Author: James Baldwin
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
Release Date: 2016-12-05
Genre: Social Science
A study of Islamic law and political power in the Ottoman Empires richest provincial cityWhat did Islamic law mean in the early modern period, a world of great Muslim empires? Often portrayed as the quintessential jurists law, to a large extent it was developed by scholars outside the purview of the state. However, for the Sultans of the Ottoman Empire, justice was the ultimate duty of the monarch, and Islamic law was a tool of legitimation and governance. James E. Baldwin examines how the interplay of these two conceptions of Islamic law religious scholarship and royal justice undergirded legal practice in Cairo, the largest and richest city in the Ottoman provinces. Through detailed studies of the various formal and informal dispute resolution institutions and practices that formed the fabric of law in Ottoman Cairo, his book contributes to key questions concerning the relationship between the shariaa and political power, the plurality of Islamic legal practice, and the nature of centre-periphery relations in the Ottoman Empire.Key featuresOffers a new interpretation of the relationship between Islamic law and political powerPresents law as the key nexus connecting Egypt with the imperial capital Istanbul during the period of Ottoman decentralizationStudies judicial institutions such as the governors Diwan and the imperial council that have received little attention in previous scholarshipIntegrates the study of legal records with an analysis of how legal practice was represented in contemporary chroniclesProvides transcriptions and translations of a range of Ottoman legal documents
Author: Christopher de Bellaigue
Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag
Release Date: 2018-03-21
»Erhellend, großartig geschrieben, ein Buch, das uns hilft, das Verständnis zwischen islamischer Welt und Moderne zu verstehen.« Yuval Noah Harari, Autor von »Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit« Die islamische Aufklärung hat längst stattgefunden. In einer fulminanten Erzählung demontiert Christopher de Bellaigue die oft selbstgefällige westliche Sicht auf die arabische Welt. Auch in Ägypten, im Iran und der Türkei gab es nach 1800 eine breite Bewegung für Freiheit, Gleichheit und Demokratie und für einen weltlichen Staat, für Frauenrechte und Gewerkschaften, freie Presse und die Abschaffung der Sklaverei. In atemberaubender Geschwindigkeit modernisierten sich die arabischen Gesellschaften. Doch die Gegenaufklärung folgte auf dem Fuß, mit autokratischen Regimen und fundamentalistischem Terror. De Bellaigue schildert den Kampf zwischen Glaube und Vernunft und um eine neue muslimische Identität. Eine reiche, überraschende Geschichte, eine radikal neue Sicht auf den modernen Islam. »Eine ausgesprochen originelle und informative Studie über die Zusammenstöße zwischen dem Islam und der Moderne in Istanbul, Kairo und Teheran während der letzten zweihundert Jahre.« Orhan Pamuk »Christopher de Bellaigue gehört seit Langem schon zu den einfallsreichsten und anregendsten Interpreten einiger von Angst und Vorurteil verstellter Realitäten. In ›Die islamische Aufklärung‹ seziert er den selbstgefälligen Gegensatz zwischen Islam und Moderne und enthüllt dabei eine faszinierende Welt: eine Welt, in der Menschen sich unter dem Druck der Geschichte ständig verändern, improvisieren und sich anpassen. Es ist genau das richtige Buch für unsere in Unordnung geratene Welt: zeitgemäß, dringlich und erhellend.« Pankaj Mishra »Zur rechten Zeit, tiefsinnig und provokativ.« Peter Frankopan
Author: Reem A. Meshal
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2014-01
In this book, the author examines sijills, the official documents of the Ottoman Islamic courts, to understand how sharia law, society and the early-modern economy of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Ottoman Cairo related to the practice of custom in determining rulings. In the sixteenth century, a new legal and cultural orthodoxy fostered the development of an early-modern Islam that broke new ground, giving rise to a new concept of the citizen and his role. Contrary to the prevailing scholarly view, this work adopts the position that local custom began to diminish and decline as a source of authority. These issues resonate today, several centuries later, in the continuing discussions of individual rights in relation to Islamic law.
Author: James E.. Baldwin
Release Date: 2010
This dissertation is a study of dispute resolution in Ottoman Cairo during the late 17th and early 18th centuries. When engaged in disputes over property, domestic obligations, anti-social behaviour, insults, thefts and assaults, Cairenes had at their disposal a range of formal and informal dispute resolution institutions and practices. This dissertation is based around detailed studies of these varied forums and practices: shari`a courts, the Ottoman governor's Diwan, the practice of petitioning the Sultan, informal mediation carried out by community elders, and the intervention of military officers and strongmen in disputes. Using a variety of Arabic and Turkish archival materials, including records produced by shari`a courts and the governor's Diwan in Cairo, and the imperial palace in Istanbul, as well as contemporary narrative sources, I examine how Cairenes navigated and exploited this plural legal framework. Throughout the dissertation I pursue two inter-connected arguments, which address key issues in Islamic legal studies and in Ottoman historiography. The first argument concerns the relationship between Islamic law and political power. I show that the political authorities in the Ottoman empire played a far greater role in dispute resolution than historians have recognized. The shari`a courts did not constitute an autonomous judicial sphere. Both the imperial palace in Istanbul and the Ottoman governor of Egypt were intimately involved not only in the organization of Cairo's legal system, but also in the day-to-day administration of justice. This involvement was seen as legitimate, and indeed necessary, by contemporaries. The second argument concerns centre-periphery relations in the Ottoman empire. I suggest that despite the growing power of Egypt's provincial military elite during this period, Cairo remained tightly bound to the imperial centre, and that legal practice was one of the key bonds. Legal institutions in Cairo were in frequent communication with institutions in Istanbul. More importantly, Cairenes of different social strata made extensive use of the legal resources provided by the central Ottoman state. While the imperial government may have struggled to control Egypt's powerful households, the actions of ordinary Cairenes sustained the imperial relationship.
This unparalleled Companion provides a comprehensive and authoritative guide to Islamic law to all with an interest in this increasingly relevant and developing field. The volume presents classical Islamic law through a historiographical introduction to and analysis of Western scholarship, while key debates about hot-button issues in modern-day circumstances are also addressed. In twenty-one chapters, distinguished authors offer an overview of their particular specialty, reflect on past and current thinking, and point to directions for future research. The Companion is divided into four parts. The first offers an introduction to the history of Islamic law as well as a discussion of how Western scholarship and historiography have evolved over time. The second part delves into the substance of Islamic law. Legal rules for the areas of legal status, family law, socio-economic justice, penal law, constitutional authority, and the law of war are all discussed in this section. Part three examines the adaptation of Islamic law in light of colonialism and the modern nation state as well as the subsequent re-Islamization of national legal systems. The final section presents contemporary debates on the role of Islamic law in areas such as finance, the diaspora, modern governance, and medical ethics, and the volume concludes by questioning the role of Sharia law as a legal authority in the modern context. By outlining the history of Islamic law through a linear study of research, this collection is unique in its examination of past and present scholarship and the lessons we can draw from this for the future. It introduces scholars and students to the challenges posed in the past, to the magnitude of milestones that were achieved in the reinterpretation and revision of established ideas, and ultimately to a thorough conceptual understanding of Islamic law.
Wem gehört der Holocaust? Maurice Messer erkennt ein gutes Produkt, wenn es vor ihm steht – und seien wir doch mal ehrlich: Wann schlagen Spenderherzen höher als bei dem Wort »Holocaust«? Doch Maurice ist nicht der Einzige, der in den Geldtöpfen der Gedenkindustrie fischen will ... Eine intelligente, beißende Satire über die Vermarktung menschlichen Leidens, zum Schreien komisch und zugleich erschreckend realistisch.
Author: Madeline C. Zilfi
Release Date: 1997
Genre: Social Science
This collection of articles by 14 Middle East historians is a pathbreaking work in the history of Middle Eastern women prior to the contemporary era. The collection seeks to begin the task of reconstructing the history of (Muslim) women's experience in the middle centuries of the Ottoman era, between the mid-seventeenth century and the early nineteenth, prior to hegemonic European involvement in the region and prior to the "modernizing reforms' inaugurated by the Ottoman regime.
Author: Wael B. Hallaq
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Release Date: 2012-11-20
Genre: Political Science
Wael B. Hallaq boldly argues that the "Islamic state," judged by any standard definition of what the modern state represents, is both impossible and inherently self-contradictory. Comparing the legal, political, moral, and constitutional histories of premodern Islam and Euro-America, he finds the adoption and practice of the modern state to be highly problematic for modern Muslims. He also critiques more expansively modernity's moral predicament, which renders impossible any project resting solely on ethical foundations. The modern state not only suffers from serious legal, political, and constitutional issues, Hallaq argues, but also, by its very nature, fashions a subject inconsistent with what it means to be, or to live as, a Muslim. By Islamic standards, the state's technologies of the self are severely lacking in moral substance, and today's Islamic state, as Hallaq shows, has done little to advance an acceptable form of genuine Shari'a governance. The Islamists' constitutional battles in Egypt and Pakistan, the Islamic legal and political failures of the Iranian Revolution, and similar disappointments underscore this fact. Nevertheless, the state remains the favored template of the Islamists and the ulama (Muslim clergymen). Providing Muslims with a path toward realizing the good life, Hallaq turns to the rich moral resources of Islamic history. Along the way, he proves political and other "crises of Islam" are not unique to the Islamic world nor to the Muslim religion. These crises are integral to the modern condition of both East and West, and by acknowledging these parallels, Muslims can engage more productively with their Western counterparts.
Author: Richard A. Debs
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Release Date: 2010-07-28
Richard A. Debs analyzes the classical Islamic law of property based on the Shari'ah, traces its historic development in Egypt, and describes its integration as a source of law within the modern format of a civil code. He focuses specifically on Egypt, a country in the Islamic world that drew upon its society's own vigorous legal system as it formed its modern laws. He also touches on issues that are common to all such societies that have adopted, either by choice or by necessity, Western legal systems. Egypt's unique synthesis of Western and traditional elements is the outcome of an effort to respond to national goals and requirements. Its traditional law, the Shari'ah, is the fundamental law of all Islamic societies, and Debs's analysis of Egypt's experience demonstrates how Islamic jurisprudence can be sophisticated, coherent, rational, and effective, developed over centuries to serve the needs of societies that flourished under the rule of law.
Author: Martin Meredith
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
Release Date: 2014-09-11
In this vast and vivid panorama of history, Martin Meredith, bestselling author of The State of Africa, follows the fortunes of Africa over a period of 5,000 years. With compelling narrative, he traces the rise and fall of ancient kingdoms and empires; the spread of Christianity and Islam; the enduring quest for gold and other riches; the exploits of explorers and missionaries; and the impact of European colonisation. He examines, too, the fate of modern African states and concludes with a glimpse into their future. This is history on an epic scale.