Author: Yūji Iwasawa
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 1998
The impact international law has had on Japanese law has been substantial, especially in the field of human rights. The author of this volume, one of Japan's leading international lawyers, examines extensively the relationship between his country's domestic rules and regulations, and the numerous international treaties and conventions which it has ratified in recent years. Some changes were made to domestic laws in an attempt to make them conform with these international instruments,but individuals went to the courts to try to obtain further necessary modification. Such direct invocations of international law have met with little success, but the laws concerned are often amended at a later date, due to political pressure. The changes in domestic law thatsuch amendments have wrought, have improved the human rights situation in Japan, and have lead to a growing interest in international law within that country. The author pays particular attention in this volume to the laws governing sexual equality, the legal status of aliens, and the treatment of mental health patients, amongst others. The book details the changes that international law has brought in these areas, despite the skepticism of the Japanese courts regarding the validity of international human rights law as a source of law.
Author: Yūji Iwasawa
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
Release Date: 1998
The impact international law has had on Japanese law has been substantial, especially in the field of human rights. The author of this volume, one of Japan's leading international lawyers, examines extensively the relationship between his country's domestic rules and regulations, and thenumerous international treaties and conventions which it has ratified in recent years. Some changes were made to domestic laws in an attempt to make them conform with these international instruments, but individuals went to the courts to try to obtain further necessary modification. Such direct invocations of international law have met with little success, but the laws concerned areoften amended at a later date, due to political pressure. The changes in domestic law thatsuch amendments have wrought, have improved the human rights situation in Japan, and have lead to a growing interest in international law within that country. The author pays particular attention in this volume to the laws governing sexual equality, the legal status of aliens, and the treatment of mental health patients, amongst others. The book details the changes that international law has brought in these areas, despite the skepticism of the Japanesecourts regarding the validity of international human rights law as a source of law.
Author: Nisuke Andō
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Release Date: 1999-05-27
This book is a record of the international symposium held at the Kyoto International Conference Hall to mark the centennial of the Japanese Association of International Law. The purpose of the symposium was to reflect on past Japanese practice, to analyze current problems affecting Japan, and to seek to clarify the future role of Japan in the global community, in terms of international law. After joining the international community in the middle of the nineteenth century, Japan adopted a policy of wealth creation and armament in order to maintain its independence against the expanding Western States. At the same time, on the domestic scene, Japan vigorously promoted the modernization - Westernization - of its political, economic, and social institutions. Japan emerged as one of the victorious 'Principal Allied and Associated Powers' in World War I, and started asserting its place in the international order. However, in the aftermath of the Great Depression, Japan failed to reach agreement with the international community, eventually left the League of Nations, invaded the Asian continent, and met with complete military defeat in World War II. In the subsequent years, Japan toiled to rebuild its economy and to rejoin the world community, but despite its miraculous economic recovery and expansion, Japan remains ambivalent in its policy of contributing to the maintenance of international peace and security. During these one and a half centuries the Japanese practice of international law has covered a wide range of fields. From these various fields, the symposium took up three specific topics: War and Peace, Economy, and Human Rights, because of their relevance to past Japanese practice and because future Japanese practice in these areas would be bound to affect international law in the coming century. In addition, the symposium discussed Japanese transactions, in general, with international law. The period covered by the symposium has witnessed many drastic changes in the world, and international law, which used to be applied almost exclusively to relations among the Western States, has now come to be applied universally. The Association wished to emphasize that an analysis of Japanese practice should be of significance for anyone interested in promoting and consolidating the rule of law in the world community at large.
Author: Zou Keyuan
Release Date: 2017-07-05
As the world?s political and economic landscape changes in response to the rise of Asian countries such as China, so Asian influences on the global legal order will become more pronounced. Many countries in the region, such as Japan and South Korea, influence the development of international law in various ways, either individually or collectively through multinational organisations such as ASEAN. This collection of published work by leading East Asian scholars covers Asian perspectives concerning various issues in international law, ranging from general perspectives to particular themes such as international economic law, international human rights law, international ocean law, international criminal law, international security law and international dispute settlement. For the first time it provides a comprehensive picture of how and why East Asian countries participate in international law making, as well as comply with international law in their state practices. In so doing, the editors attempt to address the question whether the rising powers in East Asia will change the existing international legal order in future.
Author: Kiyoteru Tsutsui
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2018-08-07
Genre: Social Science
Since the late 1970s, the three most salient minority groups in Japan - the politically dormant Ainu, the active but unsuccessful Koreans, and the former outcaste group of Burakumin - have all expanded their activism despite the unfavorable domestic political environment. In Rights Make Might, Kiyoteru Tsutsui examines why, and finds an answer in the galvanizing effects of global human rights on local social movements. Tsutsui chronicles the transformative impact of global human rights ideas and institutions on minority activists, which changed their understandings about their standing in Japanese society and propelled them to new international venues for political claim making. The global forces also changed the public perception and political calculus in Japan over time, catalyzing substantial gains for their movements. Having benefited from global human rights, all three groups repaid their debt by contributing to the consolidation and expansion of human rights principles and instruments outside of Japan. Drawing on interviews and archival data, Rights Make Might offers a rich historical comparative analysis of the relationship between international human rights and local politics that contributes to our understanding of international norms and institutions, social movements, human rights, ethnoracial politics, and Japanese society.
This book is published open access under a CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license. This book analyzes issues in human rights law from a variety of perspectives by eminent European and Asian professors of constitutional law, international public law, and European Union law. As a result, their contributions collected here illustrate the phenomenon of cross-fertilization not only in Europe (the EU and its member states and the Council of Europe), but also between Europe and Asia. Furthermore, it reveals the influence that national and foreign law, EU law and the European Convention on Human Rights, and European and Asian law exert over one another. The various chapters cover general fundamental rights and human rights issues in Europe and Asia as well as specific topics regarding the principles of nondiscrimination, women’s rights, the right to freedom of speech in Japan, and China’s Development Banks in Asia. Protection of human rights should be guaranteed in the international community, and research based on a comparative law approach is useful for the protection of human rights at a higher level. As the product of academic cooperation between ten professors of Japanese, Taiwanese, German, Italian, and Belgian nationalities, this work responds to such needs.
This monograph analyses the historical evolution of the laws of occupation as a special branch of international humanitarian law (IHL), focusing on the extent to which this body of law has been transformed by its interaction with the development of international human rights law. It argues that a large part of the laws of occupation has proved to be malleable while being able to accommodate changing demands of civilians and any other persons affected by occupation in modern context. Its examinations have drawn much on archival research into the drafting documents of the instruments of IHL, including the aborted Brussels Declaration 1874, the 1899/1907 Hague Regulations, the 1949 Geneva Conventions and the 1977 Additional Protocol I. After assessing the complementary relationship between international human rights law and the laws of occupation, the book examines how to provide a coherent explanation for an emerging framework on the rights of individual persons affected by occupation. It engages in a theoretical appraisal of the role of customary IHL and the Martens clause in building up such a normative framework.
Author: Douglas Howland
Release Date: 2016-11-15
Genre: Political Science
How does a nation become a great power? A global order was emerging in the nineteenth century, one in which all nations were included. This book explores the multiple legal grounds of Meiji Japan's assertion of sovereign statehood within that order: natural law, treaty law, international administrative law, and the laws of war. Contrary to arguments that Japan was victimized by 'unequal' treaties, or that Japan was required to meet a 'standard of civilization' before it could participate in international society, Howland argues that the Westernizing Japanese state was a player from the start. In the midst of contradictions between law and imperialism, Japan expressed state will and legal acumen as an equal of the Western powers – international incidents in Japanese waters, disputes with foreign powers on Japanese territory, and the prosecution of interstate war. As a member of international administrative unions, Japan worked with fellow members to manage technical systems such as the telegraph and the post. As a member of organizations such as the International Law Association and as a leader at the Hague Peace Conferences, Japan helped to expand international law. By 1907, Japan was the first non-western state to join the ranks of the great powers.
Author: Andreas Follesdal
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2018-03-15
The influence of international courts is ubiquitous, covering areas from the law of the sea to international criminal law. This judicialization of international law is often lauded for bringing effective global governance, upholding the rule of law, and protecting the right of individuals. Yet at what point does the omnipresence of the international judiciary shackle national sovereign freedom? And can the lack of political accountability be justified? Follesdal and Ulfstein bring together the crème de la crème of the legal academic world to ask the big questions for the international judiciary: whether they are there for mere dispute settlement or to set precedent, and how far they can enforce international obligations without impacting on democratic self-determination.
Author: Surendra R. Bhandari
Release Date: 2016-04-25
Global Constitutionalism and the Path of International Law offers an account of the most important growth and features of international law in the form of global constitutionalism. This book demonstrates how global constitutionalism is shaping the path of international law.