Author: John L. Bell
Release Date: 2014-02-28
While intuitionistic (or constructive) set theory IST has received a certain attention from mathematical logicians, so far as I am aware no book providing a systematic introduction to the subject has yet been published. This may be the case in part because, as a form of higher-order intuitionistic logic - the internal logic of a topos - IST has been chiefly developed in a tops-theoretic context. In particular, proofs of relative consistency with IST for mathematical assertions have been (implicitly) formulated in topos- or sheaf-theoretic terms, rather than in the framework of Heyting-algebra-valued models, the natural extension to IST of the well-known Boolean-valued models for classical set theory. In this book I offer a brief but systematic introduction to IST which develops the subject up to and including the use of Heyting-algebra-valued models in relative consistency proofs. I believe that IST, presented as it is in the familiar language of set theory, will appeal particularly to those logicians, mathematicians and philosophers who are unacquainted with the methods of topos theory.
In the beginning of 1983, I came across A. Kaufmann's book "Introduction to the theory of fuzzy sets" (Academic Press, New York, 1975). This was my first acquaintance with the fuzzy set theory. Then I tried to introduce a new component (which determines the degree of non-membership) in the definition of these sets and to study the properties of the new objects so defined. I defined ordinary operations as "n", "U", "+" and "." over the new sets, but I had began to look more seriously at them since April 1983, when I defined operators analogous to the modal operators of "necessity" and "possibility". The late George Gargov (7 April 1947 - 9 November 1996) is the "god father" of the sets I introduced - in fact, he has invented the name "intu itionistic fuzzy", motivated by the fact that the law of the excluded middle does not hold for them. Presently, intuitionistic fuzzy sets are an object of intensive research by scholars and scientists from over ten countries. This book is the first attempt for a more comprehensive and complete report on the intuitionistic fuzzy set theory and its more relevant applications in a variety of diverse fields. In this sense, it has also a referential character.
Author: John L. Bell
Publisher: Courier Corporation
Release Date: 2008-01
This text introduces topos theory, a development in category theory that unites important but seemingly diverse notions from algebraic geometry, set theory, and intuitionistic logic. Topics include local set theories, fundamental properties of toposes, sheaves, local-valued sets, and natural and real numbers in local set theories. 1988 edition.
Author: M.J. Beeson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-12-06
This book is about some recent work in a subject usually considered part of "logic" and the" foundations of mathematics", but also having close connec tions with philosophy and computer science. Namely, the creation and study of "formal systems for constructive mathematics". The general organization of the book is described in the" User's Manual" which follows this introduction, and the contents of the book are described in more detail in the introductions to Part One, Part Two, Part Three, and Part Four. This introduction has a different purpose; it is intended to provide the reader with a general view of the subject. This requires, to begin with, an elucidation of both the concepts mentioned in the phrase, "formal systems for constructive mathematics". "Con structive mathematics" refers to mathematics in which, when you prove that l a thing exists (having certain desired properties) you show how to find it. Proof by contradiction is the most common way of proving something exists without showing how to find it - one assumes that nothing exists with the desired properties, and derives a contradiction. It was only in the last two decades of the nineteenth century that mathematicians began to exploit this method of proof in ways that nobody had previously done; that was partly made possible by the creation and development of set theory by Georg Cantor and Richard Dedekind.
Author: Grigori Mints
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2006-04-11
Intuitionistic logic is presented here as part of familiar classical logic which allows mechanical extraction of programs from proofs. to make the material more accessible, basic techniques are presented first for propositional logic; Part II contains extensions to predicate logic. This material provides an introduction and a safe background for reading research literature in logic and computer science as well as advanced monographs. Readers are assumed to be familiar with basic notions of first order logic. One device for making this book short was inventing new proofs of several theorems. The presentation is based on natural deduction. The topics include programming interpretation of intuitionistic logic by simply typed lambda-calculus (Curry-Howard isomorphism), negative translation of classical into intuitionistic logic, normalization of natural deductions, applications to category theory, Kripke models, algebraic and topological semantics, proof-search methods, interpolation theorem. The text developed from materal for several courses taught at Stanford University in 1992-1999.
Foundations of Set Theory discusses the reconstruction undergone by set theory in the hands of Brouwer, Russell, and Zermelo. Only in the axiomatic foundations, however, have there been such extensive, almost revolutionary, developments. This book tries to avoid a detailed discussion of those topics which would have required heavy technical machinery, while describing the major results obtained in their treatment if these results could be stated in relatively non-technical terms. This book comprises five chapters and begins with a discussion of the antinomies that led to the reconstruction of set theory as it was known before. It then moves to the axiomatic foundations of set theory, including a discussion of the basic notions of equality and extensionality and axioms of comprehension and infinity. The next chapters discuss type-theoretical approaches, including the ideal calculus, the theory of types, and Quine's mathematical logic and new foundations; intuitionistic conceptions of mathematics and its constructive character; and metamathematical and semantical approaches, such as the Hilbert program. This book will be of interest to mathematicians, logicians, and statisticians.
Author: Yiannis N. Moschovakis
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
Release Date: 2009-06-30
Descriptive Set Theory is the study of sets in separable, complete metric spaces that can be defined (or constructed), and so can be expected to have special properties not enjoyed by arbitrary pointsets. This subject was started by the French analysts at the turn of the 20th century, most prominently Lebesgue, and, initially, was concerned primarily with establishing regularity properties of Borel and Lebesgue measurable functions, and analytic, coanalytic, and projective sets. Its rapid development came to a halt in the late 1930s, primarily because it bumped against problems which were independent of classical axiomatic set theory. The field became very active again in the 1960s, with the introduction of strong set-theoretic hypotheses and methods from logic (especially recursion theory), which revolutionized it. This monograph develops Descriptive Set Theory systematically, from its classical roots to the modern ``effective'' theory and the consequences of strong (especially determinacy) hypotheses. The book emphasizes the foundations of the subject, and it sets the stage for the dramatic results (established since the 1980s) relating large cardinals and determinacy or allowing applications of Descriptive Set Theory to classical mathematics. The book includes all the necessary background from (advanced) set theory, logic and recursion theory.
This volume contains seventeen essays in the history of modern mathematical logic. The first nine are concerned with the completeness of various logical calculi. The second five essays deal with the completeness of classical first-order predicate logic. One essay deals with the history of Cantor's definition of set, another with the set-theoretical reduction of the concept of relation, and a final essay is devoted to a survey of various meanings of the concept of completeness of formalized deductive theories. The essays were first presented in the national conferences of the Thematic Group for the History of Logic organized by the Department of Logic of the Polish Academy of Sciences in 1966-1971. The Advanced Reasoning Forum is pleased to make available this exact reprint of the original volume first published in 1973 by the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Department of Logic of Jagiellonian University, edited by Stanislaw J. Surma. * * * * The essays are: 1. Emil Post's doctoral dissertation (Stanislaw J. Surma); 2. A historical survey of the significant methods of proving post's theorem about the completeness of the classical propositional calculus (Stanislaw J. Surma); 3. A survey of the results and methods of investigations of the equivalential propositional calculus (Stanislaw J. Surma); 4. A uniform method of proof of the completeness theorem for the equivalential propositional calculus and for some of its extensions (Stanislaw J. Surma); 5. Kolmogorov and Glivenko's papers about intuitionistic logic (Jacek K. Kabzinski); 6. Jaskowski's matrix criterion for the intuitionistic propositional calculus (Stanislaw J. Surma); 7. Axiomatization of the implicational Godel's matrices by Kalmar's method (Andrzej Wronski); 8. A contribution to the history of the investigations into the intermediate propositional calculi (Andrzej Wronski); 9. On Ackermann's rigorous implication (Jan Wolenski); 10. Kurt Godel's doctoral dissertation (Jan Zygmunt); 11. A survey of the methods of proof of the Godel-Malcev's completeness theorem (Jan Zygmunt); 12. The concept of the Lindenbaum algebra: its genesis (Stanislaw J. Surma); 13. On the old and new methods of interpreting quantifiers (Andrzej Wronski); 14. L. Rieger's logical achievement (Wladyslaw Szczech); 15. The development of Cantor's definition of set (Jerzy Perzanowski); 16. On the origins of the set-theoretical concept of relation (Piotr Kossowski); 17. A survey of various concepts of completeness of the deductive theories (Stanislaw J. Surma)."
This book offers a new algebraic approach to set theory. The authors introduce a particular kind of algebra, the Zermelo-Fraenkel algebras, which arise from the familiar axioms of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory. Furthermore, the authors explicitly construct these algebras using the theory of bisimulations. Their approach is completely constructive, and contains both intuitionistic set theory and topos theory. In particular it provides a uniform description of various constructions of the cumulative hierarchy of sets in forcing models, sheaf models and realizability models. Graduate students and researchers in mathematical logic, category theory and computer science should find this book of great interest, and it should be accessible to anyone with a background in categorical logic.
Author: Johan Georg Granström
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2011-06-02
Intuitionistic type theory can be described, somewhat boldly, as a partial fulfillment of the dream of a universal language for science. This book expounds several aspects of intuitionistic type theory, such as the notion of set, reference vs. computation, assumption, and substitution. Moreover, the book includes philosophically relevant sections on the principle of compositionality, lingua characteristica, epistemology, propositional logic, intuitionism, and the law of excluded middle. Ample historical references are given throughout the book.
``Platonism and intuitionism are rival philosophies of Mathematics, the former holding that the subject matter of mathematics consists of abstract objects whose existence is independent of the mathematician, the latter that the subject matter consists of mental construction... both views are implicitly opposed to materialistic accounts of mathematics which take the subject matter of mathematics to consist (in a direct way) of material objects...'' FROM THE INTRODUCTION Among the aims of this book are: - The discussion of some important philosophical issues using the precision of mathematics. - The development of formal systems that contain both classical and constructive components. This allows the study of constructivity in otherwise classical contexts and represents the formalization of important intensional aspects of mathematical practice. - The direct formalization of intensional concepts (such as computability) in a mixed constructive/classical context.