Author: Daniel Beckman
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Publishers
Release Date: 2012-02-15
"Written for the upper-level undergraduate or graduate-level course, Marine Environmental Biology and Conservation provides an introduction to the environmental and anthropogenic threats facing the world's oceans and outlines the steps that can and should be taken to protect these vital habitats"--
Author: Peter G.H. Evans
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2001-12-31
Interest in marine mammals has increased dramatically in the last few decades, as evidenced by the number of books, scientific papers, and conferences devoted to these animals. Nowadays, a conference on marine mammals can attract between one and two thousand scientists from around the world. This upsurge of interest has resulted in a body of knowledge which, in many cases, has identified major conservation problems facing particular species. At the same time, this knowledge and the associated activities of environmental organisations have served to introduce marine mammals to a receptive public, to the extent that they are now perceived by many as the living icons of biodiversity conservation. Much of the impetus for the current interest in marine mammal conservation comes from "Save the Whale" campaigns started in the 1960s by environmental groups around the world, in response to declining whale populations after over-exploitation by humans. This public pressure led to an international moratorium on whaling recommended in 1972 by the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm, Sweden, and eventually adopted by the International Whaling Commission ten years later. This moratorium largely holds sway to this day, and further protective measures have included the delimitation of extensive areas of the Indian Ocean (1979) and Southern Ocean (1994) as whale sanctuaries.
The charismatic mammals that live in the ocean are a constant source of interest, both for scientists and our society at large. Their biology, behavior, and conservation are of utmost importance, as a vast number of species are currently threatened. Intended for the upper-level undergraduate or graduate student within biology, marine biology, or conservation/environmental science, An Introduction to Marine Mammal Biology and Conservation provides a broad introduction to marine mammal biology using cutting edge information and student-friendly learning tools. The text begins with chapters on the evolution and classification of marine mammals and their general biology. It moves on to discuss the behavior and ecology of different groups of marine mammals, such as polar bears, otters, and cetaceans. Part 3 dives into many different conservation issues facing marine mammals, as well as discussions on how they can be addressed. Closing chapters provide information on how scientists study marine mammals, how society can enjoy observing the animals while making sure they are preserved, and a word to students looking to pursue a career with marine mammals.
This major textbook provides a broad coverage of the ecological foundations of marine conservation, including the rationale, importance and practicalities of various approaches to marine conservation and management. The scope of the book encompasses an understanding of the elements of marine biodiversity - from global to local levels - threats to marine biodiversity, and the structure and function of marine environments as related to conservation issues. The authors describe the potential approaches, initiatives and various options for conservation, from the genetic to the species, community and ecosystem levels in marine environments. They explore methods for identifying the units of conservation, and the development of defensible frameworks for marine conservation. They describe planning of ecologically integrated conservation strategies, including decision-making on size, boundaries, numbers and connectivity of protected area networks. The book also addresses relationships between fisheries and biodiversity, novel methods for conservation planning in the coastal zone and the evaluation of conservation initiatives.
Author: Robert John Koestler
Publisher: Metropolitan Museum of Art
Release Date: 2003-01-01
Despite the perception that artworks are timeless and unchanging, they are actually subject to biological attack from a variety of sources--from bacteria to fungi to insects. This groundbreaking volume, which publishes the proceedings of a conference held at The Metropolitan Museum of Art in 2002, explores how the development of these organisms can be arrested while preserving both the work of art and the health of the conservator.The richly illustrated text, containing the writings of over 40 scientists and conservators, is divided into sections on stone and mural paintings, paper, textiles, wood and archaeological materials, treatment and prevention, and special topics. The artworks and cultural properties discussed include, among many others, Paleolithic cave paintings, Tiffany drawings, huts built by early Antarctic explorers, and a collection of toothbrushes taken from Auschwitz victims.
Biodiversity observation systems are almost everywhere inadequate to meet local, national and international (treaty) obligations. As a result of alarmingly rapid declines in biodiversity in the modern era, there is a strong, worldwide desire to upgrade our monitoring systems, but little clarity on what is actually needed and how it can be assembled from the elements which are already present. This book intends to provide practical guidance to broadly-defined biodiversity observation networks at all scales, but predominantly the national scale and higher. This is a practical how-to book with substantial policy relevance. It will mostly be used by technical specialists with a responsibility for biodiversity monitoring to establish and refine their systems. It is written at a technical level, but one that is not discipline-bound: it should be intelligible to anyone in the broad field with a tertiary education.
The smallest of the sea turtles, olive and Kemp’s ridleys are the only marine turtles to exhibit mass-nesting behavior, known as arribadas. This fascinating phenomenon, during which one could literally walk shell-to-shell across a beach, is considered one of the most amazing wonders of nature. In Biology and Conservation of Ridley Sea Turtles, Pamela T. Plotkin brings together the world’s experts on the genus Lepidochelys to present the first comprehensive, book-length examination of these fascinating animals. Featuring the writings of noted experts including Peter C. H. Pritchard, Jack Frazier, Rene Márquez-M., and Donna J. Shaver, the volume synthesizes over a half century of research. With chapters focused on evolution, development, genetics, physiology, reproduction, migration, and conservation, this book combines a wealth of knowledge and describes an agenda for further research. An integral part of oceanic ecosystems, ridleys present challenges for conservation. Olive ridleys are abundant in some areas and declining in others, whereas Kemp’s ridleys are endangered but slowly recovering. Both face beach-based threats and are prone to capture by commercial fisheries. Here Plotkin and her colleagues reveal the nature of these species and the steps needed to make sure they remain a permanent part of the marine environment.
Author: Colin Pearson
Release Date: 2014-05-20
Over the past twenty years there has been a significant increase in underwater activities such as scuba diving which, coupled with the adventure andromance always associated with shipwrecks, has led to rapid developments in the discovery and excavation of shipwrecked material. These shipwrecks are invaluable archaeological 'time capsules', which in themajoriety of cases have come to an equilibrium with their environment. As soon as artefacts on the wreck site are moved, this equilibrium is disturbed, and the artefacts may commence to deteriorate, sometimes in a rapid and devastating fashion. In fact excavation without having conservation facilities available is vandalism--the artefacts are much safer being left on the sea bed. Such famous shipwrecks as the Mary Rose (1545), the Wasa (1628) and the Batabia (1629) have not only brought the world's attention to these unique finds, but have also produced tremendous conservation problems. The treatment of a 30 metre waterlogged wooden hull or large cast iron cannon is still causing headaches to conservators.
Author: Julian Roberts
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2006-11-23
Despite the potential benefits that the IMO's Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA) designation can deliver, recent practice within the IMO and by individual member states has considerably undermined confidence in this emerging concept. The focus of this book is on the events within the IMO that have led to this lack of confidence arising. In the process, this book presents an examination of coastal State practice with the PSSA concept.
Author: Michael Bowman
Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.
Release Date: 1996-01-10
This work presents a thorough analysis of the biodiversity concept in international law and commentary on the 1992 United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity which was opened for signature following the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development. This Convention is the first international treaty explicitly to address all aspects of biodiversity ranging from the conservation and sustainable use of biological resources, to access to biotechnology and the safety of activities related to modified living organisms. The work extends beyond the ambit of the Convention itself to examine the conservation of biodiversity in international law generally, including measures for the protection of the terrestrial, marine and Antarctic environment and particular features relating to sustainable use of biological resources, ex-situ conservation and plant genetic resources. It further analyses the controversial issue of intellectual property rights, the problems of implementation in the European Union and the United States, differences between developing and developed states and the role of indigenous peoples. This major new work has been written by members of the Committee on Environmental Law of the British Branch of the International Law Association following an earlier study on the subject of International Law and Global Climate Change (Graham & Trotman, 1991). It is the first major study of the Convention of the context in which it was negotiated, and of the prospects for its implementation, following the entry into force of the Convention on 29 December 1993.
Author: Peggy L. Fiedler
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Refecting what a new generation of conservation biologists is doing and thinking, this vital and far ranging second edition explores where conservation biology is heading. It challenges many conventions of conservation biology by exposing certain weaknesses of widely accepted principles. Combining contributions from both the school and the new breed of conservation biologists, this insightful text focuses primarily on topics the are integral to the daily activities of conservation biologists. Several chapters address ecosystem restoration and biotic invasions as well as the the mechanics of population viability analyses, which are now a routine facet of conservation efforts. A case history approach is implemented throughout the book, with the use of practical real-world examples. Furthermore, an in-depth look at quantitative analyses is presented, allowing for models and mathematical analyses to pinpoint limitations in existing data and guide research toward those aspects of biology that are most likely to be critical to the dynamics of a species or an ecosystem.
Author: Reader in Ocean and Earth Science Martin Solan
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2016-03-10
A multitude of direct and indirect human influences have significantly altered the environmental conditions, composition, and diversity of marine communities. However, understanding and predicting the combined impacts of single and multiple stressors is particularly challenging because observed ecological feedbacks are underpinned by a number of physiological and behavioural responses that reflect stressor type, severity, and timing. Furthermore, integration between the traditional domains of physiology and ecology tends to be fragmented and focused towards the effects of a specific stressor or set of circumstances. This novel volume summarises the latest research in the physiological and ecological responses of marine species to a comprehensive range of marine stressors, including chemical and noise pollution, ocean acidification, hypoxia, UV radiation, thermal and salinity stress before providing a perspective on future outcomes for some of the most pressing environmental issues facing society today. Stressors in the Marine Environment synthesises the combined expertise of a range of international researchers, providing a truly interdisciplinary and accessible summary of the field. It is essential reading for graduate students as well as professional researchers in environmental physiology, ecology, marine biology, conservation biology, and marine resource management. It will also be of particular relevance and use to the regulatory agencies and authorities tasked with managing the marine environment, including social scientists and environmental economists.