Legacies and Change in Polar Sciences

Author: Jessica M. Shadian
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781317106487
Release Date: 2016-04-22
Genre: Political Science

Providing case study analyses of the politics of science in and around the International Polar Year of 2007-2008, this volume makes a distinct contribution to ongoing research focusing on the relationship between science, international politics, law and history. The contributors combine both interdisciplinary and multi-theoretical approaches to engage directly with the most recent debates in international relations scholarship, to include discussions of arctic climate change, governance issues, reflections on the Antarctic Treaty and the science-geopolitics interface amongst others. This is the first comprehensive account to look explicitly at the relationship between global politics and science through an account of the International Polar Years.

Lessons and Legacies of the International Polar Year 2007 2008

Author: Committee on the Legacies and Lessons of International Polar Year 2007-2008
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309252034
Release Date: 2012-08-08
Genre: Nature

International Polar Year 2007-2008 (IPY) was an intense, coordinated field campaign of observations, research, and analysis. It was the largest, most comprehensive campaign ever mounted to explore Earth's polar domains. Legacies and Lessons of the International Polar Year 2007-2008 summarizes how IPY engaged the public to communicate the relevance of polar research to the entire planet, strengthened connections with the Indigenous people of the Arctic, and established new observational networks. Legacies and Lessons of the International Polar Year 2007-2008 also addresses the objectives articulated for IPY in the 2004 National Research Council report, A Vision for International Polar Year (NRC, 2004). These objectives include: suggestions for scientific communities and agencies to use the IPY to initiate a sustained effort aimed at assessing large-scale environmental change and variability in the polar regions, the need to explore new scientific frontiers from the molecular to the planetary scale, investment in critical infrastructure and technology to guarantee that IPY 2007-2008 leaves enduring benefits for the nation and for the residents of northern regions, as well as increase public understanding of the importance of polar regions in the global system. Legacies and Lessons of the International Polar Year 2007-2008 explains how activities at both poles led to scientific discoveries that provided a step change in scientific understanding and helped translate scientific knowledge into policy-relevant information. At a time when the polar regions are undergoing a transformation from an icy wilderness to a new zone for human affairs, these insights could not be more timely or more relevant. From outreach activities that engaged the general public to projects that brought researchers from multiple disciplines and several nations together, the legacies of IPY extend far beyond the scientific results achieved, and valuable lessons learned from the process will guide future endeavors of similar magnitude.

Science Geopolitics and Culture in the Polar Region

Author: Professor Sverker Sörlin
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 9781472409713
Release Date: 2013-10-28
Genre: History

Throughout the twentieth century, glaciologists and geophysicists from Denmark, Norway and Sweden made important scientific contributions across the Arctic and Antarctic. This research was of acute security and policy interest during the Cold War, as knowledge of the polar regions assumed military importance. But scientists also helped make the polar regions Nordic spaces in a cultural and political sense, with scientists from Norden punching far above their weight in terms of population, geographical size or economic activity. This volume presents an image of Norden that stretches far beyond its conventional limits, covering a vast area in the North Atlantic and the Arctic Sea, as well as parts of Antarctica. Rich in resources, scarce in population, but critically important in global and regional geopolitics, these spaces were contested by major powers such as Russia, the United States, Canada and, in the Antarctic, Argentina, Australia, South Africa and others. The empirical focus on Danish, Norwegian and Swedish influence in the polar regions during the twentieth century embraces a diverse array of themes, from the role of science in policy and diplomacy to the tensions between nationalism and internationalism, with clear relevance to the important role science plays in contemporary discussions about Nordic engagement with the polar regions.

Antarctic Security in the Twenty First Century

Author: Alan D. Hemmings
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781136324758
Release Date: 2012-11-27
Genre: Law

The Antarctic Treaty (1959) was adopted for the purpose of bringing peace and stability to Antarctica and to facilitate cooperation in scientific research conducted on and around the continent. It has now been over fifty years since the signing of the treaty, nevertheless security continues to drive and shape the laws and policy regime which governs the region. Antarctic Security in the Twenty-First Century: Legal and Policy Perspectives assess Antarctic security from multiple legal and policy perspectives. This book reviews the existing security construct in Antarctica, critically assesses its status in the early part of the Twenty-First century and considers how Antarctic security may be viewed in both the immediate and distant future. The book assesses emerging new security threats, including the impact of climate change and the issues arising from increased human traffic to Antarctica by scientists, tourists, and mariners. The authors call into question whether the existing Antarctic security construct framed around the Antarctic Treaty remains viable, or whether new Antarctic paradigms are necessary for the future governance of the region. The contributions to this volume engage with a security discourse which has expanded beyond the traditional military domain to include notions of security from the perspective of economics, the environment and bio-security. This book provides a contemporary and innovative approach to Antarctic issues which will be of interest to scholars of international law, international relations, security studies and political science as well as policy makers, lawyers and government officials with an interest in the region.

Arctic Matters

Author: Polar Research Board
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309371612
Release Date: 2014-04-13
Genre: Nature

Viewed in satellite images as a jagged white coat draped over the top of the globe, the high Arctic appears distant and isolated. But even if you don't live there, don't do business there, and will never travel there, you are closer to the Arctic than you think. Arctic Matters: The Global Connection to Changes in the Arctic is a new educational resource produced by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council (NRC). It draws upon a large collection of peer-reviewed NRC reports and other national and international reports to provide a brief, reader-friendly primer on the complex ways in which the changes currently affecting the Arctic and its diverse people, resources, and environment can, in turn, affect the entire globe. Topics in the booklet include how climate changes currently underway in the Arctic are a driver for global sea-level rise, offer new prospects for natural resource extraction, and have rippling effects through the world's weather, climate, food supply and economy.

Planning for the International Polar Year 2007 2008

Author: Committee on International Polar Year 2007-2008: Report of the Implementation Workshop
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309094375
Release Date: 2005-01-04
Genre: Nature

The International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2008 will be an internationally coordinated campaign of polar observations, research, and analysis that will further our understanding of physical and social processes in the polar regions, examine their globally-connected role in the climate system, and establish research infrastructure for the future. Within this context, the IPY will galvanize new and innovative observations and research while at the same time building on and enhancing existing relevant initiatives. It also will serve as a mechanism to attract and develop a new generation of scientists and engineers with the versatility to tackle complex global issues. In 2004, the National Academies' Polar Research Board organized a workshop to explore the challenges associated with these initiatives. Planning for the International Polar Year 2007-2008 summarizes the presentations and discussions from this workshop.

Northern Exposure

Author: Frances Abele
Publisher: McGill Queens Univ
ISBN: UOM:39015080882338
Release Date: 2009
Genre: Political Science

"The result of a wide-ranging IRPP research program, this multidisciplinary volume explores the following themes: Canada in the circumpolar world - environmental, scientific and foreign-policy dimensions; First Nations, Inuit and public governance; economic development - enterprise, sustainable development and communities; sustaining people - education and human capital; and developing a northern policy for the future. Public policy specialists review the implications of the unprecedented changes in governance that have taken place in the three territories and in Aboriginal communities in northern Quebec and Labrador over the past three decades and analyze challenges that must be faced in order to strengthen economic development and quality of life for northern residents. Contributions from Inuit and First Nations leaders, former territorial premiers, and Aboriginal youth activists add further depth and perspective."--Pub. desc.

The Arctic in the Anthropocene

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309301862
Release Date: 2014-07-31
Genre: Nature

Once ice-bound, difficult to access, and largely ignored by the rest of the world, the Arctic is now front and center in the midst of many important questions facing the world today. Our daily weather, what we eat, and coastal flooding are all interconnected with the future of the Arctic. The year 2012 was an astounding year for Arctic change. The summer sea ice volume smashed previous records, losing approximately 75 percent of its value since 1980 and half of its areal coverage. Multiple records were also broken when 97 percent of Greenland's surface experienced melt conditions in 2012, the largest melt extent in the satellite era. Receding ice caps in Arctic Canada are now exposing land surfaces that have been continuously ice covered for more than 40,000 years. What happens in the Arctic has far-reaching implications around the world. Loss of snow and ice exacerbates climate change and is the largest contributor to expected global sea level rise during the next century. Ten percent of the world's fish catches comes from Arctic and sub-Arctic waters. The U.S. Geological Survey estimated that up to 13 percent of the world's remaining oil reserves are in the Arctic. The geologic history of the Arctic may hold vital clues about massive volcanic eruptions and the consequent release of massive amount of coal fly ash that is thought to have caused mass extinctions in the distant past. How will these changes affect the rest of Earth? What research should we invest in to best understand this previously hidden land, manage impacts of change on Arctic communities, and cooperate with researchers from other nations? The Arctic in the Anthropocene reviews research questions previously identified by Arctic researchers, and then highlights the new questions that have emerged in the wake of and expectation of further rapid Arctic change, as well as new capabilities to address them. This report is meant to guide future directions in U.S. Arctic research so that research is targeted on critical scientific and societal questions and conducted as effectively as possible. The Arctic in the Anthropocene identifies both a disciplinary and a cross-cutting research strategy for the next 10 to 20 years, and evaluates infrastructure needs and collaboration opportunities. The climate, biology, and society in the Arctic are changing in rapid, complex, and interactive ways. Understanding the Arctic system has never been more critical; thus, Arctic research has never been more important. This report will be a resource for institutions, funders, policy makers, and students. Written in an engaging style, The Arctic in the Anthropocene paints a picture of one of the last unknown places on this planet, and communicates the excitement and importance of the discoveries and challenges that lie ahead.

Brave New Arctic

Author: Mark C. Serreze
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400890255
Release Date: 2018-04-10
Genre: Science

An insider account of how researchers unraveled the mystery of the thawing Arctic In the 1990s, researchers in the Arctic noticed that floating summer sea ice had begun receding. This was accompanied by shifts in ocean circulation and unexpected changes in weather patterns throughout the world. The Arctic's perennially frozen ground, known as permafrost, was warming, and treeless tundra was being overtaken by shrubs. What was going on? Brave New Arctic is Mark Serreze's riveting firsthand account of how scientists from around the globe came together to find answers. In a sweeping tale of discovery spanning three decades, Serreze describes how puzzlement turned to concern and astonishment as researchers came to understand that the Arctic of old was quickly disappearing--with potentially devastating implications for the entire planet. Serreze is a world-renowned Arctic geographer and climatologist who has conducted fieldwork on ice caps, glaciers, sea ice, and tundra in the Canadian and Alaskan Arctic. In this must-read book, he blends invaluable insights from his own career with those of other pioneering scientists who, together, ushered in an exciting new age of Arctic exploration. Along the way, he accessibly describes the cutting-edge science that led to the alarming conclusion that the Arctic is rapidly thawing due to climate change, that humans are to blame, and that the global consequences are immense. A gripping scientific adventure story, Brave New Arctic shows how the Arctic's extraordinary transformation serves as a harbinger of things to come if we fail to meet the challenge posed by a warming Earth.

Antarctica

Author: U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309178096
Release Date: 2008-04-18
Genre: Science

Antarctica is the center from which all surrounding continental bodies separated millions of years ago. Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing World, reinforces the importance of continual changes in the country's history and the impact of these changes on global systems. The book also places emphasis on deciphering the climate records in ice cores, geologic cores, rock outcrops and those inferred from climate models. New technologies for the coming decades of geoscience data collection are also highlighted. Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing World is a collection of papers that were presented by keynote speakers at the 10th International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences. It is of interest to policy makers, researchers and scientific institutions.

The Arctic in Global Affairs

Author: Rob Huebert
Publisher: Bloomsbury Academic
ISBN: 1441184546
Release Date: 2013-01
Genre: Political Science

The Arctic in Global Affairs examines the forces that are transforming the Arctic region and related issues of governance, resource development, trade, environmental policies, and international cooperation. Globalization and climate change are having a great impact on the physical and political properties the region. From changes at the local community level to possible new trade routes, the political constitution of the Arctic as a region in global politics is undergoing a major shift. Since the Arctic is largely considered as terra nullius, much of the debates center on who owns the Arctic and who should decide. It is not yet clear whether it will become a region of peace and cooperation or one of increased competition and conflict. The Arctic in Global Affairs is a comprehensive text that will appeal to anyone researching Arctic politics and international politics. It provides a unique case study to help understand the nature of global change and promote new concepts in international relations theory.

Martha Muse Prize for Science and Policy in Antarctica

Author: Polar Research Board
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309120814
Release Date: 2008-07-03
Genre: Science

International Polar Year (IPY) 2007--2008 is an intense, coordinated field campaign of polar observations, research, and analysis. It is one of the largest collaborative science programs ever attempted, involving more than 200 projects and people from more than 60 nations. In honor of its long-time leader, Ms. Martha Twitchell Muse, and to provide a lasting legacy of IPY, the Tinker Foundation is establishing an annual, prestigious prize: the Martha Muse IPY Prize for Science and Policy in Antarctica This $100,000 unrestricted prize will be awarded following a nominations process similar to that of the National Medal of Science, meaning that people are nominated by others in the community. The goal is to provide recognition of the individual's outstanding and important work and to call attention to the importance of understanding Antarctica in this time of global climate change. This book outlines the strategy and steps necessary to take the Martha Muse Prize from concept to implementation. It describes the prize's purpose and nature, the system that could be used to announce the prize and collect nominations, potential procedures to be used by the Selection Committee, and possible post-award activities.

Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World

Author: Committee on the Assessment of U.S. Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Roles and Future Needs
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309665315
Release Date: 2007-02-28
Genre: Political Science

The United States has enduring national and strategic interests in the polar regions, including citizens living above the Arctic circle and three year-round scientific stations in the Antarctic. Polar icebreaking ships are needed to access both regions. Over the past several decades, the U.S. government has supported a fleet of four icebreakers -- three multi-mission U.S. Coast Guard ships (the POLAR SEA, POLAR STAR, and HEALY) and the National Science Foundation’s PALMER, which is dedicated solely to scientific research. Today, the POLAR STAR and the POLAR SEA are at the end of their service lives, and a lack of funds and no plans for an extension of the program has put U.S. icebreaking capability at risk. This report concludes that the United States should continue to support its interests in the Arctic and Antarctic for multiple missions, including maintaining leadership in polar science. The report recommends that the United States immediately program, budget, design, and construct two new polar icebreakers to be operated by the U.S. Coast Guard. The POLAR SEA should remain mission capable and the POLAR STAR should remain available for reactivation until the new polar icebreakers enter service. The U.S. Coast Guard should be provided sufficient operations and maintenance budget to support an increased, regular, and influential presence in the Arctic, with support from other agencies. The report also calls for a Presidential Decision Directive to clearly align agency responsibilities and budgetary authorities.

Bulletin

Author:
Publisher:
ISBN: UCR:31210023954983
Release Date: 2014
Genre: Meteorology


Melting Away

Author: Camille Seaman
Publisher: Chronicle Books
ISBN: 9781616893811
Release Date: 2014-12-02
Genre: Photography

For ten years Camille Seaman has documented the rapidly changing landscapes of Earth's polar regions. As an expedition photographer aboard small ships in the Arctic and Antarctic, she has chronicled the accelerating effects of global warming on the jagged face of nearly fifty thousand icebergs. Seaman's unique perspective of the landscape is entwined with her Native American upbringing: she sees no two icebergs as alike; each responds to its environment uniquely, almost as if they were living beings. Through Seaman's lens, each towering chunk of ice—breathtakingly beautiful in layers of smoky gray and turquoise blue—takes on a distinct personality, giving her work the feel of majestic portraiture. Melting Away collects seventy-five of Seaman's most captivating photographs, lifeaffirming images that reveal not only what we have already lost, but more importantly what we still have that is worth fighting to save.