An ideal text for undergraduate courses, this volume takes an axiomatic approach that covers relations between the basic theorems, conics, coordinate systems and linear transformations, quadric surfaces, and the Jordan canonical form. 1962 edition.
Author: Michael Hallett
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2004-05-17
This volume contains six sets of notes for lectures on the foundations of geometry held by Hilbert in the period 1891-1902. It also reprints the first edition of Hilbert’s celebrated Grundlagen der Geometrie of 1899, together with the important additions which appeared first in the French translation of 1900. The lectures document the emergence of a new approach to foundational study and contain many reflections and investigations which never found their way into print.
Author: Felix Klein
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
Release Date: 1894
In the late summer of 1893, following the Congress of Mathematicians held in Chicago, Felix Klein gave two weeks of lectures on the current state of mathematics. Rather than offering a universal perspective, Klein presented his personal view of the most important topics of the time. It is remarkable how most of the topics continue to be important today. Originally published in 1893 and reissued by the AMS in 1911, we are pleased to bring this work into print once more with this new edition. Klein begins by highlighting the works of Clebsch and of Lie. In particular, he discusses Clebsch's work on Abelian functions and compares his approach to the theory with Riemann's more geometrical point of view. Klein devotes two lectures to Sophus Lie, focussing on his contributions to geometry, including sphere geometry and contact geometry. Klein's ability to connect different mathematical disciplines clearly comes through in his lectures on mathematical developments. For instance, he discusses recent progress in non-Euclidean geometry by emphasizing the connections to projective geometry and the role of transformation groups. In his descriptions of analytic function theory and of recent work in hyperelliptic and Abelian functions, Klein is guided by Riemann's geometric point of view. He discusses Galois theory and solutions of algebraic equations of degree five or higher by reducing them to normal forms that might be solved by non-algebraic means. Thus, as discovered by Hermite and Kronecker, the quintic can be solved "by elliptic functions". This also leads to Klein's well-known work connecting the quintic to the group of the icosahedron. Klein expounds on the roles of intuition and logical thinking in mathematics. He reflects on the influence of physics and the physical world on mathematics and, conversely, on the influence of mathematics on physics and the other natural sciences. The discussion is strikingly similar to today's discussions about ``physical mathematics''. There are a few other topics covered in the lectures which are somewhat removed from Klein's own work. For example, he discusses Hilbert's proof of the transcendence of certain types of numbers (including $\pi$ and $e$), which Klein finds much simpler than the methods used by Lindemann to show the transcendence of $\pi$. Also, Klein uses the example of quadratic forms (and forms of higher degree) to explain the need for a theory of ideals as developed by Kummer. Klein's look at mathematics at the end of the 19th Century remains compelling today, both as history and as mathematics. It is delightful and fascinating to observe from a one-hundred year retrospect, the musings of one of the masters of an earlier era.
Author: Mauro Beltrametti
Publisher: European Mathematical Society
Release Date: 2009-01-01
This book offers a wide-ranging introduction to algebraic geometry along classical lines. It consists of lectures on topics in classical algebraic geometry, including the basic properties of projective algebraic varieties, linear systems of hypersurfaces, algebraic curves (with special emphasis on rational curves), linear series on algebraic curves, Cremona transformations, rational surfaces, and notable examples of special varieties like the Segre, Grassmann, and Veronese varieties. An integral part and special feature of the presentation is the inclusion of many exercises, not easy to find in the literature and almost all with complete solutions. The text is aimed at students of the last two years of an undergraduate program in mathematics. It contains some rather advanced topics suitable for specialized courses on the advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate level, as well as interesting topics for a senior thesis. The prerequisites have been deliberately limited to basic elements of projective geometry and abstract algebra. Thus, for example, some knowledge of the geometry of subspaces and properties of fields is assumed. The book will be welcomed by teachers and students of algebraic geometry who are seeking a clear and panoramic path leading from the basic facts about linear subspaces, conics and quadrics to a systematic discussion of classical algebraic varieties and the tools needed to study them. The text provides a solid foundation for approaching more advanced and abstract literature.
Author: Lucian Silvestru Badescu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2004-10-25
The aim of this monograph is to introduce the reader to modern methods of projective geometry involving certain techniques of formal geometry. Some of these methods are illustrated in the first part through the proofs of a number of results of a rather classical flavor, involving in a crucial way the first infinitesimal neighbourhood of a given subvariety in an ambient variety. Motivated by the first part, in the second formal functions on the formal completion X/Y of X along a closed subvariety Y are studied, particularly the extension problem of formal functions to rational functions. The formal scheme X/Y, introduced to algebraic geometry by Zariski and Grothendieck in the 1950s, is an analogue of the concept of a tubular neighbourhood of a submanifold of a complex manifold. It is very well suited to study the given embedding Y\subset X. The deep relationship of formal geometry with the most important connectivity theorems in algebraic geometry, or with complex geometry, is also studied. Some of the formal methods are illustrated and applied to homogeneous spaces. The book contains a lot of results obtained over the last thirty years, many of which never appeared in a monograph or textbook. It addresses to algebraic geometers as well as to those interested in using methods of algebraic geometry.
This book is a timely survey of much of the algebra developed during the last several centuries including its applications to algebraic geometry and its potential use in geometric modeling. The present volume makes an ideal textbook for an abstract algebra course, while the forthcoming sequel. Lectures on Algebra II, will serve as a textbook for a linear algebra course. The author's fondness for algebraic geometry shows up in both volumes, and his recent preoccupation with the applications of group theory to the calculation of Galois groups is evident in the second volume which contains more local rings and more algebraic geometry. Both books are based on the author's lectures at Purdue University over the last few years.