This book serves as a very good resource and teaching material for anyone who wants to discover the beauty of Induction and its applications, from novice mathematicians to Olympiad-driven students and professors teaching undergraduate courses. The authors explore 10 different areas of mathematics, including topics that are not usually discussed in an Olympiad-oriented book on the subject. Induction is one of the most important techniques used in competitions and its applications permeate almost every area of mathematics.
Author: David S. Gunderson
Publisher: Discrete Mathematics and its Applications
Release Date: 2016-10
Handbook of Mathematical Induction: Theory and Applications shows how to find and write proofs via mathematical induction. This comprehensive book covers the theory, the structure of the written proof, all standard exercises, and hundreds of application examples from nearly every area of mathematics. In the first part of the book, the author discusses different inductive techniques, including well-ordered sets, basic mathematical induction, strong induction, double induction, infinite descent, downward induction, and several variants. He then introduces ordinals and cardinals, transfinite induction, the axiom of choice, Zorn s lemma, empirical induction, and fallacies and induction. He also explains how to write inductive proofs. The next part contains more than 750 exercises that highlight the levels of difficulty of an inductive proof, the variety of inductive techniques available, and the scope of results provable by mathematical induction. Each self-contained chapter in this section includes the necessary definitions, theory, and notation and covers a range of theorems and problems, from fundamental to very specialized. The final part presents either solutions or hints to the exercises. Slightly longer than what is found in most texts, these solutions provide complete details for every step of the problem-solving process. "
Author: Steven H. Weintraub
Publisher: Courier Dover Publications
Release Date: 2017-05-03
Mathematical induction — along with its equivalents, complete induction and well-ordering, and its immediate consequence, the pigeonhole principle — constitute essential proof techniques. Every mathematician is familiar with mathematical induction, and every student of mathematics requires a grasp of its concepts. This volume provides an introduction and a thorough exposure to these proof techniques. Geared toward students of mathematics at all levels, the text is particularly suitable for courses in mathematical induction, theorem-proving, and problem-solving. The treatment begins with both intuitive and formal explanations of mathematical induction and its equivalents. The next chapter presents many problems consisting of results to be proved by induction, with solutions omitted to enable instructors to assign them to students. Problems vary in difficulty; the majority of them require little background, and the most advanced involve calculus or linear algebra. The final chapter features proofs too complicated for students to find on their own, some of which are famous theorems by well-known mathematicians. For these beautiful and important theorems, the author provides expositions and proofs. The text concludes with a helpful Appendix providing the logical equivalence of the various forms of induction.
Author: Razvan Gelca
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2007-08-11
Putnam and Beyond takes the reader on a journey through the world of college mathematics, focusing on some of the most important concepts and results in the theories of polynomials, linear algebra, real analysis in one and several variables, differential equations, coordinate geometry, trigonometry, elementary number theory, combinatorics, and probability. Using the W.L. Putnam Mathematical Competition for undergraduates as an inspiring symbol to build an appropriate math background for graduate studies in pure or applied mathematics, the reader is eased into transitioning from problem-solving at the high school level to the university and beyond, that is, to mathematical research.
Author: Osman Güler
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2010-08-03
Genre: Business & Economics
This book covers the fundamental principles of optimization in finite dimensions. It develops the necessary material in multivariable calculus both with coordinates and coordinate-free, so recent developments such as semidefinite programming can be dealt with.
Author: Stephen Siklos
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Release Date: 2016-01-25
This book is intended to help students prepare for entrance examinations in mathematics and scientific subjects, including STEP (Sixth Term Examination Papers). STEP examinations are used by Cambridge colleges as the basis for conditional offers in mathematics and sometimes in other mathematics-related subjects. They are also used by Warwick University, and many other mathematics departments recommend that their applicants practice on past papers to become accustomed to university-style mathematics. Advanced Problems in Mathematics is recommended as preparation for any undergraduate mathematics course, even for students who do not plan to take the Sixth Term Examination Paper. The questions analysed in this book are all based on recent STEP questions selected to address the syllabus for Papers I and II, which is the A-level core (i.e. C1 to C4) with a few additions. Each question is followed by a comment and a full solution. The comments direct the reader’s attention to key points and put the question in its true mathematical context. The solutions point students to the methodology required to address advanced mathematical problems critically and independently. This book is a must read for any student wishing to apply to scientific subjects at university level and for anybody interested in advanced mathematics.
Author: Herbert S. Wilf
Release Date: 2014-05-10
Generatingfunctionology provides information pertinent to generating functions and some of their uses in discrete mathematics. This book presents the power of the method by giving a number of examples of problems that can be profitably thought about from the point of view of generating functions. Organized into five chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basic concepts of a generating function. This text then discusses the different kinds of series that are widely used as generating functions. Other chapters explain how to make much more precise estimates of the sizes of the coefficients of power series based on the analyticity of the function that is represented by the series. This book discusses as well the applications of the theory of generating functions to counting problems. The final chapter deals with the formal aspects of the theory of generating functions. This book is a valuable resource for mathematicians and students.
Author: George B. Arfken
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2013-10-22
This new and completely revised Fourth Edition provides thorough coverage of the important mathematics needed for upper-division and graduate study in physics and engineering. Following more than 28 years of successful class-testing, Mathematical Methods for Physicists is considered the standard text on the subject. A new chapter on nonlinear methods and chaos is included, as are revisions of the differential equations and complex variables chapters. The entire book has been made even more accessible, with special attention given to clarity, completeness, and physical motivation. It is an excellent reference apart from its course use. This revised Fourth Edition includes: Modernized terminology Group theoretic methods brought together and expanded in a new chapter An entirely new chapter on nonlinear mathematical physics Significant revisions of the differential equations and complex variables chapters Many new or improved exercises Forty new or improved figures An update of computational techniques for today's contemporary tools, such as microcomputers, Numerical Recipes, and Mathematica(r), among others
Focusing on Trigonometry reveals a wealth of alternate approaches to solving intricate geometry problems while providing foundational support in other areas of mathematics such as Fourier Analysis and Differential Equations. It is time for Trigonometry to receive the attention it deserves in this stand-alone book where the theory chapter is an invaluable pedagogical resource with lots of examples and guided exercises and the subsequent chapters offer a collection of carefully selected introductory through advanced problems and solutions intended to enhance the problem-solving skills of the reader. This book is not only for those studying for mathematics Olympiads but all individuals who want a better understanding of Trigonometry so they will be more successful in different settings such as a calculus course. This book offers a comprehensive overview of the trigonometric functions and contains a collection of 115 carefully selected introductory and advanced problems in Trigonometry from world-wide renowned Olympiads and mathematical magazines, as well as original problems designed by the authors. Together with the beautiful examples and the creative solutions, the present text is a valuable resource and teaching material for anybody who wants to explore the beauty of Trigonometry.
Author: Marcus Kracht
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
Release Date: 2003-01-01
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines
This book studies language(s) and linguistic theories from a mathematical point of view. Starting with ideas already contained in Montague's work, it develops the mathematical foundations of present day linguistics. It equips the reader with all the background necessary to understand and evaluate theories as diverse as Montague Grammar, Categorial Grammar, HPSG and GB. The mathematical tools are mainly from universal algebra and logic, but no particular knowledge is presupposed beyond a certain mathematical sophistication that is in any case needed in order to fruitfully work within these theories. The presentation focuses on abstract mathematical structures and their computational properties, but plenty of examples from different natural languages are provided to illustrate the main concepts and results. In contrast to books devoted to so-called formal language theory, languages are seen here as semiotic systems, that is, as systems of signs. A language sign correlates form with meaning. Using the principle of compositionality it is possible to gain substantial insight into the interaction between form and meaning in natural languages.
Author: Titu Andreescu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2010-09-02
This problem-solving book is an introduction to the study of Diophantine equations, a class of equations in which only integer solutions are allowed. The presentation features some classical Diophantine equations, including linear, Pythagorean, and some higher degree equations, as well as exponential Diophantine equations. Many of the selected exercises and problems are original or are presented with original solutions. An Introduction to Diophantine Equations: A Problem-Based Approach is intended for undergraduates, advanced high school students and teachers, mathematical contest participants — including Olympiad and Putnam competitors — as well as readers interested in essential mathematics. The work uniquely presents unconventional and non-routine examples, ideas, and techniques.
Author: Lynn Harold Loomis
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company
Release Date: 2014-02-26
An authorised reissue of the long out of print classic textbook, Advanced Calculus by the late Dr Lynn Loomis and Dr Shlomo Sternberg both of Harvard University has been a revered but hard to find textbook for the advanced calculus course for decades. This book is based on an honors course in advanced calculus that the authors gave in the 1960's. The foundational material, presented in the unstarred sections of Chapters 1 through 11, was normally covered, but different applications of this basic material were stressed from year to year, and the book therefore contains more material than was covered in any one year. It can accordingly be used (with omissions) as a text for a year's course in advanced calculus, or as a text for a three-semester introduction to analysis. The prerequisites are a good grounding in the calculus of one variable from a mathematically rigorous point of view, together with some acquaintance with linear algebra. The reader should be familiar with limit and continuity type arguments and have a certain amount of mathematical sophistication. As possible introductory texts, we mention Differential and Integral Calculus by R Courant, Calculus by T Apostol, Calculus by M Spivak, and Pure Mathematics by G Hardy. The reader should also have some experience with partial derivatives. In overall plan the book divides roughly into a first half which develops the calculus (principally the differential calculus) in the setting of normed vector spaces, and a second half which deals with the calculus of differentiable manifolds.