Author: Yūji Iwasawa
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 1998
The impact international law has had on Japanese law has been substantial, especially in the field of human rights. The author of this volume, one of Japan's leading international lawyers, examines extensively the relationship between his country's domestic rules and regulations, and the numerous international treaties and conventions which it has ratified in recent years. Some changes were made to domestic laws in an attempt to make them conform with these international instruments,but individuals went to the courts to try to obtain further necessary modification. Such direct invocations of international law have met with little success, but the laws concerned are often amended at a later date, due to political pressure. The changes in domestic law thatsuch amendments have wrought, have improved the human rights situation in Japan, and have lead to a growing interest in international law within that country. The author pays particular attention in this volume to the laws governing sexual equality, the legal status of aliens, and the treatment of mental health patients, amongst others. The book details the changes that international law has brought in these areas, despite the skepticism of the Japanese courts regarding the validity of international human rights law as a source of law.
Author: Nisuke Andō
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Release Date: 1999-05-27
This book is a record of the international symposium held at the Kyoto International Conference Hall to mark the centennial of the Japanese Association of International Law. The purpose of the symposium was to reflect on past Japanese practice, to analyze current problems affecting Japan, and to seek to clarify the future role of Japan in the global community, in terms of international law. After joining the international community in the middle of the nineteenth century, Japan adopted a policy of wealth creation and armament in order to maintain its independence against the expanding Western States. At the same time, on the domestic scene, Japan vigorously promoted the modernization - Westernization - of its political, economic, and social institutions. Japan emerged as one of the victorious 'Principal Allied and Associated Powers' in World War I, and started asserting its place in the international order. However, in the aftermath of the Great Depression, Japan failed to reach agreement with the international community, eventually left the League of Nations, invaded the Asian continent, and met with complete military defeat in World War II. In the subsequent years, Japan toiled to rebuild its economy and to rejoin the world community, but despite its miraculous economic recovery and expansion, Japan remains ambivalent in its policy of contributing to the maintenance of international peace and security. During these one and a half centuries the Japanese practice of international law has covered a wide range of fields. From these various fields, the symposium took up three specific topics: War and Peace, Economy, and Human Rights, because of their relevance to past Japanese practice and because future Japanese practice in these areas would be bound to affect international law in the coming century. In addition, the symposium discussed Japanese transactions, in general, with international law. The period covered by the symposium has witnessed many drastic changes in the world, and international law, which used to be applied almost exclusively to relations among the Western States, has now come to be applied universally. The Association wished to emphasize that an analysis of Japanese practice should be of significance for anyone interested in promoting and consolidating the rule of law in the world community at large.
Author: Helmut Philipp Aust
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2016-01-21
The Interpretation of International Law by Domestic Courts assesses the growing role of domestic courts in the interpretation of international law. It asks whether and if so to what extent domestic courts make use of the international rules of interpretation set forth in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. Given the expectation that rules of international law are to have a uniform interpretation and application throughout the world, the practice of domestic courts is considerably more diverse. The contributions to this book analyse three key questions: first, whether international law requires a coherent interpretive approach by domestic courts. Second, whether a common or convergent methodological outlook can be found in domestic court practice. Third, whether a common interpretive approach is desirable from a normative perspective. The book identfies a considerable tension between international law's ambition for universal and uniform application and a plurality of different approaches. This tension between unity and diversity is analysed by a group of leading international lawyers from a wide range of geographical, disciplinary and methodological approaches. Drawing on domestic practice of number of jurisdictions including, among others, Colombia, France, Japan, India, Israel, Mexico, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States, the book puts the interpretative practice of domestic courts in a wider context. Its chapters offer doctrinal, practical as well as theoretical perspectives on a central question for international law.
Author: Bardo Fassbender
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2012-11-01
This handbook provides an authoritative and original overview of the origins of public international law. It analyses the modern history of international law from a global perspective, and examines the lives of those who were most responsible for shaping it.
The last decade has seen Japan become more aggressive in settling its trade disputes through the WTO process whereas previously it prefered settling such disputes more informally on a bilateral basis. In The Politics of WTO Dispute Settlement, Keisuke Iida demonstrates how and why this transformation has taken place. Professor Iida argues that though Japanese trade policy has become "legalized" it remains distinct from US or the EU where trade laywers are in the driving seat of dispute settlement. Instead, Japan has pursued what might be called "tactical legalization", borrowing expertise, information and leverage from the private sector, foreign lawyers and the other major trading partners such as the EU in particular. The book demonstrates in detail how the multilateral trade system and the trade policy of major trading nations, including that of Japan, interact to increase or restrain the "legalization" of the world trading system.
Author: Eva Schwittek
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
Release Date: 2015-05-06
Das Internationale Gesellschaftsrecht steht im Fokus von Wissenschaft und Praxis in der EU. Auch der japanische Gesetzgeber hat sich mit der Kodifikation der herrschenden Grundungstheorie und mit der Neuregelung des Fremdenrechts zum Schutz vor Scheinauslandsgesellschaften befasst. Die Analyse der aktuellen japanischen Rechtslage ist insbesondere fur das deutsche Internationale Gesellschaftsrecht aufschlussreich, das derzeit (teilweise) von der Sitz- zur Grundungstheorie ubergeht. Der Rechtsvergleich mit Japan, das im Laufe seiner Geschichte verschiedenen Stromungen und auslandischen Einflussen ausgesetzt war, ist besonders vielschichtig. Eva Schwittek analysiert das Internationale Gesellschaftsrecht Japans aus rechtsvergleichender Perspektive und bezieht die historischen, rechtspolitischen und wirtschaftlichen Zusammenhange ein. Damit liegt erstmals eine umfassende Studie dieses Rechtsgebiets in einer westlichen Sprache vor.