Author: Frank Pobell
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2013-04-17
This textbook contains information essential for successful experiments at low temperatures. The first chapters describe the low-temperature properties of liquids and solid matter, including liquid helium. Most of the book is devoted to refrigeration techniques and the physics on which they rely, the definition of temperature, thermometry, and a variety of design and construction techniques. The lively and practical style make it easy to read and particularly useful to anyone beginning research in low-temperature physics. Low-temperature scientists will find it of great value due to its extensive compilation of materials data and relevant new results.
This practical book provides recipes for the construction of devices used in low temperature experimentation. Advice for solving various experimental problems at low temperatures include bridge and frequency measuring techniques, recommended procedures for reducing vibrations and stray electric signals, and calculations for optimizing the pumping seeds of gases. Edited by Nobel laureate Robert Richardson and Eric N. Smith, both of Cornell University, this volume emphasizes 'what works', rather than what might be the optimum method, and lists current sources for purchasing components and equipment.
Author: Jack Ekin
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2006-10-12
Aimed at a broad readership across applied science, this illustrated text builds a consistent, self-supporting knowledge base of low-temperature apparatus design. Many recent developments in measurement techniques, superconductors, and scaling theory not previously published are covered.
Cryogenics is the study of low temperature interactions - temperatures well below those existing in the natural universe. The book covers a large spectrum of experimental cases, including basic vacuum techniques, indispensable in cryogenics. Guidance in solving experimental problems and numerous numerical examples are given, as are examples of the applications of cryogenics in such areas as underground detectors and space applications. Updated tables of low-temperature data on materials are also presented, and the book is supplemented with a rich bibliography. Researchers (graduate and above) in the fields of physics, engineering and chemistry with an interest in the technology and applications of low-temperature measurements, will find this book invaluable. Experiments described in technical detail Description of newest cryogenic apparatus Applications in multidisciplinary areas Data on cryogenic properties of new materials Current reference review
Low-temperature X-ray diffraction (LTXRD) investigations offer many challenges to the diffractionist, not all of which are technical or scientific in nature. LTXRD studies can be frustrating: There are at least two reports of investigations ruined by the loss of crystals (grown with extreme difficulty) because of the widespread power failure and blackout in the northeastern United States in late 1965. LTXRD studies can cause discomfort: In several instances, "low temperatures" have been attained by opening all the windows in the X-ray laboratory. LTXRD studies can be dangerous: It was once reported that a crys tal was lost because a laboratory assistant fell down a flight of stairs and lay unconscious for about an hour on his way to refilling a liquid-nitrogen (LN2 ) dewar. This last report indicated the disposition of the crystal but not that of the laboratory assistant. However, in general, the results of low-temperature X-ray diffraction investigations cannot be obtained in any other manner, and one is well compensated for the effort expended in constructing and maintaining a low-temperature system. Crystal-structure analyses of solidified liquids and gases, phase transformation investigations, accurate crystal-structure analy ses and electron-density maps, thermal expansion measurements, and defect structure studies are a few of the many important applications of LTXRD.
Author: Hans-Christian Stahl
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2005-04-05
Genre: Technology & Engineering
Presents experiment, theory and technology in a unified manner. Contains numerous illustrations, tables and references as well as carefully selected problems for students. Surveys the fascinating historical development of the field.
Author: A Tari
Publisher: World Scientific
Release Date: 2003-08-12
Recent discoveries of new materials and improvements in calorimetric techniques have given new impetus to the subject of specific heat. Nevertheless, there is a serious lack of literature on the subject. This invaluable book, which goes some way towards remedying that, is concerned mainly with the specific heat of matter at ordinary temperatures. It discusses the principles that underlie the theory of specific heat and considers a number of theoretical models in some detail. The subject matter ranges from traditional materials to those recently discovered — heavy fermion compounds, high temperature superconductors, spin glasses and so on — and includes a large number of figures, tables and references. The book will be particularly useful for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as academics and researchers. Contents:Basic Concepts and DefinitionsLattice Specific HeatElectronic Specific HeatMagnetic Specific HeatSpecific Heat of Cryogenic LiquidsSpecific-Heat AnomaliesExperimental Techniques Readership: Upper level undergraduates, graduate students, researchers and academics.
Author: Vladimir N. Ochkin
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2009-05-13
Written by a distinguished plasma scientist and experienced author, this up-to-date work comprehensively covers current methods and new developments and techniques, including non-equilibrium atomic and molecular plasma states, as well as such new applications as gas lasers. Containing numerous appendices with reference data indispensable for plasma spectroscopy, such as statistical weights and partition sums and diatomic molecules. For plasmaphysicists, spectroscopists, materials scientists and physical chemists. Appendix H is only available online.
Modern Inorganic Synthetic Chemistry, Second Edition captures, in five distinct sections, the latest advancements in inorganic synthetic chemistry, providing materials chemists, chemical engineers, and materials scientists with a valuable reference source to help them advance their research efforts and achieve breakthroughs. Section one includes six chapters centering on synthetic chemistry under specific conditions, such as high-temperature, low-temperature and cryogenic, hydrothermal and solvothermal, high-pressure, photochemical and fusion conditions. Section two focuses on the synthesis and related chemistry problems of highly distinct categories of inorganic compounds, including superheavy elements, coordination compounds and coordination polymers, cluster compounds, organometallic compounds, inorganic polymers, and nonstoichiometric compounds. Section three elaborates on the synthetic chemistry of five important classes of inorganic functional materials, namely, ordered porous materials, carbon materials, advanced ceramic materials, host-guest materials, and hierarchically structured materials. Section four consists of four chapters where the synthesis of functional inorganic aggregates is discussed, giving special attention to the growth of single crystals, assembly of nanomaterials, and preparation of amorphous materials and membranes. The new edition’s biggest highlight is Section five where the frontier in inorganic synthetic chemistry is reviewed by focusing on biomimetic synthesis and rationally designed synthesis. Focuses on the chemistry of inorganic synthesis, assembly, and organization of wide-ranging inorganic systems Covers all major methodologies of inorganic synthesis Provides state-of-the-art synthetic methods Includes real examples in the organization of complex inorganic functional materials Contains more than 4000 references that are all highly reflective of the latest advancement in inorganic synthetic chemistry Presents a comprehensive coverage of the key issues involved in modern inorganic synthetic chemistry as written by experts in the field
The topic of this book is Cold Spray technology. Cold Spray is a process of applying coatings by exposing a metallic or dielectric substrate to a high velocity (300 to 1200 m/s) jet of small (1 to 50 μm) particles accelerated by a supersonic jet of compressed gas. This process is based on the selection of the combination of particle temperature, velocity, and size that allows spraying at the lowest temperature possible. In the Cold Spray process, powder particles are accelerated by the supersonic gas jet at a temperature that is always lower than the melting point of the material, resulting in coating formation from particles in the solid state. As a consequence, the deleterious effects of high-temperature oxidation, evaporation, melting, crystallization, residual stresses, gas release, and other common problems for traditional thermal spray methods are minimized or eliminated. This book is the first of its kind on the Cold Spray process. Cold Spray Technology covers a wide spectrum of various aspects of the Cold Spray technology, including gas-dynamics, physics of interaction of high-speed solid particles with a substrate as well as equipment, technologies, and applications. Cold Spray Technology includes the results of more than 20 years of original studies (1984-2005) conducted at the Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics of the Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Science, as well as the results of studies conducted at most of the research centres around the world. The authors' goal is threefold. The first goal is to explain basic principles and advantages of the Cold Spray process. The second goal is, to give practical information on technologies and equipment. The third goal is to present the current state of research and development in this field over the world. The book provides coverage and data that will be of interest for users of Cold Spray technology as well as for other coating experts. At the present time the Cold Spray method is recognized by world leading scientists and specialists. A wide spectrum of research is being conducted at many research centres and companies in many countries. New approach to spray coatings Results are exceptionally pure coatings Low spray temperature without degradation of powder and substrate materials High productivity, high deposition efficiency High operational safety because of absence of high temperature gas jets, radiation and explosive gases Excellent thermal and electrical conductivity Wide spectrum of applications because of important advantages of the process
Luminescence Thermometry: Methods, Materials, and Applications presents the state-of-the art applications of luminescence thermometry, giving a detailed explanation of luminescence spectroscopic schemes for the read-out of temperature, while also describing the diverse materials that are capable of sensing temperature via luminescence. Chapters cover the fundamentals of temperature, traditional thermometers and their figures of merit, a concise description of optical thermometry methods, luminescence and instrumentation, and an explanation of the ways in which increases in temperature quench luminescence. Additional sections focus on materials utilized for luminescence thermometry and the broad range of applications for luminescence thermometry, including temperature measurement at the nanoscale and the application of multifunctional luminescent materials. Provides an overview of luminescence thermometry applications, including high-temperature, biomedical, nanoscale and multifunctional Delves into luminescence thermometry by materials group, including Rare-earth and transition Metal Ion Doped, Semiconductors, Quantum Dots and Organic materials Gives a concise introduction of the latest methods of temperature measurement, including luminescence spectroscopic schemes and methods of analysis
Author: Jeff Potter
Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."
Release Date: 2015-09-28
Why do we cook the way we do? Are you the innovative type, used to expressing your creativity instead of just following recipes? Do you want to learn to be a better cook or curious about the science behind what happens to food as it cooks? More than just a cookbook, Cooking for Geeks applies your curiosity to discovery, inspiration, and invention in the kitchen. Why do we bake some things at 350°F/175°C and others at 375°F/190°C? Why is medium-rare steak so popular? And just how quickly does a pizza cook if we overclock an oven to 1,000 F/540 C? Author and cooking geek Jeff Potter provides the answers to these questions and more, and offers his unique take on recipes -- from the sweet (a patent-violating chocolate chip cookie) to the savory (slow-cooked brisket). This book is an excellent and intriguing resource for anyone who enjoys cooking or wants to experiment in the kitchen. Discover what type of cook you are and calibrate your tools Learn about the important reactions in cooking, such as protein denaturation, Maillard reactions, and caramelization, and how they impact the foods we cook Gain firsthand insights from interviews with researchers, food scientists, knife experts, chefs, writers, and more, including author Harold McGee, TV personality Adam Savage, and chemist Hervé This
Author: Klaus Pretzl
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-12-06
For the last few years astrophysicists and elementary particle physicists have been working jointly on the following fascinating phenomena: 1. The solar neutrino puzzle and the question: What happens to the neutrinos on their way from the sun to the earth? 2. The growing evidence that our universe is filled with about 10 times more matter than is visible and the question: What is dark matter made of? 3. The supernovae explosions and the question: What do neutrinos tell us about such explosions and vice versa? The experimental investigation of these phenomena is difficult and involves unconventional techniques. These are presently under development, and bring together such seemingly disparate disciplines as astrophysics and elementary particle physics on the one hand and superconductivity and solid-state physics on the other. This book contains the proceedings of a workshop held in March 1987 at which the above subjects and their experimental investigation were discussed. The proposed experimental methods are very new. They involve frontier developments in low temperature and solid-state physics. The book should be useful to researchers and students who actively work on these subjects or plan to enter the field. It also offers the non-expert reader with some physics background a good survey of the activities in this field.
Author: Paul K. Chu
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2013-07-15
Written by a team of pioneering scientists from around the world, Low Temperature Plasma Technology: Methods and Applications brings together recent technological advances and research in the rapidly growing field of low temperature plasmas. The book provides a comprehensive overview of related phenomena such as plasma bullets, plasma penetration into biofilms, discharge-mode transition of atmospheric pressure plasmas, and self-organization of microdischarges. It describes relevant technology and diagnostics, including nanosecond pulsed discharge, cavity ringdown spectroscopy, and laser-induced fluorescence measurement, and explores the increasing research on atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasma jets. The authors also discuss how low temperature plasmas are used in the synthesis of nanomaterials, environmental applications, the treatment of biomaterials, and plasma medicine. This book provides a balanced and thorough treatment of the core principles, novel technology and diagnostics, and state-of-the-art applications of low temperature plasmas. It is accessible to scientists and graduate students in low-pressure plasma physics, nanotechnology, plasma medicine, and materials science. The book is also suitable as an advanced reference for senior undergraduate students.
Author: Peter R. N. Childs
Release Date: 2001-10-15
Practical Temperature Measurement introduces the concepts of temperature and its measurement to engineers, physicists and chemists of all disciplines. The author describes the wide range of techniques and specific devices available for temperature measurement and provides guidance for the selection of a particular method for a given application. It is of value to engineering and physics postgraduates studying modules on instrumentation and process control and, in addition, for practical project work requiring an understanding of temperature measurement methods. For postgraduates and industrialists faced with the task of selecting a particular measurement method or sensor for an experiment, product or process, this text provides both thorough descriptions of the various techniques, as well as guidance for their selection. Essential for all those who need to measure temperature in real-life situations Includes worked examples of real situations commonly found in industry