Author: Frank Smith
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 1999-09-22
By illustrating a wide range of specific applications in all major industries, this work broadens the coverage of X-ray diffraction beyond basic tenets, research and academic principles. The book serves as a guide to solving problems faced everyday in the laboratory, and offers a review of the current theory and practice of X-ray diffraction, major advances and potential uses.
X-ray diffraction is a useful and powerful analysis technique for characterizing crystalline materials commonly employed in MSE, physics, and chemistry. This informative new book describes the principles of X-ray diffraction and its applications to materials characterization. It consists of three parts. The first deals with elementary crystallography and optics, which is essential for understanding the theory of X-ray diffraction discussed in the second section of the book. Part 2 describes how the X-ray diffraction can be applied for characterizing such various forms of materials as thin films, single crystals, and powders. The third section of the book covers applications of X-ray diffraction. The book presents a number of examples to help readers better comprehend the subject. X-Ray Diffraction for Materials Research: From Fundamentals to Applications also • provides background knowledge of diffraction to enable nonspecialists to become familiar with the topics • covers the practical applications as well as the underlying principle of X-ray diffraction • presents appropriate examples with answers to help readers understand the contents more easily • includes thin film characterization by X-ray diffraction with relevant experimental techniques • presents a huge number of elaborately drawn graphics to help illustrate the content The book will help readers (students and researchers in materials science, physics, and chemistry) understand crystallography and crystal structures, interference and diffraction, structural analysis of bulk materials, characterization of thin films, and nondestructive measurement of internal stress and phase transition. Diffraction is an optical phenomenon and thus can be better understood when it is explained with an optical approach, which has been neglected in other books. This book helps to fill that gap, providing information to convey the concept of X-ray diffraction and how it can be applied to the materials analysis. This book will be a valuable reference book for researchers in the field and will work well as a good introductory book of X-ray diffraction for students in materials science, physics, and chemistry.
An important milestone in the history of science, the diffraction of X-rays, was observed by Max von Laue in 1912. In the last 100 years, X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies have revealed highly valuable information about many ordered atomic structures seen in a variety of common materials. The understanding of material structures opened the door to the reliable application of these materials and allowed scientific discussions about material properties and structural features to become possible. Besides playing this crucial role in history, XRD has now also successfully transformed itself into a method in the forefront of extending much of our knowledge boundaries. Written by more than 30 X-ray diffraction experts from 9 countries/regions, this book consists of 11 chapters examining the development of the XRD technique and demonstrating various new opportunities for its application. Each chapter discusses timely and important subjects surrounding the XRD technique, including the past and future of the single-crystal XRD technique and new explorations with co-ordination polymers; the very successful implementation of Rietveld refinement analysis for alloys, intermetallics, cements, and ceramics; the application of XRD in nanoparticles structure study; the methodological developments in quantifying the state of residual stress in materials; and the state-of-the-art progress in combining XRD principles with electron crystallography for structure determination.
Author: Oliver H. Seeck
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2015-02-10
High-resolution x-ray diffraction and scattering is a key tool for structure analysis not only in bulk materials but also at surfaces and buried interfaces from the sub-nanometer range to micrometers. This book offers an overview of diffraction and scattering methods currently available at modern synchrotron sources and illustrates bulk and interface investigations of solid and liquid matter with up-to-date research examples. It presents important characteristics of the sources, experimental set-up, and new detector developments. The book also considers future exploitation of x-ray free electron lasers for diffraction applications.
Author: K. Ramakanth Hebbar
Publisher: I. K. International Pvt Ltd
Release Date: 2007-01-01
Genre: X-ray crystallography
Starting with the history of the discovery of X-rays by Roentgen and the subsequent formalization of diffraction laws by Von Laue, Bragg and others, it covers the essential fundamentals of crystallography and the theory of X-ray generation and of the interaction of X-rays with matter. X-ray diffraction theory is covered in detail, serving as an excellent background to the following chapters the application procedures such as the laue, the rotating crystal and the powder techniques. Reciprocal lattice theory is introduced with the necessary vector algebra and the relationship between reciprocal lattice and diffraction, which the student has generally some difficulty in understanding in the beginning, has been brought out elegantly. The chapters on film techniques are followed by one on the X-ray diffractometer and its applications. Specific applications such as crystal structure determination, accurate determination of lattice parameters, single crystal studies, studies of crystallographic texture, stress measurement, order-disorder transformation, phase diagram determination are covered in sufficient detail in the next chapters. There is a final chapter on the use of X-ray diffraction in chemical analysis. The list of topics covered is quite comprehensive. The treatment of topics in each chapter is sufficiently exhaustive for undergraduate and graduate courses in X-ray diffraction, not only for metallurgists and materials scientists/engineers, but also for other disciplines requiring the study of X-ray diffraction. The book is very well-written and the examples, solved and unsolved, at the end of various chapters will benefit the students greatly in understanding the concepts underlying them
Author: Yoshio Waseda
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2011-03-18
Genre: Technology & Engineering
X-ray diffraction crystallography for powder samples is a well-established and widely used method. It is applied to materials characterization to reveal the atomic scale structure of various substances in a variety of states. The book deals with fundamental properties of X-rays, geometry analysis of crystals, X-ray scattering and diffraction in polycrystalline samples and its application to the determination of the crystal structure. The reciprocal lattice and integrated diffraction intensity from crystals and symmetry analysis of crystals are explained. To learn the method of X-ray diffraction crystallography well and to be able to cope with the given subject, a certain number of exercises is presented in the book to calculate specific values for typical examples. This is particularly important for beginners in X-ray diffraction crystallography. One aim of this book is to offer guidance to solving the problems of 90 typical substances. For further convenience, 100 supplementary exercises are also provided with solutions. Some essential points with basic equations are summarized in each chapter, together with some relevant physical constants and the atomic scattering factors of the elements.
This volume covers current research findings and engineering applications of X–ray methods by the Japanese X–ray group members. The first part of the volume deals with fundamental problems in the methods for X–ray stress measurement. Phase stresses in the constituent phases of ceramic composites and ceramic-fiber reinforced metal-matrix composites are separately measured by X–rays, while three-dimensional stresses and thermal stresses in composites measured by X–rays are compared with the theoretical and numerical analyses. This work will therfore provide significant information for designing high-performance composites. Other topics covered include synchrotron X–ray radiation and the analysis of X–ray data by the Guassian curve method. Part two is devoted to the application of X–ray diffraction methods for various engineering purposes, the residual stress and half-value breadth (the full width at half the maximum) of the diffraction profiles being the two main X–ray parameters utilized in those applications. Chapters are included on X–ray fractography, a powerful technique for failure analysis, which is applied to the brittle fracture of ceramics and to the fatigue fracture of steels under various service conditions.
Author: B. E. Warren
Publisher: Courier Corporation
Release Date: 2012-05-23
Rigorous graduate-level text stresses modern applications to nonstructural problems such as temperature vibration effects, order-disorder phenomena, crystal imperfections, more. Problems. Six Appendixes include tables of values. Bibliographies.
Author: André Authier
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
Release Date: 2004
The dynamical theory of diffraction has witnessed exciting developments since the advent of synchrotron radiation. This book provides an up-to-date account of the theory of diffraction and its applications. The first part serves as an introduction to the subject, presenting early developments and the basic results. It is followed by a detailed development of the diffraction and propagation properties of x-rays in perfect crystals and by an extension of the theory to the case of slightly and highly deformed crystals. The last part gives three applications of the theory: X-ray optics for synchrotron radiation, locations of atoms at surfaces, and X-ray diffraction topography. The book is richly illustrated and contains a wide range of references to the literature. It will be a most useful reference work for graduate students, lecturers and researchers.
Author: Bob B. He
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2011-09-20
Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to researchers in materials science, chemistry, physics, and pharmaceuticals, as well as graduate-level students in these areas.
Exploration of fundamentals of x-ray diffraction theory using Fourier transforms applies general results to various atomic structures, amorphous bodies, crystals, and imperfect crystals. 154 illustrations. 1963 edition.
Author: Harry E. Martz
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2016-10-26
Genre: Technology & Engineering
While books on the medical applications of x-ray imaging exist, there is not one currently available that focuses on industrial applications. Full of color images that show clear spectrometry and rich with applications, X-Ray Imaging fills the need for a comprehensive work on modern industrial x-ray imaging. It reviews the fundamental science of x-ray imaging and addresses equipment and system configuration. Useful to a broad range of radiation imaging practitioners, the book looks at the rapid development and deployment of digital x-ray imaging system.
Author: Bernard D. Cullity
Release Date: 2013-11-01
Genre: X-ray crystallography
Designed for Junior/Senior undergraduate courses. This revision of a classical text is intended to acquaint the reader, who has no prior knowledge of the subject, with the theory of x-ray diffraction, the experimental methods involved, and the main applications. The text is a collection of principles and methods designed directly for the student and not a reference tool for the advanced reader