This is a new and greatly revised edition of Professor Chandrasekhar's classic book Liquid Crystals, first published in 1977. The subject of liquid crystals has grown into an exciting interdisciplinary research field with important practical applications. This book presents a systematic and self-contained treatment of the physics of the different types of thermotropic liquid crystals - the three classical types, nematic, cholesteric and smectic, and the newly discovered discotic type. Included is a description of the structures of these four main types and their polymorphic modifications, their thermodynamical, optical and mechanical properties and their behaviour under external fields. The basic principles underlying the major applications of liquid crystals in display technology and in thermography are also discussed. This book will be of great value to advanced students and researchers in condensed matter physics, chemical physics, materials science and technology with an interest in the physics, chemistry and applications of liquid crystals.
Author: P. G. de Gennes
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 1995-04-27
The original edition was immediately recognized as a classic of condensed matter physics. This new edition covers the main properties of nematics, cholesterics, and smectics and columnar phases, particularly the symmetry and the mechanical and optical characteristics of each phase. The latter includes some applications to display systems. The emphasis on order-of-magnitude considerations should make it accessible to researchers and graduate students alike.
Liquid crystals are partially ordered systems without a rigid, long-range structure. The study of these materials covers a wide area: chemical structure, physical properties and technical applications. Due to their dual nature -- anisotropic physical properties of solids and rheological behavior of liquids -- and easy response to externally applied electric, magnetic, optical and surface fields liquid crystals are of greatest potential for scientific and technological applications. The subject has come of age and has achieved the status of being a very exciting interdisciplinary field of scientific and industrial research. This book is an outgrowth of the enormous advances made during the last three decades in both our understanding of liquid crystals and our ability to use them in applications. It presents a systematic, self-contained and up-to-date overview of the structure and properties of liquid crystals. It will be of great value to graduates and research workers in condensed matter physics, chemical physics, biology, materials science, chemical and electrical engineering, and technology from a materials science and physics viewpoint of liquid crystals.
Author: Peter J. Collings
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2017-09-06
This text relies on only introductory level physics and chemistry as the foundation for understanding liquid crystal science. Liquid crystals combine the material properties of solids with the flow properties of fluids. As such they have provided the foundation for a revolution in low- power, flat-panel display technology LCDs. In this book, the essential elements of liquid crystal science are introduced and explained from the perspectives of both the chemist and the physicist.; The text begins with an historical account of the discovery of liquid crystals and continues with a description of how different phases are generated and how different molecular architectures affect liquid crystalline properties. The rest of the book is concerned with understanding and explaining the properties of the various types of liquid crystals, and in the final part of the book, the technology of LCDs is discussed and illustrated.
Author: Horst Stegemeyer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2013-03-14
In 1959, about 1400 compounds forming liquid crystalline phases were known; by 1992, this number had increased to about 50 000. In portable devices like wristwatches, pocket caculators, measuring instruments, and laptop computers the liquid crystal display technology has gained total acceptance and is on the way to encompass the market of colour TV screens. This development makes a volume devoted to liquid crystals in the series Topics in Physical Chemistry desirable. Following the concept of this series, an easy introduction to liquid crystals is given, enabling the reader to understand the basic problems of liquid crystals research and application. Because of the widespread field of different research activities in liquid crystals and applications, various competent authors have been involved in writing chapters on: - Phase types, structures, and chemistry of liquid crystals; - Thermodynamical behavior and physical properties of thermotropic liquid crystals; - Liquid crystalline polymers; - Lyotropic liquid crystals; - Application of liquid crystals in spectroscopy; - Application of liquid crystals in display technology.
Author: Iam-Choon Khoo
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2007-03-30
Genre: Technology & Engineering
The fundamental science and latest applications of liquid crystal technologies An excellent professional reference and superior upper-level student text, Liquid Crystals, Second Edition is a comprehensive treatment of all the basic principles underlying the unique physical and optical properties of liquid crystals. Written by an internationally known pioneer in the nonlinear optics of liquid crystals, the book also provides a unique, in-depth discussion of the mechanisms and theoretical principles behind all major nonlinear optical phenomena occurring in liquid crystals. Fully revised and updated with the latest developments, this Second Edition covers: Basic physics and optical properties of liquid crystals Nematics, as well as other mesophases such as smectics, ferroelectrics, and cholesterics Fundamentals of liquid crystals for electro-optics, and display and non-display related applications Various theoretical and computational techniques used in describing optical propagation through liquid crystals and anisotropic materials Nonlinear optics of liquid crystals, including updated literature reviews and fundamental discussions Structured to follow a natural sequence of instruction, from basic physics to the latest specialized optical, electro-optical, and nonlinear applications, Liquid Crystals is a textbook that grounds students in the fundamentals before introducing them to the most current discoveries in the field. Written in a clear, reader-friendly style, it features numerous figures, tables, and illustrations, including important and hard-to-find device and material parameters. Invaluable to students, researchers, and those working with liquid crystal applications in various industries, Liquid Crystals, Second Edition is the most comprehensive and up-to-date resource available.
This book is a collection of 13 articles, written by experts, on different aspects of the physics and applications of liquid crystals. In addition to giving self-contained review articles with good bibliography, the authors have discussed the anticipated or highly important and desirable breakthroughs in the near future in their respective fields. The book should provide readers with a good starting point, insight, and an indicator of what current important problems are. Good researchers should benefit in fine tuning their efforts to test the ideas put forward by the authors.
This book reviews comprehensively the technological, scientific, artistic and medical applications of liquid crystals. It starts with the basics of liquid crystals and covers electro-optical, thermo-optical, colour, polymeric, lyotropic, and scientific applications of liquid crystalline materials. It discusses the fabrication and operational principles of a full range of liquid crystal displays including dynamic scattering, twisted nematic, supertwisted nematic, dichroic, smectic A, ferroelectric, polymer dispersed, light valve, active matrix, etc., in detail. It also covers the emerging applications of liquid crystals such as optical computing, nonlinear optics, decorative and visual arts. The detailed chapters on classification, theory, chemical structure, physical properties and surface alignment of liquid crystals facilitate the basic understanding of the science behind LCDs and other uses of liquid crystals. The chapters on liquid crystal polymers and lyotropic liquid crystals, give deep insight into these areas. The potential uses and applications are also described in detail.
Liquid Crystals & Biological Structures covers analogies between biological structures and behavior of living cells to liquid crystalline structures and their behavior. It emphasizes that the physical state of the matter involved in life processes is to a great extent liquid crystalline. The first chapters discuss the physical, chemical, structural, and optical properties of liquid crystals, as well as the structure of the principal molecules associated with life systems. The core chapters cover selected cellular structures exhibiting liquid crystalline behavior to emphasize the nature of various cellular membranes, from the cell membranes to the receptors and effectors. The book also considers differentiated organelles of the cell that are specialized for photoreception, including chloroplasts for photosynthesis, the retinal photoreceptors of the eye, and the rods and cones for visual excitation. This book is suited for students and bioscientists who are interested in the potential of the liquid crystalline state in exploring a variety of biological phenomena.
Author: Gregory Philip Crawford
Publisher: World Scientific
Release Date: 2007
Genre: Biomedical engineering
The confluence of the fields of liquid crystals and biomedical engineering is resulting in remarkable interdisciplinary research. This book focuses on the potential for inherently translational research in one field of engineering to radically alter the scope of another. The text reviews the exciting advances being made in displays, spectroscopy, sensors and diagnostics, biomimicking, actuators and lasers with regards to liquid crystalline materials, and biomedicine. The liquid crystal field OCo which has delivered revolutionary devices in the display, optics, and telecommunications industries OCo is now poised to make significant inroads into biology, medicine, and biomedical engineering."
Author: Carsten Tschierske
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-01-24
Fluorinated Liquid Crystals: Design of Soft Nanostructures and Increased Complexity of Self-Assembly by Perfluorinated Segments, by Carsten Tschierske Liquid Crystalline Crown Ethers, by Martin Kaller and Sabine Laschat Star-Shaped Mesogens – Hekates: The Most Basic Star Structure with Three Branches, by Matthias Lehmann DNA-Based Soft Phases, by Tommaso Bellini, Roberto Cerbino and Giuliano Zanchetta Polar and Apolar Columnar Phases Made of Bent-Core Mesogens, by N. Vaupotič, D. Pociecha and E. Gorecka Spontaneous Achiral Symmetry Breaking in Liquid Crystalline Phases, by H. Takezoe Nanoparticles in Liquid Crystals and Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles, by Oana Stamatoiu, Javad Mirzaei, Xiang Feng and Torsten Hegmann Stimuli-Responsive Photoluminescent Liquid Crystals, by Shogo Yamane, Kana Tanabe, Yoshimitsu Sagara and Takashi Kato
Originally published in 2001, this book describes in detail various experimental techniques used in the study of liquid crystals. It will be indispensable for established workers in the field as well as students embarking on liquid crystal research. Each chapter in the book is dedicated to an important experimental technique used in the study and characterisation of liquid crystalline systems. Use of these techniques on liquid crystals requires modifications of traditional experiments, special sample handling and a fresh a approach to data analysis. In addition, general routes used to synthesise liquid crystals and tools to characterise liquid crystal phases are described. Attempts are also made to show structure property relationships for well known systems. This book will be of particular interest to graduate students in physics and chemistry as well as established researchers in the fields of liquid crystals and soft condensed matter.
Author: Lev M. Blinov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2010-10-26
This book by Lev M. Blinov is ideal to guide researchers from their very first encounter with liquid crystals to the level where they can perform independent experiments on liquid crystals with a thorough understanding of their behaviour also in relation to the theoretical framework. Liquid crystals can be found everywhere around us. They are used in virtually every display device, whether it is for domestic appliances of for specialized technological instruments. Their finely tunable optical properties make them suitable also for thermo-sensing and laser technologies. There are many monographs written by prominent scholars on the subject of liquid crystals. The majority of them presents the subject in great depth, sometimes focusing on a particular research aspect, and in general they require a significant level of prior knowledge. In contrast, this books aims at an audience of advanced undergraduate and graduate students in physics, chemistry and materials science. The book consists of three parts: the first part, on structure, starts from the fundamental principles underlying the structure of liquid crystals, their rich phase behaviour and the methods used to study them; the second part, on physical properties, emphasizes the influence of anisotropy on all aspects of liquid crystals behaviour; the third, focuses on electro-optics, the most important properties from the applications standpoint. This part covers only the main effects and illustrates the underlying principles in greater detail. Professor Lev M. Blinov has had a long carrier as an experimentalist. He made major contributions in the field of ferroelectric mesophases. In 1985 he received the USSR state prize for investigations of electro-optical effects in liquid crystals for spatial light modulators. In 1999 he was awarded the Frederiks medal of the Soviet Liquid Crystal Society and in 2000 he was honoured with the G. Gray silver medal of the British Liquid Crystal Society. He has held many visiting academic positions in universities and laboratories across Europe and in Japan.
Author: G. W. Gray
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Inc
Release Date: 1987-08-26
Since the early 1970s, thermotropic liquid crystals have played a central role in molecular electronics and display devices. The discovery of liquid crystal polymers has lead to the development of high tensile strength fibres, and new liquid crystal technologies hold promise for advances in several other areas, such as large area displays for word processors, computer terminals, and temperature-sensing devices. This volume is designed to encourage collaboration among physicists, organic chemists, electronic engineers, and other specialists in the physical sciences in order to facilitate research and development in this field. It provides thorough coverage of the subject by experts in various areas, including detailed treatments of the structure and organization in various liquid crystal phases; the relations between their strongly anisotropic properties and molecular structure; and clear insights into their applications and the underlying physics involved in each. Each chapter begins by examining fundamental concepts, introducing newcomers in the field to the associated terminology and providing a basic understanding of its multidisciplinary nature.
Essentially there are two variational theories of liquid crystals explained in this book. The theory put forward by Zocher, Oseen and Frank is classical, while that proposed by Ericksen is newer in its mathematical formulation although it has been postulated in the physical literature for the past two decades. The newer theory provides a better explanation of defects in liquid crystals, especially of those concentrated on lines and surfaces, which escape the scope of the classical theory. The book opens the way to the wealth of applications that will follow.