Author: Frank Pobell
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2013-04-17
The aim of this book is to provide information about performing experi ments at low temperatures, as well as basic facts concerning the low tem perature properties of liquid and solid matter. To orient the reader, I begin with chapters on these low temperature properties. The major part of the book is then devoted to refrigeration techniques and to the physics on which they are based. Of equal importance, of course, are the definition and measurement of temperature; hence low temperature thermometry is extensively discussed in subsequent chapters. Finally, I describe a variety of design and construction techniques which have turned out to be useful over the years. The content of the book is based on the three-hour-per-week lecture course which I have given several times at the University of Bayreuth between 1983 and 1991. It should be particularly suited for advanced stu dents whose intended masters (diploma) or Ph.D. subject is experimental condensed matter physics at low temperatures. However, I believe that the book will also be of value to experienced scientists, since it describes sev eral very recent advances in experimental low temperature physics and technology, for example, new developments in nuclear refrigeration and thermometry.
This practical book provides recipes for the construction of devices used in low temperature experimentation. Advice for solving various experimental problems at low temperatures include bridge and frequency measuring techniques, recommended procedures for reducing vibrations and stray electric signals, and calculations for optimizing the pumping seeds of gases. Edited by Nobel laureate Robert Richardson and Eric N. Smith, both of Cornell University, this volume emphasizes 'what works', rather than what might be the optimum method, and lists current sources for purchasing components and equipment.
Author: Jack Ekin
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2006-10-12
Aimed at a broad readership across applied science, this illustrated text builds a consistent, self-supporting knowledge base of low-temperature apparatus design. Many recent developments in measurement techniques, superconductors, and scaling theory not previously published are covered.
Author: Leonid Khriachtchev
Publisher: Pan Stanford Publishing
Release Date: 2011-06-22
Covering the fundamental and practical aspects of the processes of thermodynamics as well as experimental and theoretical methods used in the field, this informed examination highlights how the development of thermodynamics has been essentially based on the potentials of cryogenic technology. Penned by leading scientists with strong experience in the field who predict that many useful and exciting phenomena remain to be discovered in the future, this well-researched educational resource contains both a history of and practical recommendations for the ongoing study of matter at low temperature.
Author: Guy Kendall White
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
Release Date: 2002-02-21
Cryogenics (low temperature physics) has become a critical component of every day life through its use in satellite communications, medical diagnosis, natural gas transport, infrared surveillance, and many more applications. In this new edition of one of the leading books in the field, the authors explain the underlying principles and effects of cooling systems, liquid nitrogen, liquid helium and the approach to absolute zero. Accompanied by instructive illustrations throughout, the text covers all aspects of cryogenics including, a historical perspective, basic physics, construction techniques, thermometry, materials data, references and data sources, and information on commercial suppliers. No other book provides such a focused and up-to-date look at the techniques and practical applications of low temperature experimentation.
Low-temperature X-ray diffraction (LTXRD) investigations offer many challenges to the diffractionist, not all of which are technical or scientific in nature. LTXRD studies can be frustrating: There are at least two reports of investigations ruined by the loss of crystals (grown with extreme difficulty) because of the widespread power failure and blackout in the northeastern United States in late 1965. LTXRD studies can cause discomfort: In several instances, "low temperatures" have been attained by opening all the windows in the X-ray laboratory. LTXRD studies can be dangerous: It was once reported that a crys tal was lost because a laboratory assistant fell down a flight of stairs and lay unconscious for about an hour on his way to refilling a liquid-nitrogen (LN2 ) dewar. This last report indicated the disposition of the crystal but not that of the laboratory assistant. However, in general, the results of low-temperature X-ray diffraction investigations cannot be obtained in any other manner, and one is well compensated for the effort expended in constructing and maintaining a low-temperature system. Crystal-structure analyses of solidified liquids and gases, phase transformation investigations, accurate crystal-structure analy ses and electron-density maps, thermal expansion measurements, and defect structure studies are a few of the many important applications of LTXRD.
Author: T.H.K. Barron
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-12-06
The birth of this monograph is partly due to the persistent efforts of the General Editor, Dr. Klaus Timmerhaus, to persuade the authors that they encapsulate their forty or fifty years of struggle with the thermal properties of materials into a book before they either expired or became totally senile. We recognize his wisdom in wanting a monograph which includes the closely linked properties of heat capacity and thermal expansion, to which we have added a little 'cement' in the form of elastic moduli. There seems to be a dearth of practitioners in these areas, particularly among physics postgraduate students, sometimes temporarily alleviated when a new generation of exciting materials are found, be they heavy fermion compounds, high temperature superconductors, or fullerenes. And yet the needs of the space industry, telecommunications, energy conservation, astronomy, medical imaging, etc. , place demands for more data and understanding of these properties for all classes of materials - metals, polymers, glasses, ceramics, and mixtures thereof. There have been many useful books, including Specific Heats at Low Tempera tures by E. S. Raja Gopal (1966) in this Plenum Cryogenic Monograph Series, but few if any that covered these related topics in one book in a fashion designed to help the cryogenic engineer and cryophysicist. We hope that the introductory chapter will widen the horizons of many without a solid state background but with a general interest in physics and materials.
Author: Vladimir N. Ochkin
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2009-05-13
Written by a distinguished plasma scientist and experienced author, this up-to-date work comprehensively covers current methods and new developments and techniques, including non-equilibrium atomic and molecular plasma states, as well as such new applications as gas lasers. Containing numerous appendices with reference data indispensable for plasma spectroscopy, such as statistical weights and partition sums and diatomic molecules. For plasmaphysicists, spectroscopists, materials scientists and physical chemists. Appendix H is only available online.
Author: A Tari
Publisher: World Scientific
Release Date: 2003-08-12
Recent discoveries of new materials and improvements in calorimetric techniques have given new impetus to the subject of specific heat. Nevertheless, there is a serious lack of literature on the subject. This invaluable book, which goes some way towards remedying that, is concerned mainly with the specific heat of matter at ordinary temperatures. It discusses the principles that underlie the theory of specific heat and considers a number of theoretical models in some detail. The subject matter ranges from traditional materials to those recently discovered — heavy fermion compounds, high temperature superconductors, spin glasses and so on — and includes a large number of figures, tables and references. The book will be particularly useful for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as academics and researchers. Contents:Basic Concepts and DefinitionsLattice Specific HeatElectronic Specific HeatMagnetic Specific HeatSpecific Heat of Cryogenic LiquidsSpecific-Heat AnomaliesExperimental Techniques Readership: Upper level undergraduates, graduate students, researchers and academics.
Author: Werner Martienssen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2006-09-21
Springer Handbook of Condensed Matter and Materials Data provides a concise compilation of data and functional relationships from the fields of solid-state physics and materials in this 1200 page volume. The data, encapsulated in 914 tables and 1025 illustrations, have been selected and extracted primarily from the extensive high-quality data collection Landolt-Börnstein and also from other systematic data sources and recent publications of physical and technical property data. Many chapters are authored by Landolt-Börnstein editors, including the prominent Springer Handbook editors, W. Martienssen and H. Warlimont themselves. The Handbook is designed to be useful as a desktop reference for fast and easy retrieval of essential and reliable data in the lab or office. References to more extensive data sources are also provided in the book and by interlinking to the relevant sources on the enclosed CD-ROM. Physicists, chemists and engineers engaged in fields of solid-state sciences and materials technologies in research, development and application will appreciate the ready access to the key information coherently organized within this wide-ranging Handbook. From the reviews: "...this is the most complete compilation I have ever seen... When I received the book, I immediately searched for data I never found elsewhere..., and I found them rapidly... No doubt that this book will soon be in every library and on the desk of most solid state scientists and engineers. It will never be at rest." -Physicalia Magazine
Author: Paul K. Chu
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2013-07-15
Written by a team of pioneering scientists from around the world, Low Temperature Plasma Technology: Methods and Applications brings together recent technological advances and research in the rapidly growing field of low temperature plasmas. The book provides a comprehensive overview of related phenomena such as plasma bullets, plasma penetration into biofilms, discharge-mode transition of atmospheric pressure plasmas, and self-organization of microdischarges. It describes relevant technology and diagnostics, including nanosecond pulsed discharge, cavity ringdown spectroscopy, and laser-induced fluorescence measurement, and explores the increasing research on atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasma jets. The authors also discuss how low temperature plasmas are used in the synthesis of nanomaterials, environmental applications, the treatment of biomaterials, and plasma medicine. This book provides a balanced and thorough treatment of the core principles, novel technology and diagnostics, and state-of-the-art applications of low temperature plasmas. It is accessible to scientists and graduate students in low-pressure plasma physics, nanotechnology, plasma medicine, and materials science. The book is also suitable as an advanced reference for senior undergraduate students.
Author: Peter R. N. Childs
Release Date: 2001-10-15
Practical Temperature Measurement introduces the concepts of temperature and its measurement to engineers, physicists and chemists of all disciplines. The author describes the wide range of techniques and specific devices available for temperature measurement and provides guidance for the selection of a particular method for a given application. It is of value to engineering and physics postgraduates studying modules on instrumentation and process control and, in addition, for practical project work requiring an understanding of temperature measurement methods. For postgraduates and industrialists faced with the task of selecting a particular measurement method or sensor for an experiment, product or process, this text provides both thorough descriptions of the various techniques, as well as guidance for their selection. Essential for all those who need to measure temperature in real-life situations Includes worked examples of real situations commonly found in industry
Preparative Methods in Solid State Chemistry deals with the preparative methods used in solid state chemistry and highlights the importance of the chemist's role in preparing materials of desired quality as well as obtaining materials according to the requirements of the user such as the physicist. Topics covered range from high-pressure techniques in preparative chemistry to methods of growing single crystals of high-melting-point oxides. This book is comprised of 14 chapters and begins with an overview of possibilities for high-pressure synthesis, as well as the methods used to obtain high pressures, including transmission by gaseous or liquid fluids or in the solid state. The method of shock waves is then considered both from the point of view of thermodynamics and thermoelasticity, along with the possibility of using superpressures for evidently revolutionary applications. Subsequent chapters focus on the synthesis of single crystals of refractory oxides either at high temperatures (essentially liquid-solid transformations) or at lower temperatures in the presence of a solvent or a chemical reagent. The production of single crystals by electrolytic reduction in molten salts is also described. Numerous examples of vapor transport reactions in a temperature gradient are presented. This monograph should be of interest to chemists and students of solid state chemistry.
The book has four main parts. In the first part the discussion centers on inorganic synthesis reactions, dealing with inorganic synthesis and preparative chemistry under specific conditions: high temperature, low temperature and cryogenic, hydrothermal and solvothermal, high pressure and super-high pressure, photochemical, microwave irradiation and plasma conditions. The second part systematically describes the synthesis, preparation and assembly of six important categories of compounds with wide coverage of distinct synthetic chemistry systems: coordination compounds, coordination polymers, clusters, organometallic compounds, non-stoichiometric compounds and inorganic polymers. In the third part seven important representative inorganic materials are selected for discussion of their preparation and assembly, including porous, advanced ceramic, amorphous- and nano-materials, inorganic membranes, synthetic crystals and advanced functional materials. The last part of the book, which is also its distinct feature, addresses the frontiers of inorganic synthesis and preparative chemistry. These final two chapters introduce the two emerging synthetic areas. Included are approximately 3000 references, a large proportion of which are from the recent decade. Focuses on the "chemistry" of inorganic synthesis, preparation and assembly of various compounds and describes all inorganic synthesis methods New state of the art inorganic synthesis chemistry areas Inclusion of a number of real examples for the preparation and assembly of important classes of materials More than 3,000 reference to the primary literature Comprehensive state of the art reviews written by the experts in the area
Concrete as a construction material goes through both physical and chemical changes under extreme elevated temperatures. As one of the most widely used building materials, it is important that both engineers and architects are able to understand and predict its behavior in under extreme heat conditions. Brief and readable, this book provides the tools and techniques to properly analysis the effects of high temperature of reinforced concrete which will lead to more stable, safer structures. Based on years of the author’s research, Reinforced Concrete at Elevated Temperatures four part treatment starts with an unambiguous and thorough exposition of the mechanical behaviors of materials at elevated temperature followed by a discussion of Temperature field of member sections, Mechanical behaviors of members and structures at elevated temperature, ending with Theoretical analysis and practical calculation methods. The book provides unique insight into: Coupling thermal-mechanical constitutive relation of concrete Exceptional analyses of beams and columns of rectangular section with three surfaces and two adjacent surfaces exposing to high temperature Measurement and analysis of redistribution of internal forces of statically indeterminate structure during heating-loading process Finite element analysis and calculation charts for two-dimensional temperature field of structural members Finite element analysis and simplified calculation method for reinforced concrete structure at elevated temperature With this book, engineers and architects can effectively analyze the effect of high temperature on concrete and materials which will lead to better designs of fire resistant and damage evaluation and treatment after fire. Tools and techniques for analyzing the effects of high temperature on concrete and reinforcement materials. Measurement and analysis of redistribution of internal forces of statically indeterminate structure during the heating-loading process. Finite element analysis and calculation charts for two-dimensional temperature field of structural members. Finite element analysis and simplified calculation method for reinforced concrete structure at elevated temperature.