Author: Ivar Oxaal
Release Date: 2013-05-13
Genre: Business & Economics
Conceived as a response to the economic naïvety and implicit metropolitan bias of many 1950s and 60s studies of ‘the sociology of development’ , this volume, first published in 1975, provides actual field studies and theoretical reviews to indicate the directions which a conceptually more adequate study of developing societies should take. Much of the book reflects strongly the influence of Andre Gunder Frank, but the contributors adopt a critical attitude to his ideas, applying them in empirical situations within such African and American countries as Kenya, Guyana, Tanzania and Peru. Others pursue the lines of enquiry opened up by Latin American theories of economic ‘dependency’ and by the new school of French economic anthropology.
In large parts of the developing world, peasant to industrial worker and rural to urban transition is a huge question mark on the face of the political economies of these societies. In India alone, nearly seventy percent of its 1.2 billion population lives in rural areas dependent on agriculture and allied activities. Though the context is different, the magnitude of the transition is similar in present day China. In many parts of Latin America and Africa, this transition is incomplete. Rural populations continue to persist, even in the times of globalisation – a so called shrinking world – and the digital age. In the context of developing countries in general and India in particular, it is difficult to find this transition in the lines of European history. Hence, the main concern of this book is with the large, independent self-cultivating peasantry and the agriculture-associated, non-landowning peasantry. In the present and in these contexts, the process of the growth of towns, merchandise, cities and industry, does not occur in a sequence of succession – characteristic to European development – owing to colonial backdrops and historical specificities. Whatever urbanisation happens in these countries, too, does not seem to be inclusive and facilitative of the rural to urban transition. The variance with the European context also appears to be the reason for the often observed non-absorption of the peasantry. These large differences across spatial, historical and structural contexts also indicate that one should consider the processes in non-Euro-centric terms. The processes of the transformation from agrarian to non-agrarian society – rural to urban societies, therefore – are inevitably plural in nature and, while retaining their specificities, push us into considering the point that the European model, or the English model, of transition is only one important variant of the possible modes of transition to capitalism, which necessitates close empirical study and a considered generalization; a point illuminated by the diversities that characterise European history itself. However, we need to urgently address this problem, as overwhelmingly large sections of the developing world not only persist in rural bewilderment, but they also aspire to urban modernity, as does the rest of the world. This book is written with a certain empathy towards rural societies, that they too, while transcending the ascriptive particularities and backwardness, should access all the benefits of civilised urban modernity; that the increasingly globalising humanity can offer and, yes, bask in the ‘bright lights of the city’.
Author: Adam Szirmai
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2005-01-20
Genre: Business & Economics
Why are poor countries poor and rich countries rich? How are wealth and poverty related to changes in nutrition, health, life expectancy, education, population growth and politics? This modern, non-technical 2005 introduction to development studies explores the dynamics of socio-economic development and stagnation in developing countries. Taking a quantitative and comparative approach to contemporary debates within their broader context, Szirmai examines historical, institutional, demographic, sociological, political and cultural factors. Key chapters focus on economic growth, technological change, industrialisation, agricultural development, and consider social dimensions such as population growth, health and education. Each chapter contains comparative statistics on trends from a sample of twenty-nine developing countries. This rich statistical database allows students to strengthen their understanding of comparative development experiences. Assuming no prior knowledge of economics the book is suited for use in inter-disciplinary development studies programmes as well as economics courses, and will also interest practitioners pursuing careers in developing countries.
Author: Jacques Steyn
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Release Date: 2015-11-25
Genre: Social Science
Several decades of international aid, predominantly granted by the highly developed world (the haves), for the use of ICT in developing regions (known by several labels, such as the have-nots, bottom of the pyramid, the south, or, some time ago, the third world) have passed, but the holy grail of turning these societies into the ideals defined by the donors is still elusive. Previously the emphasis was on top-down approaches in this endeavour. Now priority is increasingly given to bottom-up approaches, putting the targeted communities first, using methods such as co-creation and living labs. Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D) is still a domain in search of a common ground. The many different perspectives from diverse ideologies, paradigms and theoretical perspectives here lead to an interesting debate, but, meanwhile, agents of social change are doing their best to change communities – ostensibly for the better. An ongoing endeavour, this discussion requires further investigation of the complexities of techno-societies. The contributions to this volume range from explorations of theory, models and methods to investigations into the practical implementation of ICT in communities, covering the characteristics of social groups and different generations and gender issues, as well as its applications in education and health. As such, the contributions in this book will inform continuing debates concerning the role of ICT in developing communities on the wrong side of all the technical and social divides in human societies.
Anthony Giddens "Soziologie" gilt weltweit als das Einführungswerk in das gleichnamige Fach. Gekennzeichnet durch hohe Lesbarkeit und eine für Lehrbücher ungemeine Aktualität und Zeitbezogenheit, hat es diesen Ruf auch zu Recht: Man wird förmlich in das Werk hineingezogen; der Autor führt einen Dialog mit der LeserIn Waren Sie schon einmal verliebt?, in dem zuerst einmal in groben Zügen die Geschichte der Soziologie präsentiert wird. Danach wird es immer spezifischer: Über Kultur, Gesellschaft und Individuum und Gesellschaftstypen führt der Dialog weiter zu Geschlecht und Sexualität, Körper und Familie, um schließlich Moderne Organisationen, Massenmedien, Arbeit und Wirtschaftsleben oder den Globalen Wandel und die Umweltkrise zu diskutieren. Immer wird dabei mit plastischen Bildern gearbeitet, und immer hat man als LeserIn den Eindruck, mittendrin und dabei zu sein was die Lektüre des Buches zu einem beeindruckenden Gespräch über Soziologie macht und den Lerneffekt garantiert. (Verlagstext).
Author: Wesley Shrum
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2007-12-14
This book examines the role of research and the production of knowledge in the information society, with special emphasis on developing areas of the world. It is based on a three day conference that immediately precedes the second phase of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), in Tunisia (November 2005). Core issues of the conference lie at the intersection of computer science and engineering, information and communication technologies, the world wide web and development. The book contains current and cutting-edge technologies and trends in the utilization of information technology for science and engineering.
Author: Ian Gough
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2007-05-31
Genre: Social Science
In a world where many experience unprecedented levels of wellbeing, chronic poverty remains a major concern for many developing countries and the international community. Conventional frameworks for understanding development and poverty have focused on money, commodities and economic growth. This 2007 book challenges these conventional approaches and contributes to a new paradigm for development centred on human wellbeing. Poor people are not defined solely by their poverty and a wellbeing approach provides a better means of understanding how people become and stay poor. It examines three perspectives: ideas of human functioning, capabilities and needs; the analysis of livelihoods and resource use; and research on subjective wellbeing and happiness. A range of international experts from psychology, economics, anthropology, sociology, political science and development evaluate the state-of-the-art in understanding wellbeing from these perspectives. This book establishes a new strategy and methodology for researching wellbeing that can influence policy.