Logical Foundations of Mathematics and Computational Complexity

Author: Pavel Pudlák
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783319001197
Release Date: 2013-04-22
Genre: Mathematics

The two main themes of this book, logic and complexity, are both essential for understanding the main problems about the foundations of mathematics. Logical Foundations of Mathematics and Computational Complexity covers a broad spectrum of results in logic and set theory that are relevant to the foundations, as well as the results in computational complexity and the interdisciplinary area of proof complexity. The author presents his ideas on how these areas are connected, what are the most fundamental problems and how they should be approached. In particular, he argues that complexity is as important for foundations as are the more traditional concepts of computability and provability. Emphasis is on explaining the essence of concepts and the ideas of proofs, rather than presenting precise formal statements and full proofs. Each section starts with concepts and results easily explained, and gradually proceeds to more difficult ones. The notes after each section present some formal definitions, theorems and proofs. Logical Foundations of Mathematics and Computational Complexity is aimed at graduate students of all fields of mathematics who are interested in logic, complexity and foundations. It will also be of interest for both physicists and philosophers who are curious to learn the basics of logic and complexity theory.

Cellular Automata

Author: Joel L. Schiff
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118030639
Release Date: 2011-10-18
Genre: Mathematics

An accessible and multidisciplinaryintroduction to cellular automata As the applicability of cellular automata broadens and technology advances, there is a need for a concise, yet thorough, resource that lays the foundation of key cellularautomata rules and applications. In recent years, Stephen Wolfram's A New Kind of Science has brought the modeling power that lies in cellular automata to the attentionof the scientific world, and now, Cellular Automata: A Discrete View of the World presents all the depth, analysis, and applicability of the classic Wolfram text in a straightforward, introductory manner. This book offers an introduction to cellular automata as a constructive method for modeling complex systems where patterns of self-organization arising from simple rules are revealed in phenomena that exist across a wide array of subject areas, including mathematics, physics, economics, and the social sciences. The book begins with a preliminary introduction to cellular automata, including a brief history of the topic along with coverage of sub-topics such as randomness, dimension, information, entropy, and fractals. The author then provides a complete discussion of dynamical systems and chaos due to their close connection with cellular automata and includes chapters that focus exclusively on one- and two-dimensional cellular automata. The next and most fascinating area of discussion is the application of these types of cellular automata in order to understand the complex behavior that occurs in natural phenomena. Finally, the continually evolving topic of complexity is discussed with a focus on how to properly define, identify, and marvel at its manifestations in various environments. The author's focus on the most important principles of cellular automata, combined with his ability to present complex material in an easy-to-follow style, makes this book a very approachable and inclusive source for understanding the concepts and applications of cellular automata. The highly visual nature of the subject is accented with over 200 illustrations, including an eight-page color insert, which provide vivid representations of the cellular automata under discussion. Readers also have the opportunity to follow and understand the models depicted throughout the text and create their own cellular automata using Java applets and simple computer code, which are available via the book's FTP site. This book serves as a valuable resource for undergraduate and graduate students in the physical, biological, and social sciences and may also be of interest to any reader with a scientific or basic mathematical background.

Quantum Information and Consciousness

Author: Danko D. Georgiev
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781351401777
Release Date: 2017-12-06
Genre: Science

"I loved the book! This book is not just interesting, it is exciting. I have probably read every significant book in the field, and this is the strongest and most convincing one yet. It is also one of the most comprehensive in its explanations. I shall most certainly recommend the book to colleagues." –Richard G. Petty, MD "a very good introduction to the basic theory of quantum systems.... Dr. Georgiev’s book aptly prepares the reader to confront whatever might be in store later." –from the Foreword by Prof. James F. Glazebrook, Eastern Illinois University This book addresses the fascinating cross-disciplinary field of quantum information theory applied to the study of brain function. It offers a self-study guide to probe the problems of consciousness, including a concise but rigorous introduction to classical and quantum information theory, theoretical neuroscience, and philosophy of the mind. It aims to address long-standing problems related to consciousness within the framework of modern theoretical physics in a comprehensible manner that elucidates the nature of the mind-body relationship. The reader also gains an overview of methods for constructing and testing quantum informational theories of consciousness.

Forcing for Mathematicians

Author: Nik Weaver
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9789814566025
Release Date: 2014-01-24
Genre: Mathematics

Ever since Paul Cohen's spectacular use of the forcing concept to prove the independence of the continuum hypothesis from the standard axioms of set theory, forcing has been seen by the general mathematical community as a subject of great intrinsic interest but one that is technically so forbidding that it is only accessible to specialists. In the past decade, a series of remarkable solutions to long-standing problems in C*-algebra using set-theoretic methods, many achieved by the author and his collaborators, have generated new interest in this subject. This is the first book aimed at explaining forcing to general mathematicians. It simultaneously makes the subject broadly accessible by explaining it in a clear, simple manner, and surveys advanced applications of set theory to mainstream topics. Contents:Peano ArithmeticZermelo–Fraenkel Set TheoryWell-Ordered SetsOrdinalsCardinalsRelativizationReflectionForcing NotionsGeneric ExtensionsForcing EqualityThe Fundamental TheoremForcing CHForcing ¬ CHFamilies of Entire Functions*Self-Homeomorphisms of βℕ \ ℕ, I*Pure States on B(H)*The Diamond PrincipleSuslin's Problem, I*Naimark's problem*A Stronger DiamondWhitehead's Problem, I*Iterated ForcingMartin's AxiomSuslin's Problem, II*Whitehead's Problem, II*The Open Coloring AxiomSelf-Homeomorphisms of βℕ \ ℕ, II*Automorphisms of the Calkin Algebra, I*Automorphisms of the Calkin Algebra, II*The Multiverse Interpretation Readership: Graduates and researchers in logic and set theory, general mathematical audience. Keywords:Forcing;Set Theory;Consistency;Independence;C*-AlgebraKey Features:A number of features combine to make this thorough and rigorous treatment of forcing surprisingly easy to follow. First, it goes straight into the core material on forcing, avoiding Godel constructibility altogether; second, key definitions are simplified, allowing for a less technical development; and third, further care is given to the treatment of metatheoretic issuesEach chapter is limited to four pages, making the presentation very readableA unique feature of the book is its emphasis on applications to problems outside of set theory. Much of this material is currently only available in the primary literatureThe author is a pioneer in the application of set-theoretic methods to C*-algebra, having solved (together with various co-authors) Dixmier's “prime versus primitive” problem, Naimark's problem, Anderson's conjecture about pure states on B(H), and the Calkin algebra outer automorphism problemReviews: “The author presents the basics of the theory of forcing in a clear and stringent way by emphasizing important technical details and simplifying some definitions and arguments. Moreover, he presents the content in a way that should help beginners to understand the central concepts and avoid common mistakes.” Zentralblatt MATH

Alan Turing Life and Legacy of a Great Thinker

Author: Christof Teuscher
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783662056424
Release Date: 2013-06-29
Genre: Computers

Written by a distinguished cast of contributors, Alan Turing: Life and Legacy of a Great Thinker is the definitive collection of essays in commemoration of the 90th birthday of Alan Turing. This fascinating text covers the rich facets of his life, thoughts, and legacy, but also sheds some light on the future of computing science with a chapter contributed by visionary Ray Kurzweil, winner of the 1999 National Medal of Technology. Further, important contributions come from the philosopher Daniel Dennett, the Turing biographer Andrew Hodges, and from the distinguished logician Martin Davis, who provides a first critical essay on an emerging and controversial field termed "hypercomputation".

Mathematics for Computer Science

Author: Eric Lehman
ISBN: 9888407066
Release Date: 2017-03-08

This book covers elementary discrete mathematics for computer science and engineering. It emphasizes mathematical definitions and proofs as well as applicable methods. Topics include formal logic notation, proof methods; induction, well-ordering; sets, relations; elementary graph theory; integer congruences; asymptotic notation and growth of functions; permutations and combinations, counting principles; discrete probability. Further selected topics may also be covered, such as recursive definition and structural induction; state machines and invariants; recurrences; generating functions.

Principles of Model Checking

Author: Christel Baier
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262304030
Release Date: 2008-04-25
Genre: Computers

Our growing dependence on increasingly complex computer and software systems necessitates the development of formalisms, techniques, and tools for assessing functional properties of these systems. One such technique that has emerged in the last twenty years is model checking, which systematically (and automatically) checks whether a model of a given system satisfies a desired property such as deadlock freedom, invariants, and request-response properties. This automated technique for verification and debugging has developed into a mature and widely used approach with many applications. Principles of Model Checking offers a comprehensive introduction to model checking that is not only a text suitable for classroom use but also a valuable reference for researchers and practitioners in the field.The book begins with the basic principles for modeling concurrent and communicating systems, introduces different classes of properties (including safety and liveness), presents the notion of fairness, and provides automata-based algorithms for these properties. It introduces the temporal logics LTL and CTL, compares them, and covers algorithms for verifying these logics, discussing real-time systems as well as systems subject to random phenomena. Separate chapters treat such efficiency-improving techniques as abstraction and symbolic manipulation. The book includes an extensive set of examples (most of which run through several chapters) and a complete set of basic results accompanied by detailed proofs. Each chapter concludes with a summary, bibliographic notes, and an extensive list of exercises of both practical and theoretical nature.

Transcending Tradition Jewish Mathematicians in German Speaking Academic Culture

Author: Birgit Bergmann
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642224645
Release Date: 2012-10-22
Genre: Mathematics

A companion publication to the international exhibition "Transcending Tradition: Jewish Mathematicians in German-Speaking Academic Culture", the catalogue explores the working lives and activities of Jewish mathematicians in German-speaking countries during the period between the legal and political emancipation of the Jews in the 19th century and their persecution in Nazi Germany. It highlights the important role Jewish mathematicians played in all areas of mathematical culture during the Wilhelmine Empire and the Weimar Republic, and recalls their emigration, flight or death after 1933.

Kurt G del and the Foundations of Mathematics

Author: Matthias Baaz
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139498432
Release Date: 2011-06-06
Genre: Mathematics

This volume commemorates the life, work and foundational views of Kurt Gödel (1906–78), most famous for his hallmark works on the completeness of first-order logic, the incompleteness of number theory, and the consistency - with the other widely accepted axioms of set theory - of the axiom of choice and of the generalized continuum hypothesis. It explores current research, advances and ideas for future directions not only in the foundations of mathematics and logic, but also in the fields of computer science, artificial intelligence, physics, cosmology, philosophy, theology and the history of science. The discussion is supplemented by personal reflections from several scholars who knew Gödel personally, providing some interesting insights into his life. By putting his ideas and life's work into the context of current thinking and perceptions, this book will extend the impact of Gödel's fundamental work in mathematics, logic, philosophy and other disciplines for future generations of researchers.

The Logical Foundations of Mathematics

Author: William S. Hatcher
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9781483189635
Release Date: 2014-05-09
Genre: Mathematics

The Logical Foundations of Mathematics offers a study of the foundations of mathematics, stressing comparisons between and critical analyses of the major non-constructive foundational systems. The position of constructivism within the spectrum of foundational philosophies is discussed, along with the exact relationship between topos theory and set theory. Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an introduction to first-order logic. In particular, two complete systems of axioms and rules for the first-order predicate calculus are given, one for efficiency in proving metatheorems, and the other, in a "natural deduction" style, for presenting detailed formal proofs. A somewhat novel feature of this framework is a full semantic and syntactic treatment of variable-binding term operators as primitive symbols of logic. Subsequent chapters focus on the origin of modern foundational studies; Gottlob Frege's formal system intended to serve as a foundation for mathematics and its paradoxes; the theory of types; and the Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory. David Hilbert's program and Kurt Gödel's incompleteness theorems are also examined, along with the foundational systems of W. V. Quine and the relevance of categorical algebra for foundations. This monograph will be of interest to students, teachers, practitioners, and researchers in mathematics.

The Geometry of Information Retrieval

Author: C. J. van Rijsbergen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521838053
Release Date: 2004-08-12
Genre: Computers

An important work on a new framework for information retrieval: implications for artificial intelligence, natural language processing.

Didactics of Mathematics as a Scientific Discipline

Author: Rolf Biehler
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780306472046
Release Date: 2006-04-11
Genre: Education

Didactics of Mathematics as a Scientific Discipline describes the state of the art in a new branch of science. Starting from a general perspective on the didactics of mathematics, the 30 original contributions to the book, drawn from 10 different countries, go on to identify certain subdisciplines and suggest an overall structure or `topology' of the field. The book is divided into eight sections: (1) Preparing Mathematics for Students; (2) Teacher Education and Research on Teaching; (3) Interaction in the Classroom; (4) Technology and Mathematics Education; (5) Psychology of Mathematical Thinking; (6) Differential Didactics; (7) History and Epistemology of Mathematics and Mathematics Education; (8) Cultural Framing of Teaching and Learning Mathematics. Didactics of Mathematics as a Scientific Discipline is required reading for all researchers into the didactics of mathematics, and contains surveys and a variety of stimulating reflections which make it extremely useful for mathematics educators and teacher trainers interested in the theory of their practice. Future and practising teachers of mathematics will find much to interest them in relation to their daily work, especially as it relates to the teaching of different age groups and ability ranges. The book is also recommended to researchers in neighbouring disciplines, such as mathematics itself, general education, educational psychology and cognitive science.

Understanding Understanding

Author: Heinz von Foerster
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387217222
Release Date: 2007-05-08
Genre: Computers

In these ground-breaking essays, Heinz von Foerster discusses some of the fundamental principles that govern how we know the world and how we process the information from which we derive that knowledge. The author was one of the founders of the science of cybernetics.

The Incomputable

Author: S. Barry Cooper
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319436692
Release Date: 2017-05-02
Genre: Computers

This book questions the relevance of computation to the physical universe. Our theories deliver computational descriptions, but the gaps and discontinuities in our grasp suggest a need for continued discourse between researchers from different disciplines, and this book is unique in its focus on the mathematical theory of incomputability and its relevance for the real world. The core of the book consists of thirteen chapters in five parts on extended models of computation; the search for natural examples of incomputable objects; mind, matter, and computation; the nature of information, complexity, and randomness; and the mathematics of emergence and morphogenesis. This book will be of interest to researchers in the areas of theoretical computer science, mathematical logic, and philosophy.

Combinatorial Set Theory

Author: Lorenz J. Halbeisen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1447121732
Release Date: 2011-11-24
Genre: Mathematics

This book provides a self-contained introduction to modern set theory and also opens up some more advanced areas of current research in this field. The first part offers an overview of classical set theory wherein the focus lies on the axiom of choice and Ramsey theory. In the second part, the sophisticated technique of forcing, originally developed by Paul Cohen, is explained in great detail. With this technique, one can show that certain statements, like the continuum hypothesis, are neither provable nor disprovable from the axioms of set theory. In the last part, some topics of classical set theory are revisited and further developed in the light of forcing. The notes at the end of each chapter put the results in a historical context, and the numerous related results and the extensive list of references lead the reader to the frontier of research. This book will appeal to all mathematicians interested in the foundations of mathematics, but will be of particular use to graduates in this field.