Lively Capital

Author: Kaushik Sunder Rajan
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 9780822348313
Release Date: 2012-04-02
Genre: Science

This collection of anthropology of science essays explores the new forms of capital, markets, ethical, legal, and intellectual property concerns associated with new forms of research in the life sciences.

Anthropogenic Rivers

Author: Jerome Whitington
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 9781501730924
Release Date: 2019-01-15
Genre: Social Science

In the 2000s, Laos was treated as a model country for the efficacy of privatized, "sustainable" hydropower projects as viable options for World Bank-led development. By viewing hydropower as a process that creates ecologically uncertain environments, Jerome Whitington reveals how new forms of managerial care have emerged in the context of a privatized dam project successfully targeted by transnational activists. Based on ethnographic work inside the hydropower company, as well as with Laotians affected by the dam, he investigates how managers, technicians and consultants grapple with unfamiliar environmental obligations through new infrastructural configurations, locally-inscribed ethical practices, and forms of flexible experimentation informed by American management theory. Far from the authoritative expertise that characterized classical modernist hydropower, sustainable development in Laos has been characterized by a shift from the risk politics of the 1990s to an ontological politics in which the institutional conditions of infrastructure investment are pervasively undermined by sophisticated ‘hactivism.’ Whitington demonstrates how late industrial environments are infused with uncertainty inherent in the anthropogenic ecologies themselves. Whereas ‘anthropogenic’ usually describes human-induced environmental change, it can also show how new capacities for being human are generated when people live in ecologies shot through with uncertainty. Implementing what Foucault called a "historical ontology of ourselves," Anthropogenic Rivers formulates a new materialist critique of the dirty ecologies of late industrialism by pinpointing the opportunistic, ambitious and speculative ontology of capitalist natures.

Pharmocracy

Author: Kaushik Sunder Rajan
Publisher:
ISBN: 0822363135
Release Date: 2017-03-03
Genre: Business & Economics

Kaushik Sunder Rajan traces the structure and operation of what he calls pharmocracy a concept explaining the global hegemony of the multinational pharmaceutical industry. He outlines pharmocracy's logic in two case studies from contemporary India to demonstrate the stakes of its intersection with health, politics, democracy, and global capital."

Drugs for Life

Author: Joseph Dumit
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 9780822348719
Release Date: 2012-09-03
Genre: Business & Economics

Joseph Dumit argues that underlying Americans' burgeoning consumption of prescription drugs and the skyrocketing cost of healthcare is a relatively new perception of ourselves as inherently ill and in need of chronic treatment.

Speculative Markets

Author: Kristin Peterson
Publisher: Duke University Press Books
ISBN: 082235702X
Release Date: 2014-08-25
Genre: Social Science

In this unprecedented account of the dynamics of Nigeria's pharmaceutical markets, Kristin Peterson connects multinational drug company policies, oil concerns, Nigerian political and economic transitions, the circulation of pharmaceuticals in the Global South, Wall Street machinations, and the needs and aspirations of individual Nigerians. Studying the pharmaceutical market in Lagos, Nigeria, she places local market social norms and credit and pricing practices in the broader context of regional, transnational, and global financial capital. Peterson explains how a significant and formerly profitable African pharmaceutical market collapsed in the face of U.S. monetary policies and neoliberal economic reforms, and she illuminates the relation between that collapse and the American turn to speculative capital during the 1980s. In the process, she reveals the mutual constitution of financial speculation in the drug industry and the structural adjustment plans that the IMF imposed on African nations. Her book is a sobering ethnographic analysis of the effects of speculation and "development" as they reverberate across markets and continents, and play out in everyday interpersonal transactions of the Lagos pharmaceutical market.

An Anthropology of Biomedicine

Author: Margaret Lock
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781119069133
Release Date: 2018-03-20
Genre: Medical

"Edition History: Margaret Lock and Vinh-Kim Nguyen (1e, 2010) published by Blackwell Ltd."--T.p. verso.

Global Pharmaceuticals

Author: Adriana Petryna
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 9780822387916
Release Date: 2006-02-22
Genre: Business & Economics

In some parts of the world spending on pharmaceuticals is astronomical. In others people do not have access to basic or life-saving drugs. Individuals struggle to afford medications; whole populations are neglected, considered too poor to constitute profitable markets for the development and distribution of necessary drugs. The ethnographies brought together in this timely collection analyze both the dynamics of the burgeoning international pharmaceutical trade and the global inequalities that emerge from and are reinforced by market-driven medicine. They demonstrate that questions about who will be treated and who will not filter through every phase of pharmaceutical production, from preclinical research to human testing, marketing, distribution, prescription, and consumption. Whether considering how American drug companies seek to create a market for antidepressants in Japan, how Brazil has created a model HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment program, or how the urban poor in Delhi understand and access healthcare, these essays illuminate the roles of corporations, governments, NGOs, and individuals in relation to global pharmaceuticals. Some essays show how individual and communal identities are affected by the marketing and availability of medications. Among these are an exploration of how the pharmaceutical industry shapes popular and expert understandings of mental illness in North America and Great Britain. There is also an examination of the agonizing choices facing Ugandan families trying to finance AIDS treatment. Several essays explore the inner workings of the emerging international pharmaceutical regime. One looks at the expanding quest for clinical research subjects; another at the entwining of science and business interests in the Argentine market for psychotropic medications. By bringing the moral calculations involved in the production and distribution of pharmaceuticals into stark relief, this collection charts urgent new territory for social scientific research. Contributors. Kalman Applbaum, João Biehl, Ranendra K. Das, Veena Das, David Healy, Arthur Kleinman, Betty Kyaddondo, Andrew Lakoff, Anne Lovell, Lotte Meinert, Adriana Petryna, Michael A. Whyte, Susan Reynolds Whyte

Race Decoded

Author: Catherine Bliss
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 9780804782050
Release Date: 2012-05-23
Genre: Social Science

In 2000, with the success of the Human Genome Project, scientists declared the death of race in biology and medicine. But within five years, many of these same scientists had reversed course and embarked upon a new hunt for the biological meaning of race. Drawing on personal interviews and life stories, Race Decoded takes us into the world of elite genome scientists—including Francis Collins, director of the NIH; Craig Venter, the first person to create a synthetic genome; and Spencer Wells, National Geographic Society explorer-in-residence, among others—to show how and why they are formulating new ways of thinking about race. In this original exploration, Catherine Bliss reveals a paradigm shift, both at the level of science and society, from colorblindness to racial consciousness. Scientists have been fighting older understandings of race in biology while simultaneously promoting a new grand-scale program of minority inclusion. In selecting research topics or considering research design, scientists routinely draw upon personal experience of race to push the public to think about race as a biosocial entity, and even those of the most privileged racial and social backgrounds incorporate identity politics in the scientific process. Though individual scientists may view their positions differently—whether as a black civil rights activist or a white bench scientist—all stakeholders in the scientific debates are drawing on memories of racial discrimination to fashion a science-based activism to fight for social justice.

Sustainable Development at Risk

Author: Joseph H. Hulse
Publisher: IDRC
ISBN: 9781552503683
Release Date: 2007-01-01
Genre: Business & Economics

Over the past half century, the idea of sustainable development has drastically evolved and rooted itself in the lexicon of international development. But what is it, really? Are development agencies truly committed to long-term sustainable solutions to development issues? Are we learning from our past successes and failures? This book takes an historical perspective on these questions. The analysis begins with the Atlantic Charter, the creation of the United Nations, its family of agencies, and the international development banks. It reviews recommendations from international commissions and conferences, from World Bank and UNDP Human Development Reports. It comments on governmental policies, human and industrial actions detrimental to the planetOCOs environment and natural resources. It studies the patterns by which biotechnologies essential to human survival and health have progressed over the past 6000 years, and the consequences of uncontrolled urban growth on food and health security. The author hopes that this book will be OC informative and helpful to all who care about human suffering and degradation of the EarthOCOs environment and resources, in particular to men and women who are newcomers to international, governmental, and nongovernmental aid and assistance programs.OCO"

Beyond the Cyborg

Author: Margret Grebowicz
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 9780231520737
Release Date: 2013-06-18
Genre: Philosophy

Feminist theorist and philosopher Donna Haraway has substantially impacted thought on science, cyberculture, the environment, animals, and social relations. This long-overdue volume explores her influence on feminist theory and philosophy, paying particular attention to her more recent work on companion species, rather than her "Manifesto for Cyborgs." Margret Grebowicz and Helen Merrick argue that the ongoing fascination with, and re-production of, the cyborg has overshadowed Haraway's extensive body of work in ways that run counter to her own transdisciplinary practices. Sparked by their own personal "adventures" with Haraway's work, the authors offer readings of her texts framed by a series of theoretical and political perspectives: feminist materialism, standpoint epistemology, radical democratic theory, queer theory, and even science fiction. They situate Haraway's critical storytelling and "risky reading" practices as forms of feminist methodology and recognize her passionate engagement with "naturecultures" as the theoretical core driving her work. Chapters situate Haraway as critic, theorist, biologist, feminist, historian, and humorist, exploring the full range of her identities and reflecting her commitment to embodying all of these modes simultaneously.

Tactical Biopolitics

Author: Beatriz Da Costa
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262514910
Release Date: 2010
Genre: Art

Scientists, scholars, and artists consider the political significance of recent advances in the biological sciences.

Dynamic Sustainabilities

Author: Melissa Leach
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781849710930
Release Date: 2010
Genre: Business & Economics

Introducing a new pathways approach for understanding and responding to sustainability challenges, this title explores practical ways forward for building pathways to sustainability.

Leviathan and the Air Pump

Author: Steven Shapin
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400838493
Release Date: 2011-08-15
Genre: Science

Leviathan and the Air-Pump examines the conflicts over the value and propriety of experimental methods between two major seventeenth-century thinkers: Thomas Hobbes, author of the political treatise Leviathan and vehement critic of systematic experimentation in natural philosophy, and Robert Boyle, mechanical philosopher and owner of the newly invented air-pump. The issues at stake in their disputes ranged from the physical integrity of the air-pump to the intellectual integrity of the knowledge it might yield. Both Boyle and Hobbes were looking for ways of establishing knowledge that did not decay into ad hominem attacks and political division. Boyle proposed the experiment as cure. He argued that facts should be manufactured by machines like the air-pump so that gentlemen could witness the experiments and produce knowledge that everyone agreed on. Hobbes, by contrast, looked for natural law and viewed experiments as the artificial, unreliable products of an exclusive guild. The new approaches taken in Leviathan and the Air-Pump have been enormously influential on historical studies of science. Shapin and Schaffer found a moment of scientific revolution and showed how key scientific givens--facts, interpretations, experiment, truth--were fundamental to a new political order. Shapin and Schaffer were also innovative in their ethnographic approach. Attempting to understand the work habits, rituals, and social structures of a remote, unfamiliar group, they argued that politics were tied up in what scientists did, rather than what they said. Steven Shapin and Simon Schaffer use the confrontation between Hobbes and Boyle as a way of understanding what was at stake in the early history of scientific experimentation. They describe the protagonists' divergent views of natural knowledge, and situate the Hobbes-Boyle disputes within contemporary debates over the role of intellectuals in public life and the problems of social order and assent in Restoration England. In a new introduction, the authors describe how science and its social context were understood when this book was first published, and how the study of the history of science has changed since then.

Anthropologies of Modernity

Author: Jonathan Xavier Inda
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781405153027
Release Date: 2008-04-15
Genre: Social Science

This book brings together a range of anthropological writings that are inspired by the French philosopher Michel Foucault and examine Foucault’s contribution to current theories of modernity. Treats modernity as an ethnographic object by focusing on its concrete manifestations. Tackles issues of broad interest: from colonialism and globalization to war, genetics, and AIDS. Draws on work from North and South America, Europe, Africa, and South and Southeast Asia. Contributors include James Ferguson, Akhil Gupta, Aihwa Ong, Paul Rabinow, and Rayna Rapp.