Author: Julia Elyachar
Publisher: Duke University Press
Release Date: 2005-10-05
Genre: Business & Economics
What happens when the market tries to help the poor? In many parts of the world today, neoliberal development programs are offering ordinary people the tools of free enterprise as the means to well-being and empowerment. Schemes to transform the poor into small-scale entrepreneurs promise them the benefits of the market and access to the rewards of globalization. Markets of Dispossession is a theoretically sophisticated and sobering account of the consequences of these initiatives. Julia Elyachar studied the efforts of bankers, social scientists, ngo members, development workers, and state officials to turn the craftsmen and unemployed youth of Cairo into the vanguard of a new market society based on microenterprise. She considers these efforts in relation to the alternative notions of economic success held by craftsmen in Cairo, in which short-term financial profit is not always highly valued. Through her careful ethnography of workshop life, Elyachar explains how the traditional market practices of craftsmen are among the most vibrant modes of market life in Egypt. Long condemned as backward, these existing market practices have been seized on by social scientists and development institutions as the raw materials for experiments in “free market” expansion. Elyachar argues that the new economic value accorded to the cultural resources and social networks of the poor has fueled a broader process leading to their economic, social, and cultural dispossession.
Author: Kristin Peterson
Publisher: Duke University Press
Release Date: 2014-07-30
Genre: Social Science
In this unprecedented account of the dynamics of Nigeria's pharmaceutical markets, Kristin Peterson connects multinational drug company policies, oil concerns, Nigerian political and economic transitions, the circulation of pharmaceuticals in the Global South, Wall Street machinations, and the needs and aspirations of individual Nigerians. Studying the pharmaceutical market in Lagos, Nigeria, she places local market social norms and credit and pricing practices in the broader context of regional, transnational, and global financial capital. Peterson explains how a significant and formerly profitable African pharmaceutical market collapsed in the face of U.S. monetary policies and neoliberal economic reforms, and she illuminates the relation between that collapse and the American turn to speculative capital during the 1980s. In the process, she reveals the mutual constitution of financial speculation in the drug industry and the structural adjustment plans that the IMF imposed on African nations. Her book is a sobering ethnographic analysis of the effects of speculation and "development" as they reverberate across markets and continents, and play out in everyday interpersonal transactions of the Lagos pharmaceutical market.
Author: Judith Butler
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2013-04-12
Genre: Social Science
Dispossession describes the condition of those who have lost land, citizenship, property, and a broader belonging to the world. This thought-provoking book seeks to elaborate our understanding of dispossession outside of the conventional logic of possession, a hallmark of capitalism, liberalism, and humanism. Can dispossession simultaneously characterize political responses and opposition to the disenfranchisement associated with unjust dispossession of land, economic and political power, and basic conditions for living? In the context of neoliberal expropriation of labor and livelihood, dispossession opens up a performative condition of being both affected by injustice and prompted to act. From the uprisings in the Middle East and North Africa to the anti-neoliberal gatherings at Puerta del Sol, Syntagma and Zucchotti Park, an alternative political and affective economy of bodies in public is being formed. Bodies on the street are precarious - exposed to police force, they are also standing for, and opposing, their dispossession. These bodies insist upon their collective standing, organize themselves without and against hierarchy, and refuse to become disposable: they demand regard. This book interrogates the agonistic and open-ended corporeality and conviviality of the crowd as it assembles in cities to protest political and economic dispossession through a performative dispossession of the sovereign subject and its propriety.
The Fukushima nuclear power plant explosions and the Hiroshima/Nagasaki bombings are intimately connected events, bound together across time by a nuclear will to power that holds little regard for life. In Fukushima: Dispossession or Denuclearization? contributors document and explore diverse dispossession effects stemming from this nuclear will to power, including market distortions, radiation damage to personal property, wrecked livelihoods, and transgenerational mutations potentially eroding human health and happiness. Liberal democratic capitalism is itself disclosed as vulnerable to the corrupting influences of the nuclear will to power. Contributors contend that denuclearization stands as the only viable path forward capable of freeing humans from the catastrophic risks engineered into global nuclear networks. They conclude that the choice of dispossession or denuclearization through the pursuit of alternative technologies will determine human survival across the twenty-first century.
Displacements in the Asia Pacific region are escalating. The region has for decades experienced more than half of the world’s natural disasters and, in recent years, a disproportionately high share of extreme weather-related disasters, which displaced 19 million people in 2013 alone. This volume offers an innovative and thought-provoking Asia-Pacific perspective on an intensifying global problem: the forced displacement of people from their land, homes, and livelihoods due to development, disasters and environmental change. This book draws together theoretical and multidisciplinary perspectives with diverse case studies from around the region – including China’s Three Gorges Reservoir, Japan’s Fukushima disaster, and the Pacific’s Banaba resettlement. Focusing on responses to displacement in the context of power asymmetries and questions of the public interest, the book highlights shared experiences of displacement, seeking new approaches and solutions that have potential global application. This book shows how displaced peoples respond to interlinked impacts that unravel their social fabric and productive bases, whether through sporadic protest, organised campaigns, empowered mobility or; even community-based negotiation of resettlement solutions. . The volume will be of great interest to researchers and postgraduate students in development studies, environmental and climate change studies, anthropology, sociology, human geography, international law and human rights.
Author: Swapna Banerjee-Guha
Publisher: SAGE Publications India
Release Date: 2010-08-17
Genre: Social Science
The contemporary regime of globalisation and neoliberalism is creating a far-reaching impact on different scales across the world. On the urban scale it has resulted in a huge transformation of the city space, land use and reorganisation of the urban governance. This book is a provocative examination of the contemporary urban scenario in several countries, offering South Asian, North American and European perspectives. Written by some of the most eminent theorists and social scientists of our time, the chapters cover critical empirical analyses of the contemporary transformation processes of several cities and the related socio-economic implications. The book focuses on the intense spatial crisis in these metropolises, reflecting contradictory processes of inclusion and exclusion—a typical characteristic of the global city space. The above crisis, the essays argue, is essentially related to the disjuncture between the ideology of neoliberalism, its everyday practices and the related societal effects. Debunking the myth of homogenisation through globalisation, this volume exposes a divided framework in which globalisation and neoliberalism work, leading to increasing polarisation. There is a special section that focuses on Mumbai, which is especially relevant to the study of India's current urban policy and its wider ramifications. The book will be extremely useful for researchers and students of political economy, globalisation and development studies, urban studies, and for urban planners, professionals and urban activists as well.
Author: Michael R. Fischbach
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Release Date: 2003-11-26
No issue in the Arab-Israeli conflict has proven more intractable than the status of the Palestinian refugees. This work focuses on the controversial question of the property left behind by the refugees during the first Arab-Israeli war in 1948. Beyond discussing the extent of the refugees'losses and detailing the methods by which Israel expropriated this property, the book also notes the ways that the property question has affected, and in turn been affected by, the wider Arab-Israeli conflict over the decades. It shows how the property question influenced Arab-Israeli diplomacy and discusses the implications of the fact that the question remains unresolved despite numerous diplomatic efforts. From late 1947 through 1948, more than 726,000 Palestinians—over half the entire population—were uprooted from their homes and villages. Though some middle class refugees were able to flee with liquid capital, the majority were small-scale farmers whose worldly fortunes were the land, livestock, and crops they left behind. This book tells for the first time the full story of how much property changed hands, what it was worth, and how it was used by the fledgling state of Israel. It then traces the subsequent decades of diplomatic activity on the issue and publishes previously secret UN estimates of the scope and value of the refugee property. Michael Fischbach offers a detailed study of Israeli counterclaims for Jewish property lost in the Arab world, diplomatic schemes for resolving the conflict, secret compensation efforts, and the renewed diplomatic efforts on behalf of property claims since the onset of Arab-Israeli peace talks. Based largely on archival records, including those of the United Nations Conciliation Commission of Palestine, never before available to the public and kept under lock and key in the UN archives, Records of Dispossession is the first detailed historical examination of the Palestinian refugee property question.
Author: Brad A. Bays
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Release Date: 1998
This new, multidisciplinary series will present works devoted to the indigenous peoples of North America -- the First Nations, Native Hawaiians, Native Americans, and the Indians of Mexico. Topics will range from the social sciences to education, law, criminology, health, the environment, religion, architecture, linguistics, and agriculture, including innovative interdisciplinary approaches. Books featuring Native voices and issues of particular current significance to Native peoples will be featured.In response to the influx of white settlement after the Civil War, the Cherokee nation devised a regional development plan which allowed whites to establish farms and build towns while reinforcing Cherokee tribal sovereignty over the territory. The presence of sizeable towns and numerous villages presented a legal conundrum for Congress when it legislated away Cherokee sovereignty at the turn of the century. By 1898, tens of thousands of whites owned residential and commercial properties worth millions of dollars in Cherokee Nation towns, but every lot was owned by the Cherokee people. The federal government created a program to transfer legal ownership of town lots to white occupants, but poor implementation of the program allowed individuals to subvert the law for their own gain. The author explores the subject using primary documentation of such diverse sources as traveler's reports, land records, tribal and federal correspondence, and accounts of Cherokee and white settlers. Descriptive statistics and analytical mapping of historical data provide additional facets to the analysis.
Author: Michael Levien
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2018
Genre: Business & Economics
Since the mid-2000s, India has been beset by widespread farmer protests against land dispossession. Dispossession Without Development demonstrates that beneath these conflicts lay a profound shift in regimes of dispossession. While the postcolonial Indian state dispossessed land mostly for public-sector industry and infrastructure, since the 1990s state governments have become land brokers for private real estate capital. Using the case of a village in Rajasthan that was dispossessed for a private Special Economic Zone, the book ethnographically illustrates the exclusionary trajectory of capitalism driving dispossession in contemporary India. Taking us into the lives of diverse villagers in "Rajpura," the book meticulously documents the destruction of agricultural livelihoods, the marginalization of rural labor, the spatial uneveness of infrastructure provision, and the dramatic consequences of real estate speculation for social inequality and village politics. Illuminating the structural underpinnings of land struggles in contemporary India, this book will resonate in any place where "land grabs" have fueled conflict in recent years.
Author: Pete Daniel
Publisher: UNC Press Books
Release Date: 2013-03-29
Genre: Social Science
Between 1940 and 1974, the number of African American farmers fell from 681,790 to just 45,594--a drop of 93 percent. In his hard-hitting book, historian Pete Daniel analyzes this decline and chronicles black farmers' fierce struggles to remain on the land in the face of discrimination by bureaucrats in the U.S. Department of Agriculture. He exposes the shameful fact that at the very moment civil rights laws promised to end discrimination, hundreds of thousands of black farmers lost their hold on the land as they were denied loans, information, and access to the programs essential to survival in a capital-intensive farm structure. More than a matter of neglect of these farmers and their rights, this "passive nullification" consisted of a blizzard of bureaucratic obfuscation, blatant acts of discrimination and cronyism, violence, and intimidation. Dispossession recovers a lost chapter of the black experience in the American South, presenting a counternarrative to the conventional story of the progress achieved by the civil rights movement.
Since the financial crisis of 2000 and 2001 the Turkish economy has undergone considerable change and some improvement. This book gives a detailed examination of the neo-liberal restructuring that has taken place and the challenges the economy still faces, providing a comparative perspective on recent reforms and the position of Turkey in the global economy. This book examines all major aspects of the post-crisis economic performance of the Turkish economy. Major sectors of the economy such as agriculture and manufacturing along with key issues such as privatization, export growth, developments in the labour market, poverty and social exclusion are analysed in detail. The authors consider Turkish performance from a comparative perspective, drawing attention to its similarities with the experience of other emerging markets. Providing an insight into the major difficulties of post-crisis adjustment, sustainability of the gains achieved so far and the challenges that lie ahead, this book will be of interest to academics and scholars in the fields of International Political Economy and Globalization Studies, Middle East Studies and Development Studies, as well as having significance for practitioners in emerging markets.
Author: David Harvey
Publisher: Ullstein eBooks
Release Date: 2015-03-06
Genre: Social Science
WORUM GEHT ES? Gibt es seit dem Ende des Kommunismus wirklich keine echten Alternativen zum Kapitalismus? David Harvey meint: Doch! Man muss allerdings das Wesen des Kapitalismus genau verstehen, um ihn durch einen revolutionären Humanismus ersetzen zu können, in dessen Zentrum nicht das Kapital, sondern der Mensch steht. Konkret untersucht Harvey die Anhäufung von Kapital, das fatale Wachstumscredo, den spekulativen Immobilienmarkt und den Raubbau an der Natur. Er beschreibt jedoch nicht nur Krisen, sondern zeigt auch Chancen auf. Denn gerade die Widersprüche im Kapitalismus können Anfangspunkte für neue politische und kulturelle Bewegungen sein. Die utopische Kraft dafür kommt aus den Städten. WAS IST BESONDERS? Eine fundierte, realitätsnahe Kapitalismuskritik und zugleich ein Manifest des Wandels – geschrieben von einem der führenden Sozialtheoretiker der heutigen Zeit. WER LIEST? • Jeder, der die globalen Machtverhältnisse kritisch sieht • Leser von Stéphane Hessel, Michael J. Sandel, David Graeber und Thomas Piketty
Author: Tirthankar Roy
Release Date: 2005-05-19
Genre: Business & Economics
As author of the hugely influential The Economic History of India 1857-1947, Tirthankar Roy has established himself as the leading contemporary economic historian of India. Here, Roy turns his attention to labour and livelihood and the nature of economic change in the Subcontinent. This book covers: economic history of modern India rural labour labour-intensive industrialization women and industrialization. Challenging the prevailing wisdom on Indian economic growth - that it is bound up with Marxian, postcolonial class analysis - Roy formulates a new view. Commercialization, surplus labour and uncertainty are seen as equally important and the end result reconciles the increasingly opposed view of economists and historians.