Logical Foundations of Mathematics and Computational Complexity

Author: Pavel Pudlák
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783319001197
Release Date: 2013-04-22
Genre: Mathematics

The two main themes of this book, logic and complexity, are both essential for understanding the main problems about the foundations of mathematics. Logical Foundations of Mathematics and Computational Complexity covers a broad spectrum of results in logic and set theory that are relevant to the foundations, as well as the results in computational complexity and the interdisciplinary area of proof complexity. The author presents his ideas on how these areas are connected, what are the most fundamental problems and how they should be approached. In particular, he argues that complexity is as important for foundations as are the more traditional concepts of computability and provability. Emphasis is on explaining the essence of concepts and the ideas of proofs, rather than presenting precise formal statements and full proofs. Each section starts with concepts and results easily explained, and gradually proceeds to more difficult ones. The notes after each section present some formal definitions, theorems and proofs. Logical Foundations of Mathematics and Computational Complexity is aimed at graduate students of all fields of mathematics who are interested in logic, complexity and foundations. It will also be of interest for both physicists and philosophers who are curious to learn the basics of logic and complexity theory.

Quantum Information and Consciousness

Author: Danko D. Georgiev
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781351401777
Release Date: 2017-12-06
Genre: Science

"I loved the book! This book is not just interesting, it is exciting. I have probably read every significant book in the field, and this is the strongest and most convincing one yet. It is also one of the most comprehensive in its explanations. I shall most certainly recommend the book to colleagues." –Richard G. Petty, MD "a very good introduction to the basic theory of quantum systems.... Dr. Georgiev’s book aptly prepares the reader to confront whatever might be in store later." –from the Foreword by Prof. James F. Glazebrook, Eastern Illinois University This book addresses the fascinating cross-disciplinary field of quantum information theory applied to the study of brain function. It offers a self-study guide to probe the problems of consciousness, including a concise but rigorous introduction to classical and quantum information theory, theoretical neuroscience, and philosophy of the mind. It aims to address long-standing problems related to consciousness within the framework of modern theoretical physics in a comprehensible manner that elucidates the nature of the mind-body relationship. The reader also gains an overview of methods for constructing and testing quantum informational theories of consciousness.

Logic and Complexity

Author: Richard Lassaigne
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780857293923
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Computers

Logic and Complexity looks at basic logic as it is used in Computer Science, and provides students with a logical approach to Complexity theory. With plenty of exercises, this book presents classical notions of mathematical logic, such as decidability, completeness and incompleteness, as well as new ideas brought by complexity theory such as NP-completeness, randomness and approximations, providing a better understanding for efficient algorithmic solutions to problems. Divided into three parts, it covers: - Model Theory and Recursive Functions - introducing the basic model theory of propositional, 1st order, inductive definitions and 2nd order logic. Recursive functions, Turing computability and decidability are also examined. - Descriptive Complexity - looking at the relationship between definitions of problems, queries, properties of programs and their computational complexity. - Approximation - explaining how some optimization problems and counting problems can be approximated according to their logical form. Logic is important in Computer Science, particularly for verification problems and database query languages such as SQL. Students and researchers in this field will find this book of great interest.

Metamathematics of First Order Arithmetic

Author: Petr Hájek
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781316739457
Release Date: 2017-03-02
Genre: Mathematics

Since their inception, the Perspectives in Logic and Lecture Notes in Logic series have published seminal works by leading logicians. Many of the original books in the series have been unavailable for years, but they are now in print once again. This volume, the third publication in the Perspectives in Logic series, is a much-needed monograph on the metamathematics of first-order arithmetic. The authors pay particular attention to subsystems (fragments) of Peano arithmetic and give the reader a deeper understanding of the role of the axiom schema of induction and of the phenomenon of incompleteness. The reader is only assumed to know the basics of mathematical logic, which are reviewed in the preliminaries. Part I develops parts of mathematics and logic in various fragments. Part II is devoted to incompleteness. Finally, Part III studies systems that have the induction schema restricted to bounded formulas (bounded arithmetic).

Cellular Automata

Author: Joel L. Schiff
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118030639
Release Date: 2011-10-18
Genre: Mathematics

An accessible and multidisciplinaryintroduction to cellular automata As the applicability of cellular automata broadens and technology advances, there is a need for a concise, yet thorough, resource that lays the foundation of key cellularautomata rules and applications. In recent years, Stephen Wolfram's A New Kind of Science has brought the modeling power that lies in cellular automata to the attentionof the scientific world, and now, Cellular Automata: A Discrete View of the World presents all the depth, analysis, and applicability of the classic Wolfram text in a straightforward, introductory manner. This book offers an introduction to cellular automata as a constructive method for modeling complex systems where patterns of self-organization arising from simple rules are revealed in phenomena that exist across a wide array of subject areas, including mathematics, physics, economics, and the social sciences. The book begins with a preliminary introduction to cellular automata, including a brief history of the topic along with coverage of sub-topics such as randomness, dimension, information, entropy, and fractals. The author then provides a complete discussion of dynamical systems and chaos due to their close connection with cellular automata and includes chapters that focus exclusively on one- and two-dimensional cellular automata. The next and most fascinating area of discussion is the application of these types of cellular automata in order to understand the complex behavior that occurs in natural phenomena. Finally, the continually evolving topic of complexity is discussed with a focus on how to properly define, identify, and marvel at its manifestations in various environments. The author's focus on the most important principles of cellular automata, combined with his ability to present complex material in an easy-to-follow style, makes this book a very approachable and inclusive source for understanding the concepts and applications of cellular automata. The highly visual nature of the subject is accented with over 200 illustrations, including an eight-page color insert, which provide vivid representations of the cellular automata under discussion. Readers also have the opportunity to follow and understand the models depicted throughout the text and create their own cellular automata using Java applets and simple computer code, which are available via the book's FTP site. This book serves as a valuable resource for undergraduate and graduate students in the physical, biological, and social sciences and may also be of interest to any reader with a scientific or basic mathematical background.

The Incomputable

Author: S. Barry Cooper
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319436692
Release Date: 2017-05-02
Genre: Computers

This book questions the relevance of computation to the physical universe. Our theories deliver computational descriptions, but the gaps and discontinuities in our grasp suggest a need for continued discourse between researchers from different disciplines, and this book is unique in its focus on the mathematical theory of incomputability and its relevance for the real world. The core of the book consists of thirteen chapters in five parts on extended models of computation; the search for natural examples of incomputable objects; mind, matter, and computation; the nature of information, complexity, and randomness; and the mathematics of emergence and morphogenesis. This book will be of interest to researchers in the areas of theoretical computer science, mathematical logic, and philosophy.

The Geometry of Information Retrieval

Author: C. J. van Rijsbergen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521838053
Release Date: 2004-08-12
Genre: Computers

An important work on a new framework for information retrieval: implications for artificial intelligence, natural language processing.

Mathematics for Computer Science

Author: Eric Lehman
Publisher:
ISBN: 9888407066
Release Date: 2017-03-08
Genre:

This book covers elementary discrete mathematics for computer science and engineering. It emphasizes mathematical definitions and proofs as well as applicable methods. Topics include formal logic notation, proof methods; induction, well-ordering; sets, relations; elementary graph theory; integer congruences; asymptotic notation and growth of functions; permutations and combinations, counting principles; discrete probability. Further selected topics may also be covered, such as recursive definition and structural induction; state machines and invariants; recurrences; generating functions.

Transcending Tradition Jewish Mathematicians in German Speaking Academic Culture

Author: Birgit Bergmann
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642224645
Release Date: 2012-10-22
Genre: Mathematics

A companion publication to the international exhibition "Transcending Tradition: Jewish Mathematicians in German-Speaking Academic Culture", the catalogue explores the working lives and activities of Jewish mathematicians in German-speaking countries during the period between the legal and political emancipation of the Jews in the 19th century and their persecution in Nazi Germany. It highlights the important role Jewish mathematicians played in all areas of mathematical culture during the Wilhelmine Empire and the Weimar Republic, and recalls their emigration, flight or death after 1933.

Foundations of Computational Linguistics

Author: Roland Hausser
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642414312
Release Date: 2014-01-07
Genre: Computers

The content of this textbook is organized as a theory of language for the construction of talking robots. The main topic is the mechanism of natural language communication in both the speaker and the hearer. In the third edition the author has modernized the text, leaving the overview of traditional, theoretical, and computational linguistics, analytic philosophy of language, and mathematical complexity theory with their historical backgrounds intact. The format of the empirical analyses of English and German syntax and semantics has been adapted to current practice; and Chaps. 22–24 have been rewritten to focus more sharply on the construction of a talking robot.

Principles of Model Checking

Author: Christel Baier
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262304030
Release Date: 2008-04-25
Genre: Computers

Our growing dependence on increasingly complex computer and software systems necessitates the development of formalisms, techniques, and tools for assessing functional properties of these systems. One such technique that has emerged in the last twenty years is model checking, which systematically (and automatically) checks whether a model of a given system satisfies a desired property such as deadlock freedom, invariants, and request-response properties. This automated technique for verification and debugging has developed into a mature and widely used approach with many applications. Principles of Model Checking offers a comprehensive introduction to model checking that is not only a text suitable for classroom use but also a valuable reference for researchers and practitioners in the field.The book begins with the basic principles for modeling concurrent and communicating systems, introduces different classes of properties (including safety and liveness), presents the notion of fairness, and provides automata-based algorithms for these properties. It introduces the temporal logics LTL and CTL, compares them, and covers algorithms for verifying these logics, discussing real-time systems as well as systems subject to random phenomena. Separate chapters treat such efficiency-improving techniques as abstraction and symbolic manipulation. The book includes an extensive set of examples (most of which run through several chapters) and a complete set of basic results accompanied by detailed proofs. Each chapter concludes with a summary, bibliographic notes, and an extensive list of exercises of both practical and theoretical nature.

The Logical Foundations of Mathematics

Author: William S. Hatcher
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9781483189635
Release Date: 2014-05-09
Genre: Mathematics

The Logical Foundations of Mathematics offers a study of the foundations of mathematics, stressing comparisons between and critical analyses of the major non-constructive foundational systems. The position of constructivism within the spectrum of foundational philosophies is discussed, along with the exact relationship between topos theory and set theory. Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an introduction to first-order logic. In particular, two complete systems of axioms and rules for the first-order predicate calculus are given, one for efficiency in proving metatheorems, and the other, in a "natural deduction" style, for presenting detailed formal proofs. A somewhat novel feature of this framework is a full semantic and syntactic treatment of variable-binding term operators as primitive symbols of logic. Subsequent chapters focus on the origin of modern foundational studies; Gottlob Frege's formal system intended to serve as a foundation for mathematics and its paradoxes; the theory of types; and the Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory. David Hilbert's program and Kurt Gödel's incompleteness theorems are also examined, along with the foundational systems of W. V. Quine and the relevance of categorical algebra for foundations. This monograph will be of interest to students, teachers, practitioners, and researchers in mathematics.

Proof and Computation

Author: Helmut Schwichtenberg
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642793615
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Computers

Logical concepts and methods are of growing importance in many areas of computer science. The proofs-as-programs paradigm and the wide acceptance of Prolog show this clearly. The logical notion of a formal proof in various constructive systems can be viewed as a very explicit way to describe a computation procedure. Also conversely, the development of logical systems has been influenced by accumulating knowledge on rewriting and unification techniques. This volume contains a series of lectures by leading researchers giving a presentation of new ideas on the impact of the concept of a formal proof on computation theory. The subjects covered are: specification and abstract data types, proving techniques, constructive methods, linear logic, and concurrency and logic.

Lesson Study Research and Practice in Mathematics Education

Author: Lynn C. Hart
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9048199417
Release Date: 2011-01-11
Genre: Education

Lesson study is a professional development process that teachers engage in to systematically examine their practice, with the goal of becoming more effective. Originating in Japan, lesson study has gained significant momentum in the mathematics education community in recent years. As a process for professional development, lesson study became highly visible when it was proposed as a means of supporting the common practice of promoting better teaching by disseminating documents like standards, benchmarks and nationally validated curricula. While the body of knowledge about lesson study is growing, it remains somewhat elusive and composed of discrete research endeavors. As a new research area there is no coherent knowledge base yet. This book will contribute to the field bringing the work of researchers and practitioners together to create a resource for extant work. This book describes several aspects of Lesson Study, amongst others: it gives an historical overview of the concept, it addresses issues related to learning and teaching mathematics, it looks at the role of the teacher in the process. The last two sections of the book look at how lesson Study can be used with preservice mathematics teachers and at university mathematics methods teaching.

Local Algebra

Author: Jean-Pierre Serre
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783662042038
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Mathematics

This is an English translation of the now classic "Algbre Locale - Multiplicits" originally published by Springer as LNM 11. It gives a short account of the main theorems of commutative algebra, with emphasis on modules, homological methods and intersection multiplicities. Many modifications to the original French text have been made for this English edition, making the text easier to read, without changing its intended informal character.