abydos and Dakhleh Oasis. The extensive collection of fetal and child remains from these sites provides new reference material unavailable in previous publications, making this manual an unparalleled resource in the field of physical anthropology.

The Archaeology of Human Bones

Author: Simon Mays
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781136971778
Release Date: 2010-04-21
Genre: Science

The Archaeology of Human Bones provides an up to date account of the scientific analysis of human skeletal remains from archaeological sites. This completely revised edition reflects the latest developments in scientific techniques for studying human skeletons and the latest applications of those techniques in archaeology. In particular, the sections on ancient DNA and bone stable isotopes have been comprehensively updated, and two completely new chapters have been introduced, covering metric study of the postcranial skeleton and ethical dimensions of the study of human remains. The Archaeology of Human Bones introduces students to the anatomy of bones and teeth, utilising a large number of images. It analyzes the biasing effects of decay and incomplete recovery on burial data from archaeological sites, and discusses what we may learn about burial rites from human remains. Subsequent chapters focus on demographic analysis of earlier populations, normal skeletal variation, disease and injury, isotopic and DNA analysis of bone, the study of cremated bone and ethical aspects of working with ancient human remains. Current scientific methods are explained, alongside a critical discussion of their strengths and weaknesses. The ways in which scientific analyses of human skeletal remains can contribute to tackling major archaeological or historical issues is illustrated by means of examples drawn from studies from around the world. Technical jargon is kept to a minimum, and each chapter contains a summary of the main points that a student should grasp and a list of further reading targeted to enable students to follow up major issues covered in the book. Featuring case studies from around the world and with copious illustrations, The Archaeology of Human Bones continues to be a crucial work for students of archaeology.

Forensic Odontology

Author: Thomas J. David
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780128052853
Release Date: 2018-01-02
Genre: Law

Forensic Odontology: Principles and Practice details the aspects necessary to become an accomplished forensic odontologist, including an illustration of the skills necessary to become an expert witness. The book is ideal for both the experienced and novice forensic odontologist, covering many fields of expertise, including civil and criminal matters. The civil side involves standard of care and personal injury matters, while the criminal side involves not only dental identification, but management of mass fatality incidents, age assessment, child and elder abuse, and bitemark analysis. Provides a comprehensive review of forensic odontology, including the skills necessary to become a competent expert witness Covers the fields of forensic odontology, the basic skills, legal aspects, legal precedents, report writing and expert witness testimony Includes numerous illustrations, including charts and graphs, along with B&W and color images

Animal Skulls and Bones

Author: James Kavanagh
Publisher: Waterford Press
ISBN: 1583555587
Release Date: 2010-04-01
Genre: Nature

Indulge your inner explorer and learn where you are likely to find bones and how to identify animals based on their skull and limb shape and size, dental patterns, horns and beaks. This Duraguide� teaches how to identify the skulls and bones of common North American mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fishes and also features a 20 in. (50 cm) ruler and step-by-step instructions for preparing and preserving specimens. This lightweight, pocket-sized folding guide is an excellent source of portable information and ideal for field use by novices and experts alike.

Mammalian Osteology

Author: B. Miles Gilbert
Publisher:
ISBN: 0943414717
Release Date: 1980
Genre: Science

The aim of this well-presented study is to provide a tool with which archaeologists and students can identify and analyse the bones of mammals found on sites in North America. It also stresses the value and importance of such studies for our understanding of past environments, climates andpopulations. A discussion of different species (and how to tell them apart) is followed by a section of illustrations which compare types of bones.