In the 1960s, thanks to the development of prenatal diagnosis, medicine found a new object of study: the living fetus. At first, prenatal testing was proposed only to women at a high risk of giving birth to an impaired child. But in the following decades, such testing has become routine. In Imperfect Pregnancies, Ilana Löwy argues that the generalization of prenatal diagnosis has radically changed the experience of pregnancy for tens of millions of women worldwide. Although most women are reassured that their future child is developing well, others face a stressful period of waiting for results, uncertain prognosis, and difficult decisions. Löwy follows the rise of biomedical technologies that made prenatal diagnosis possible and investigates the institutional, sociocultural, economic, legal, and political consequences of their widespread diffusion. Because prenatal diagnosis is linked to the contentious issue of selective termination of pregnancy for a fetal anomaly, debates on this topic have largely centered on the rejection of human imperfection and the notion that we are now perched on a slippery slope that will lead to new eugenics. Imperfect Pregnancies tells a more complicated story, emphasizing that there is no single standardized way to scrutinize the fetus, but there are a great number of historically conditioned and situated approaches. This book will interest students, scholars, health professionals, administrators, and activists interested in issues surrounding new medical technologies, screening, risk management, pregnancy, disability, and the history and social politics of women’s bodies. -- Joanna Latimer, University of York, author of The Gene, the Clinic, and the Family: Diagnosing Dysmorphology, Reviving Medical Dominance
Author: Jacqueline H. Wolf
Publisher: JHU Press
Release Date: 2018-04-25
Genre: Health & Fitness
Between 1965 and 1987, the cesarean section rate in the United States rose precipitously—from 4.5 percent to 25 percent of births. By 2009, one in three births was by cesarean, a far higher number than the 5–10% rate that the World Health Organization suggests is optimal. While physicians largely avoided cesareans through the mid-twentieth century, by the early twenty-first century, cesarean section was the most commonly performed surgery in the country. Although the procedure can be life-saving, how—and why—did it become so ubiquitous? Cesarean Section is the first book to chronicle this history. In exploring the creation of the complex social, cultural, economic, and medical factors leading to the surgery’s increase, Jacqueline H. Wolf describes obstetricians’ reliance on assorted medical technologies that weakened the skills they had traditionally employed to foster vaginal birth. She also reflects on an unsettling malpractice climate—prompted in part by a raft of dubious diagnoses—that helped to legitimize "defensive medicine," and a health care system that ensured cesarean birth would be more lucrative than vaginal birth. In exaggerating the risks of vaginal birth, doctors and patients alike came to view cesareans as normal and, increasingly, as essential. Sweeping change in women’s lives beginning in the 1970s cemented this markedly different approach to childbirth. Wolf examines the public health effects of a high cesarean rate and explains how the language of reproductive choice has been used to discourage debate about cesareans and the risks associated with the surgery. Drawing on data from nineteenth- and early twentieth-century obstetric logs to better represent the experience of cesarean surgery for women of all classes and races, as well as interviews with obstetricians who have performed cesareans and women who have given birth by cesarean, Cesarean Section is the definitive history of the use of this surgical procedure and its effects on women’s and children’s health in the United States.
Author: Anna Porwit
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2018-01-25
Master implementation of the techniques of flow cytometry in diagnosing complex haematological diseases and malignancies in patients, worldwide. Featuring World Health Organization recommendations on pre-analytical steps, instrument settings and panel construction, this invaluable manual offers invaluable support for those researching, practising and analyzing the cause of hematological malignancies. Authored by leading experts, this book puts flow-cytometry into everyday context. With a focus on multicolour panels, the manual provides readers an experienced understanding of effective, implementation techniques. Practitioners of all levels are offered a background in a variety of diseases presented alongside the most current methodology. Wide-ranging and comprehensive; detailed images of healthy blood, bone marrow and lymph-nodes are illustrated throughout, allowing for effective diagnosis. Through engaging with differential diagnoses, the manual offers an understanding of similar symptoms and mimicking malignancies, avoiding inaccurate results. Featuring in-depth descriptions of chronic diseases; users can reach accurate diagnosis, first time.
Author: Arnold van de Laar, Laproscopic surgeon
Publisher: St. Martin's Press
Release Date: 2018-10-02
Surgeon Arnold van de Laar uses his own experience and expertise to tell this engrossing history of surgery through 28 famous operations—from Louis XIV and Einstein to JFK and Houdini. From the story of the desperate man from seventeenth-century Amsterdam who grimly cut a stone out of his own bladder to Bob Marley's deadly toe, Under the Knife offers a wealth of fascinating and unforgettable insights into medicine and history via the operating room. What happens during an operation? How does the human body respond to being attacked by a knife, a bacterium, a cancer cell or a bullet? And, as medical advances continuously push the boundaries of what medicine can cure, what are the limits of surgery? With stories spanning the dark centuries of bloodletting and amputations without anaesthetic through today's sterile, high-tech operating rooms, Under the Knife is both a rich cultural history, and a modern anatomy class for us all.
Preventive Strikes aims to improve our understanding of professional, social, and cultural responses to cancer in the twenty-first century and to inform our reflections about how values are incorporated into routine medical practices.Ilana Löwy
Cervical cancer is an emotive disease with multiple connotations. It has stood for the horror of cancer, the curse of femininity, the hope of cutting-edge medical technologies and the promise of screening for malignant tumours. For a long time, this disease was identified with the most dreaded aspects of malignancies: prolonged invalidity and chronic pain, but also physical degradation, shame and social isolation. Cervical cancer displayed in parallel the dangers of being a woman. In the 20th century, innovations initially developed to control cervical cancer - radiotherapy and radium therapy, exfoliate cytology (Pap smear), homogenisation of the 'staging' of tumours, mass campaigns for an early detection of precancerous lesions of the cervix - set standards for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of other malignancies. In the late 20th century, cervical cancer underwent another important change. With the display of the role of selected strands of HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) in the genesis of this malignancy, it was transformed into a sexually transmitted disease. This new understanding of cervical cancer linked it more firmly with lifestyle choices, and thus increased the danger of stigmatisation of patients; on the other hand it opened the possibility for efficient prevention of this malignancy through vaccination. Ilana Lowy follows the disease from antiquity to the 21st century, focussing on the period since the mid-19th century, during which cervical cancer was dissociated from other gynaecological disorders and became a distinct entity. Following the ways in which new developments in science, medicine, and society have affected beliefs about medical progress and an individual's responsibility, gender roles, reproduction, and sex, Lowy demonstrates our understanding of what cervical cancer is, and how it can be prevented and cured.
Author: Joan Rothschild
Publisher: Indiana University Press
Release Date: 2005
"Others have addressed the societal implications of contemplating ‘the perfect child’ but no one has written about it so poignantly, so compellingly, and so beautifully.... The best discussion of bioethics and reproductive practices I’ve seen." —Carole Browner, University of California, Los Angeles "Science and technology, medical professionals, and parents meet in the doctor’s office. This privatized setting is the site for individual decisions: whether to test or not, whether to keep a pregnancy or terminate it, and for which diagnosed ‘defect.’ Each decision becomes another judgment as to which conditions, and which children, are acceptable or not. As they aggregate over time, individual decisions add up to a selection process, marking the imperfect, those who may be dispensed with, while certifying those worthy to be born. This process constitutes the discourse of the perfect child." —from the Introduction Every parent wants a healthy, normal child, and scientific and technological advances have now made this increasingly possible to achieve. But progress comes with a price. Tracing its roots from Enlightenment thought through the biological discoveries of the 19th and 20th centuries, Joan Rothschild shows how the dream of human perfectibility masks a darker motivation to eliminate all that does not meet its increasingly heightened standards. Joan Rothschild points to the thousands of decisions about prenatal testing that are made each day in the doctor’s office, the context in which they occur, and how they add up to the discourse of the perfect—and imperfect—child. She argues that the mainstream bioethics community has been ineffective in raising appropriate questions, resulting in support for the status quo. Drawing on counter-voices from medicine and feminist ethics, as well as from pregnant women and people with disabilities, The Dream of the Perfect Child reevaluates the uses of genetics and prenatal testing. Ultimately, the goal is to change reproductive medical practice and thereby transform the dream.
Marie finds herself unexpectedly pregnant at 39. Meanwhile, her best friend, Elizabeth, has never been able to conceive, despite years of fertility treatments. In a genetic test routinely offered to older mothers, Marie discovers that the child she is carrying has Down syndrome. Intertwined throughout the novel is the story of Margaret, a woman who gave birth to a daughter with Down syndrome in 1947, when such infants were considered to be “unfinished” children. As the novel shifts through the decades, the lives of the three women converge, and the story speeds to an unexpected conclusion. With skill and poise, debut novelist Theresa Shea dramatically explores society’s changing views of Down syndrome over the past 60 years. The story offers an unflinching and compassionate history of the treatment of people with Down syndrome and their struggle for basic human rights. Ultimately, The Unfinished Child is an unforgettable and inspiring tale about the mysterious and complex bonds of family, friendship and motherhood.
Author: Faye Moorhouse
Publisher: Walter Foster Publishing
Release Date: 2017-09-01
From an affectionate French Bulldog and astute Boxer to a sassy tabby cat, if you love animals and art, then your tail will be wagging with each of our easy-to-learn lessons and the humor that goes with them. You’ll be an expert in gouache, pencil, and ink in no time! Playful Painting: Pets is the first title in Walter Foster’s new compact and portable Playful Painting series, and it is aimed at artists, doodlers, and painting enthusiasts. There has never been a better time to learn to paint and illustrate whimsical portraits of your pets and favorite animals! Startup is easy, with minimal tools and materials required. You’ll be inspired to create when you see our gallery of dozens of cute cat and dog breeds (plus mixes!) as well as birds, pigs, rabbits, and other favorites. Then, when you’re ready, dive into exclusive bonus content to see how to use finished artwork in fresh and clever ways. Artist Faye Moorhouse illustrates this book in her signature friendly, quirky style. Not an artist? Playful Painting: Pets is a perfect gift for the animal lover in your life and a must-have for anyone who’s shared their life and living space with furry or feathered friends.
Author: Nándor Ács
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2010-07-05
The major objective of our studies in the last decade was a systematic analysis of maternal diseases during pregnancy to reveal their possible adverse effects on birth outcomes. The two most important factors of infant mortality were parti- larly analyzed: structural birth defects, known as congenital abnormalities (CAs) and preterm birth (PB). In general the objectives of scienti c studies might be either to test a new hypothesis or to con rm or confront previously published results. However, less frequently the authors/scientists have personal motivations determined by their professional activities. The authors of this book are practicing physicians and genetic epidemiologist who are mainly interested in the following three practical questions: 1. The possible adverse effects of pharmaceutical products. The possible t- atogenic potential of about 170 drugs has been evaluated very thoroughly using the data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities (HCCSCA) in the last 50 years. These drugs were used to treat maternal diseases and the ndings of our population-based case-control studies will be cited in this book and are shown in the Appendix at the end of the book. However, our long experiences showed two problems in the drug teratology. In general the evaluation of clinical doses of these drugs is a particularly dif- cult challenge due to the modi cation effects of confounders. This problem motivated one of the authors to establish a new model of disaster epidemiology.
Author: Kristin Berry
Publisher: New Leaf Publishing Group
Release Date: 2017-04-15
Genre: Family & Relationships
You look into this beautiful child’s eyes and suddenly realize all the love you have to give, all the hopes you had for them can’t change the damage done to them in the womb before they ever had a chance. This is the heartbreaking reality for some adoptive parents as they realize the lifelong consequences of alcohol use during pregnancy. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder is a leading cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States. What do you do when the fairy tale family you believed in suddenly seems to be falling apart in the face of this harsh reality? Author Kristin Berry: There is no need to struggle alone or in isolation. Other families know what you are going through. Find strength in not only your faith, but in the community of others who understand your heartache and disappointment, and the desperate need to help these children have a future. Provides an account of real-life struggles and solutions from early childhood to young adulthood Opens a window into their life and family in hopes of encouraging others Reveals understanding, compassionate support for families facing these heart-wrenching challenges.
Author: Steven Woloshin
Publisher: Univ of California Press
Release Date: 2008-11-30
Understanding risk -- Putting risk in perspective -- Risk charts : a way to get perspective -- Judging the benefit of a health intervention -- Not all benefits are equal : understand the outcome -- Consider the downsides -- Do the benefits outweight the downsides? -- Beware of exaggerated importance -- Beware of exaggerated certainty -- Who's behind the numbers?
Author: Han Li
Release Date: 2018
A Little Bit of Beijing is an architectural graphic novel focused on contemporary Beijing and contains three volumes: Sanlitun, 798 Art District and Nanluoguxiang. It can be best described as a record of a moment in time in the lives of the three areas. The life of each area is documented through the use of architectural-style drawings featuring cut away rooftops, comic book stylized drawings that explore the details inside the buildings, and stories showcasing how people live, work, and visit these spaces. It was awarded the title of "the most beautiful book of China".