Author: Frank Smith
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 1999-09-22
By illustrating a wide range of specific applications in all major industries, this work broadens the coverage of X-ray diffraction beyond basic tenets, research and academic principles. The book serves as a guide to solving problems faced everyday in the laboratory, and offers a review of the current theory and practice of X-ray diffraction, major advances and potential uses.
Rigorous graduate-level text stresses modern applications to nonstructural problems such as temperature vibration effects, order-disorder phenomena, crystal imperfections, more. Problems. Six Appendixes include tables of values. Bibliographies.
This book explores novel methods for implementing X-ray diffraction technology as an imaging modality, which have been made possible through recent breakthroughs in detector technology, computational power, and data processing algorithms. The ability to perform fast, spatially-resolved X-ray diffraction throughout the volume of a sample opens up entirely new possibilities in areas such as material analysis, cancer diagnosis, and explosive detection, thus offering the potential to revolutionize the fields of medical, security, and industrial imaging and detection. Featuring chapters written by an international selection of authors from both academia and industry, the book provides a comprehensive discussion of the underlying physics, architectures, and applications of X-ray diffraction imaging that is accessible and relevant to neophytes and experts alike. Teaches novel methods for X-ray diffraction imaging Comprehensive and self-contained discussion of the relevant physics, imaging techniques, system components, and data processing algorithms Features state-of-the-art work of international authors from both academia and industry. Includes practical applications in the medical, industrial, and security sectors
Powder x-ray diffraction techniques were utilized in the evaluation of locally synthesized TiH3 materials to assist in evolving the best method for preparing such hydride materials, in the production of baseline data for TiH3 and KClO4 starting materials, and in the determination of the phases present in their various blends. Such methods concurrently afforded routine support for other project teams investigating container and bridgewire corrosion phenomena, material and device handling and storage factors, alternative milling and blending effects, particle size classification consequences, reaction product identification, etc. A 12-kW rotating anode x-ray generator was used in the effort. A reference pattern was obtained for the nonstoichiometric fluorite-structured .gamma.-TiH/sub 2-y/ phase. A quality lattice parameter as a function of stoichiometry curve was deduced from the phase analyses. Detection limits of minor amounts of various substances were also assessed. 9 tables. (DLC).
X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, one of the most powerful and flexible techniques available for the analysis and characterization of materials today, has gone through major changes during the past decade. Fully revised and expanded by 30%, X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, Second Edition incorporates the latest industrial and scientific trends in all areas. It updates all previous material and adds new chapters on such topics as the history of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, the design of X-ray spectrometers, state-of-the-art applications, and X-ray spectra. Ron Jenkins draws on his extensive experience in training and consulting industry professionals for this clear and concise treatment, covering first the basic aspects of X rays, then the methodology of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and available instrumentation. He offers a comparison between wavelength and energy dispersive spectrometers as well as step-by-step guidelines to X-ray spectrometric techniques for qualitative and quantitative analysis-from specimen preparation to real-world industrial application. Favored by the American Chemical Society and the International Centre for Diffraction Data, X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, Second Edition is an ideal introduction for newcomers to the field and an invaluable reference for experienced spectroscopists-in chemical analysis, geology, metallurgy, and materials science. An up-to-date review of X-ray spectroscopic techniques. This proven guidebook for industry professionals is thoroughly updated and expanded to reflect advances in X-ray analysis over the last decade. X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, Second Edition includes: * The history of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry-new to this edition. * A critical review of the most useful X-ray spectrometers. * Techniques and procedures for quantitative and qualitative analysis. * Modern applications and industrial trends. * X-ray spectra-new to this edition.
Author: Jan Drenth
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2002-02-15
New textbooks at all levels of chemistry appear with great regularity. Some fields such as basic biochemistry, organic reaction mechanisms, and chemical thermodynamics are well represented by many excellent texts, and new or revised editions are published sufficiently often to keep up with progress in research. However, some areas of chemistry, especially many of those taught at the graduate level, suffer from a real lack of up to-date textbooks. The most serious needs occur in fields that are rapidly changing. Textbooks in these subjects usually have to be written by scientists actually involved in the research that is advancing the field. It is not often easy to persuade such individuals to set time aside to help spread the knowledge they have accumulated. Our goal, in this series, is to pinpoint areas of chemistry where recent progress has outpaced what is covered in any available textbooks, and then seek out and persuade experts in these fields to produce relatively concise but instructive intro ductions to their fields. These should serve the needs of one-semester or one-quarter graduate courses in chemistry and biochemistry. In some cases, the availability of texts in active research areas should help stimulate the creation of new courses. Charles R. Cantor v Preface to the Second Edition Since the publication of the previous edition in 1994, X-ray crystallography of proteins has advanced by improvements in existing techniques and by addition of new techniques.
Due to their unique porous properties, zeolites (also referred to as molecular sieves) are used in a variety of applications - major uses are in petrochemical cracking, ion-exchange (water softening and purification), and in the separation and removal of gases and solvents. Molecular Sieves: From Basic Research to Industrial Applications, Volume 158 A,B presents over 265 worldwide contributions on the latest developments in zeolitic research. Readers will find this book, which is divided into five sections: Synthesis, Characterization, Adsorption, Catalysis, and Novel applications, ideal for staying up to date on current research on porous materials. * Comprehensive overview of current research on porous materials * Contains experimental as well as theoretical input, reflecting the increasing overlap between theory and experiment * Contributions from the world's leading authorities
Author: George Lindenberg Clark
Release Date: 1940
Genre: Rayons X
Part I: General physics and applications of x-radiation: Before and after the discovery by roentgen. X-ray tubes. High-tension equipment. The measurement of intensity (dosage). The measurement of quality (Wave length). X-ray spectra and atomic structure. Chemical analysis from x-ray spectra. The absorption and scattering of x-rays. Radiography. X-ray photochemistry. The biological effects of x-radiation. Part II: The x-ray analysis of the ultimate structures of materials: Crystallography and x-ray diffraction. The experimental x-ray methods of crystal analysis. The interpretation of diffraction patterns in terms of ultimate structure. The results of crystal analysis: elements and inorganic compounds. Crystal chemistry: fundamental generalizations from experimental data. The silicates. Minerals, soils, ceramics, cements. Alloys. The crystalline and molecular structures of organic compounds. The structure of glasses, liquids, and other colloidal and amorphous materials. The interpretation of diffraction patterns in terms of grain size, orientation, internal strain, and mechanical deformation. Practical applications of x-ray diffraction to problems of the metallurgical industry. Polymers-synthetic and natural materials with giant molecules.