Infectious Disease Ecology

Author: Richard S. Ostfeld
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400837885
Release Date: 2010-12-16
Genre: Science

News headlines are forever reporting diseases that take huge tolls on humans, wildlife, domestic animals, and both cultivated and native plants worldwide. These diseases can also completely transform the ecosystems that feed us and provide us with other critical benefits, from flood control to water purification. And yet diseases sometimes serve to maintain the structure and function of the ecosystems on which humans depend. Gathering thirteen essays by forty leading experts who convened at the Cary Conference at the Institute of Ecosystem Studies in 2005, this book develops an integrated framework for understanding where these diseases come from, what ecological factors influence their impacts, and how they in turn influence ecosystem dynamics. It marks the first comprehensive and in-depth exploration of the rich and complex linkages between ecology and disease, and provides conceptual underpinnings to understand and ameliorate epidemics. It also sheds light on the roles that diseases play in ecosystems, bringing vital new insights to landscape management issues in particular. While the ecological context is a key piece of the puzzle, effective control and understanding of diseases requires the interaction of professionals in medicine, epidemiology, veterinary medicine, forestry, agriculture, and ecology. The essential resource on the subject, Infectious Disease Ecology seeks to bridge these fields with an ecological approach that focuses on systems thinking and complex interactions.

Infectious Disease Ecology

Author: Richard S. Ostfeld
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691124858
Release Date: 2008-02-24
Genre: Science

News headlines are forever reporting diseases that take huge tolls on humans, wildlife, domestic animals, and both cultivated and native plants worldwide. These diseases can also completely transform the ecosystems that feed us and provide us with other critical benefits, from flood control to water purification. And yet diseases sometimes serve to maintain the structure and function of the ecosystems on which humans depend. Gathering thirteen essays by forty leading experts who convened at the Cary Conference at the Institute of Ecosystem Studies in 2005, this book develops an integrated framework for understanding where these diseases come from, what ecological factors influence their impacts, and how they in turn influence ecosystem dynamics. It marks the first comprehensive and in-depth exploration of the rich and complex linkages between ecology and disease, and provides conceptual underpinnings to understand and ameliorate epidemics. It also sheds light on the roles that diseases play in ecosystems, bringing vital new insights to landscape management issues in particular. While the ecological context is a key piece of the puzzle, effective control and understanding of diseases requires the interaction of professionals in medicine, epidemiology, veterinary medicine, forestry, agriculture, and ecology. The essential resource on the subject, Infectious Disease Ecology seeks to bridge these fields with an ecological approach that focuses on systems thinking and complex interactions.

Infectious Disease Ecology

Author: Richard S. Ostfeld
Publisher:
ISBN: UOM:39015073925599
Release Date: 2008
Genre: Medical

News headlines are forever reporting diseases that take huge tolls on humans, wildlife, domestic animals, and both cultivated and native plants worldwide. These diseases can also completely transform the ecosystems that feed us and provide us with other critical benefits, from flood control to water purification. And yet diseases sometimes serve to maintain the structure and function of the ecosystems on which humans depend. Gathering thirteen essays by forty leading experts who convened at the Cary Conference at the Institute of Ecosystem Studies in 2005, this book develops an integrated framework for understanding where these diseases come from, what ecological factors influence their impacts, and how they in turn influence ecosystem dynamics. It marks the first comprehensive and in-depth exploration of the rich and complex linkages between ecology and disease, and provides conceptual underpinnings to understand and ameliorate epidemics. It also sheds light on the roles that diseases play in ecosystems, bringing vital new insights to landscape management issues in particular. While the ecological context is a key piece of the puzzle, effective control and understanding of diseases requires the interaction of professionals in medicine, epidemiology, veterinary medicine, forestry, agriculture, and ecology. The essential resource on the subject, Infectious Disease Ecology seeks to bridge these fields with an ecological approach that focuses on systems thinking and complex interactions.

Disease Ecology

Author: Sharon K. Collinge
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198567081
Release Date: 2006-01-26
Genre: Medical

Disease Ecology highlights exciting advances in theoretical and empirical research towards understanding the importance of community structure in the emergence of infectious diseases. The chapters in this book illustrate aspects of community ecology that influence pathogen transmission rates and disease dynamics in a wide variety of study systems. The innovative studies presented here communicate a clear message: studies of epidemiology can be approached from the perspective of community ecology, and students of community ecology can contribute significantly to epidemiology.

The Ecology of Wildlife Diseases

Author: Peter Hudson
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0198506198
Release Date: 2002-01-03
Genre: Science

The study of epidemiology is an essential part of understanding how infectious diseases emerge, and how they affect humans, wildlife and wildlife conservation. The integration of modelling techniques with parasitology and population dynamics has been hugely significant for our understanding of disease dynamics. This book on wildlife epidemiology brings the subject right up to date, covering the most recent empirical and theoretical developments in the field.

Lyme Disease

Author: Richard Ostfeld
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199780854
Release Date: 2010-11-04
Genre: Science

Most human diseases come from nature, from pathogens that live and breed in non-human animals and are "accidentally" transmitted to us. Human illness is only the culmination of a complex series of interactions among species in their natural habitats. To avoid exposure to these pathogens, we must understand which species are involved, what regulates their abundance, and how they interact. Lyme disease affects the lives of millions of people in the US, Europe, and Asia. It is the most frequently reported vector-borne disease in the United States; About 20,000 cases have been reported each year over the past five years, and tens of thousands more go unrecognized and unreported. Despite the epidemiological importance of understanding variable LD risk, such pursuit has been slow, indirect, and only partially successful, due in part to an overemphasis on identifying the small subset of 'key players' that contribute to Lyme disease risk, as well as a general misunderstanding of effective treatment options. This controversial book is a comprehensive, synthetic review of research on the ecology of Lyme disease in North America. It describes how humans get sick, why some years and places are so risky and others not. It challenges dogma - for instance, that risk is closely tied to the abundance of deer - and replaces it with a new understanding that embraces the complexity of species and their interactions. It describes why the place where Lyme disease emerged - coastal New England - set researchers on mistaken pathways. It shows how tiny acorns have enormous impacts on our probability of getting sick, why biodiversity is good for our health, why living next to a small woodlot is dangerous, and why Lyme disease is an excellent model system for understanding many other human and animal diseases. Intended for an audience of professional and student ecologists, epidemiologists, and other health scientists, it is written in an informal style accessible also to non-scientists interested in human health and conservation.

Under the Weather

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309132959
Release Date: 2001-05-29
Genre: Science

Since the dawn of medical science, people have recognized connections between a change in the weather and the appearance of epidemic disease. With today's technology, some hope that it will be possible to build models for predicting the emergence and spread of many infectious diseases based on climate and weather forecasts. However, separating the effects of climate from other effects presents a tremendous scientific challenge. Can we use climate and weather forecasts to predict infectious disease outbreaks? Can the field of public health advance from "surveillance and response" to "prediction and prevention?" And perhaps the most important question of all: Can we predict how global warming will affect the emergence and transmission of infectious disease agents around the world? Under the Weather evaluates our current understanding of the linkages among climate, ecosystems, and infectious disease; it then goes a step further and outlines the research needed to improve our understanding of these linkages. The book also examines the potential for using climate forecasts and ecological observations to help predict infectious disease outbreaks, identifies the necessary components for an epidemic early warning system, and reviews lessons learned from the use of climate forecasts in other realms of human activity.

One Health

Author: Ronald M. Atlas
Publisher: ASM Press
ISBN: 9781555818425
Release Date: 2014-03-20
Genre: Medical

Emerging infectious diseases are often due to environmental disruption, which exposes microbes to a different niche that selects for new virulence traits and facilitates transmission between animals and humans. Thus, health of humans also depends upon health of animals and the environment – a concept called One Health. This book presents core concepts, compelling evidence, successful applications, and remaining challenges of One Health approaches to thwarting the threat of emerging infectious disease. Written by scientists working in the field, this book will provide a series of ""stories"" about how disruption of the environment and transmission from animal hosts is responsible for emerging human and animal diseases. • Explains the concept of One Health and the history of the One Health paradigm shift . • Traces the emergence of devastating new diseases in both animals and humans.• Presents case histories of notable, new zoonoses, including West Nile virus, hantavirus, Lyme disease, SARS, and salmonella.• Links several epidemic zoonoses with the environmental factors that promote them.• Offers insight into the mechanisms of microbial evolution toward pathogenicity.• Discusses the many causes behind the emergence of antibiotic resistance.• Presents new technologies and approaches for public health disease surveillance.• Offers political and bureaucratic strategies for promoting the global acceptance of One Health.

The Social Ecology of Infectious Diseases

Author: Kenneth H. Mayer
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080557147
Release Date: 2011-04-28
Genre: Medical

Social Ecology of Infectious Diseases explores how human activities enable microbes to disseminate and evolve, thereby creating favorable conditions for the diverse manifestations of communicable diseases. Today, infectious and parasitic diseases cause about one-third of deaths and are the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The speed that changes in human behavior can produce epidemics is well illustrated by AIDS, but this is only one of numerous microbial threats whose severity and spread are determined by human behaviors. In this book, forty experts in the fields of infectious diseases, the life sciences and public health explore how demography, geography, migration, travel, environmental change, natural disaster, sexual behavior, drug use, food production and distribution, medical technology, training and preparedness, as well as governance, human conflict and social dislocation influence current and likely future epidemics. Provides essential understanding of current and future epidemics Presents a crossover perspective for disciplines in the medical and social sciences and public policy, including public health, infectious diseases, population science, epidemiology, microbiology, food safety, defense preparedness and humanitarian relief Creates a new perspective on ecology based on the interaction of microbes and human activities

Parasites in Ecological Communities

Author: Melanie J. Hatcher
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139496988
Release Date: 2011-06-16
Genre: Science

Interactions between competitors, predators and their prey have traditionally been viewed as the foundation of community structure. Parasites – long ignored in community ecology – are now recognized as playing an important part in influencing species interactions and consequently affecting ecosystem function. Parasitism can interact with other ecological drivers, resulting in both detrimental and beneficial effects on biodiversity and ecosystem health. Species interactions involving parasites are also key to understanding many biological invasions and emerging infectious diseases. This book bridges the gap between community ecology and epidemiology to create a wide-ranging examination of how parasites and pathogens affect all aspects of ecological communities, enabling the new generation of ecologists to include parasites as a key consideration in their studies. This comprehensive guide to a newly emerging field is of relevance to academics, practitioners and graduates in biodiversity, conservation and population management, and animal and human health.

Invasion Biology

Author: Jonathan M Jeschke
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: 9781780647647
Release Date: 2018-04-25
Genre: Science

There are many hypotheses describing the interactions involved in biological invasions, but it is largely unknown whether they are backed up by empirical evidence. This book fills that gap by developing a tool for assessing research hypotheses and applying it to twelve invasion hypotheses, using the hierarchy-of-hypotheses (HoH) approach, and mapping the connections between theory and evidence. In Part 1, an overview chapter of invasion biology is followed by an introduction to the HoH approach and short chapters by science theorists and philosophers who comment on the approach. Part 2 outlines the invasion hypotheses and their interrelationships. These include biotic resistance and island susceptibility hypotheses, disturbance hypothesis, invasional meltdown hypothesis, enemy release hypothesis, evolution of increased competitive ability and shifting defence hypotheses, tens rule, phenotypic plasticity hypothesis, Darwin's naturalization and limiting similarity hypotheses and the propagule pressure hypothesis. Part 3 provides a synthesis and suggests future directions for invasion research.

Foundations of Wildlife Diseases

Author: Richard G. Botzler
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520276093
Release Date: 2014-08-12
Genre: Nature

Foundations of Wildlife Diseases is a comprehensive overview of the basic principles that govern the study of wildlife diseases. The authors integrate theoretical foundations with a thorough examination of the factors that can affect the health and fitness of animals. They include specific information on a wide array of infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, arthropods, fungi, protista, and helminths, as well as immunity to these agents. Also provided is a foundation for the study of noninfectious diseases, cancers, and prion diseases that affect wildlife. Supporting students, faculty, and researchers in areas related to wildlife management, biology, and veterinary sciences, this volume fills an important gap in wildlife disease resources, focusing on mammalian and avian wildlife while also considering reptiles and amphibians. Foundations of Wildlife Diseases provides students with a structure for thinking about and understanding infective agents and their interactions with wildlife. Each chapter includes an outline, select definitions and concepts, an overview and summary, and literature cited.

Ecology and Evolution of the Grass Endophyte Symbiosis

Author: Gregory P. Cheplick
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199719004
Release Date: 2009-02-23
Genre: Science

Endophytic fungi are common and diverse in plants. Yet the nature of their interactions with host plants, and how these interactions cascade upward to communities and ecosystems, is largely unknown. In the first book of its kind, Gregory P. Cheplick and Stanley H. Faeth synthesize existing studies of endophyte-grass symbioses within the context of modern ecological and evolutionary concepts. The authors cover a broad range of topics including the effects of endophytes on herbivory, host growth, physiology, reproduction, and competitive ability in a variety of grasses and environments. Clearly and engagingly written, Ecology and Evolution of the Grass-Endophyte Symbiosis highlights the most essential aspects of symbiosis ecology and evolution while suggesting avenues for future research.

Ecology of Invertebrate Diseases

Author: Ann E. Hajek
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781119256076
Release Date: 2018-01-16
Genre: Science

A rapidly growing interdisciplinary field, disease ecology merges key ideas from ecology, medicine, genetics, immunology, and epidemiology to study how hosts and pathogens interact in populations, communities, and entire ecosystems. Bringing together contributions from leading international experts on the ecology of diseases among invertebrate species, this book provides a comprehensive assessment of the current state of the field. Beginning with an introductory overview of general principles and methodologies, the book continues with in-depth discussions of a range of critical issues concerning invertebrate disease epidemiology, molecular biology, vectors, and pathogens. Topics covered in detail include: Methods for studying the ecology of invertebrate diseases and pathogens Invertebrate pathogen ecology and the ecology of pathogen groups Applied ecology of invertebrate pathogens Leveraging the ecology of invertebrate pathogens in microbial control Prevention and management of infectious diseases of aquatic invertebrates Ecology of Invertebrate Diseases is a necessary and long overdue addition to the world literature on this vitally important subject. This volume belongs on the reference shelves of all those involved in the environmental sciences, genetics, microbiology, marine biology, immunology, epidemiology, fisheries and wildlife science, and related disciplines.

Evolutionary Parasitology

Author: Paul Schmid-Hempel
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780199229482
Release Date: 2011-02-24
Genre: Science

Parasites are among the most serious threats for any organism. This book brings together the latest knowledge from different fields and traces the basic ecological and evolutionary principles behind the eternal and momentous struggle between hosts and their parasites, providing a synthesis of current understanding.