Matter and Methods at Low Temperatures

Author: Frank Pobell
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783662085783
Release Date: 2013-04-17
Genre: Science

The aim of this book is to provide information about performing experi ments at low temperatures, as well as basic facts concerning the low tem perature properties of liquid and solid matter. To orient the reader, I begin with chapters on these low temperature properties. The major part of the book is then devoted to refrigeration techniques and to the physics on which they are based. Of equal importance, of course, are the definition and measurement of temperature; hence low temperature thermometry is extensively discussed in subsequent chapters. Finally, I describe a variety of design and construction techniques which have turned out to be useful over the years. The content of the book is based on the three-hour-per-week lecture course which I have given several times at the University of Bayreuth between 1983 and 1991. It should be particularly suited for advanced stu dents whose intended masters (diploma) or Ph.D. subject is experimental condensed matter physics at low temperatures. However, I believe that the book will also be of value to experienced scientists, since it describes sev eral very recent advances in experimental low temperature physics and technology, for example, new developments in nuclear refrigeration and thermometry.

Experimental techniques in condensed matter physics at low temperatures

Author: Robert Coleman Richardson
Publisher: Addison-Wesley Longman
ISBN: UVA:X001355492
Release Date: 1988
Genre: Science

This practical book provides recipes for the construction of devices used in low temperature experimentation. Advice for solving various experimental problems at low temperatures include bridge and frequency measuring techniques, recommended procedures for reducing vibrations and stray electric signals, and calculations for optimizing the pumping seeds of gases. Edited by Nobel laureate Robert Richardson and Eric N. Smith, both of Cornell University, this volume emphasizes 'what works', rather than what might be the optimum method, and lists current sources for purchasing components and equipment.

Experimental Techniques in Low Temperature Physics

Author: Guy Kendall White
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 019851428X
Release Date: 2002-02-21
Genre: Science

Cryogenics (low temperature physics) has become a critical component of every day life through its use in satellite communications, medical diagnosis, natural gas transport, infrared surveillance, and many more applications. In this new edition of one of the leading books in the field, the authors explain the underlying principles and effects of cooling systems, liquid nitrogen, liquid helium and the approach to absolute zero. Accompanied by instructive illustrations throughout, the text covers all aspects of cryogenics including, a historical perspective, basic physics, construction techniques, thermometry, materials data, references and data sources, and information on commercial suppliers. No other book provides such a focused and up-to-date look at the techniques and practical applications of low temperature experimentation.

Experimental Low Temperature Physics

Author: T. Kent
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1563960303
Release Date: 1992-10-01
Genre: Science

Market: Graduate students in condensed matter and atomic and molecular physics. This engagingly written book introduces the field and provides important information for those making low temperature measurements. Fundamental thermodynamic considerations are covered at the start and the book concludes with commercial applications and an appendix on laser cooling.

Low Temperature Detectors for Neutrinos and Dark Matter

Author: Klaus Pretzl
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642729591
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

For the last few years astrophysicists and elementary particle physicists have been working jointly on the following fascinating phenomena: 1. The solar neutrino puzzle and the question: What happens to the neutrinos on their way from the sun to the earth? 2. The growing evidence that our universe is filled with about 10 times more matter than is visible and the question: What is dark matter made of? 3. The supernovae explosions and the question: What do neutrinos tell us about such explosions and vice versa? The experimental investigation of these phenomena is difficult and involves unconventional techniques. These are presently under development, and bring together such seemingly disparate disciplines as astrophysics and elementary particle physics on the one hand and superconductivity and solid-state physics on the other. This book contains the proceedings of a workshop held in March 1987 at which the above subjects and their experimental investigation were discussed. The proposed experimental methods are very new. They involve frontier developments in low temperature and solid-state physics. The book should be useful to researchers and students who actively work on these subjects or plan to enter the field. It also offers the non-expert reader with some physics background a good survey of the activities in this field.

Physics and Chemistry at Low Temperatures

Author: Leonid Khriachtchev
Publisher: Pan Stanford Publishing
ISBN: 9789814267519
Release Date: 2011-06-22
Genre: Medical

Covering the fundamental and practical aspects of the processes of thermodynamics as well as experimental and theoretical methods used in the field, this informed examination highlights how the development of thermodynamics has been essentially based on the potentials of cryogenic technology. Penned by leading scientists with strong experience in the field who predict that many useful and exciting phenomena remain to be discovered in the future, this well-researched educational resource contains both a history of and practical recommendations for the ongoing study of matter at low temperature.

The Principles of Thermodynamics

Author: N.D. Hari Dass
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781466512092
Release Date: 2013-10-02
Genre: Science

This text presents the conceptual and technical developments of the subject without unduly compromising on either the historical or logical perspective. It also covers the tremendous range of scientifically deep and technologically revolutionary applications of thermodynamics. The text explains how thermodynamics evolved from a few basic laws that were amazingly successful and with tremendous range, without even knowing about the atomic structure of matter or the laws governing the behavior of atoms.

Experimental Techniques for Low Temperature Measurements Cryostat Design Material Properties and Superconductor Critical Current Testing

Author: Jack Ekin
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0198570546
Release Date: 2006-10-12
Genre: Science

This book presents a highly integrated, step-by-step approach to the design and construction of low-temperature measurement apparatus. It is effectively two books in one: A textbook on cryostat design techniques and an appendix data handbook that provides materials-property data for carrying out that design. The main text encompasses a wide range of information, written for specialists, without leaving beginning students behind. After summarizing cooling methods, Part I provides core information in an accessible style on techniques for cryostat design and fabrication - including heat-transfer design, selection of materials, construction, wiring, and thermometry, accompanied by many graphs, data, and clear examples. Part II gives a practical user's perspective of sample mounting techniques and contact technology. Part III applies the information from Parts I and II to the measurement and analysis of superconductor critical currents, including in-depth measurement techniques and the latest developments in data analysis and scaling theory. The appendix is a ready reference handbook for cryostat design, encompassing seventy tables compiled from the contributions of experts and over fifty years of literature.

Low Temperature Materials and Mechanisms

Author: Yoseph Bar-Cohen
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781315354675
Release Date: 2016-08-03
Genre: Science

This book addresses the growing interest in low temperature technologies. Since the subject of low temperature materials and mechanisms is multidisciplinary, the chapters reflect the broadest possible perspective of the field. Leading experts in the specific subject area address the various related science and engineering chemistry, material science, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, metallurgy, and physics.

Quantum Monte Carlo Methods in Condensed Matter Physics

Author: Masuo Suzuki
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9810236832
Release Date: 1993
Genre: Science

This book reviews recent developments of quantum Monte Carlo methods and some remarkable applications to interacting quantum spin systems and strongly correlated electron systems. It contains twenty-two papers by thirty authors. Some of the features are as follows. The first paper gives the foundations of the standard quantum Monte Carlo method, including some recent results on higher-order decompositions of exponential operators and ordered exponentials. The second paper presents a general review of quantum Monte Carlo methods used in the present book. One of the most challenging problems in the field of quantum Monte Carlo techniques, the negative-sign problem, is also discussed and new methods proposed to partially overcome it. In addition, low-dimensional quantum spin systems are studied. Some interesting applications of quantum Monte Carlo methods to fermion systems are also presented to investigate the role of strong correlations and fluctuations of electrons and to clarify the mechanism of high-c superconductivity. Not only thermal properties but also quantum-mechanical ground-state properties have been studied by the projection technique using auxiliary fields. Further, the Haldane gap is confirmed by numerical calculations. Active researchers in the forefront of condensed matter physics as well as young graduate students who want to start learning the quantum Monte Carlo methods will find this book useful.

Festk rperphysik

Author: Rudolf Gross
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 9783110396874
Release Date: 2014-10-23
Genre: Science

Das über mehrere Jahre ausgefeilte und weithin anerkannte Lehrbuch führt in alle aktuelle Festkörperphysikthemen ein und vermittelt darüber hinaus das Verständnis für weiterführende Spezialgebiete. Es gelingt den Autoren nicht nur, die moderne Festkörperphysik in all ihrer Breite leicht verständlich und strukturiert zu behandeln, sondern auch ein tieferes Verständnis für die wissenschaftliche Entwicklung dieses Fachbereichs zu schaffen.

Polymer Properties at Room and Cryogenic Temperatures

Author: Gunther Hartwig
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306449870
Release Date: 1995-01-31
Genre: Science

Most descriptions of polymers start at room temperature and end at the melting point. This textbook starts at very low temperatures and ends at room temperature. At low temperatures, may processes and relaxations are frozen which allows singular processes or separate relaxations to be studied. At room temperatures, or at the main glass transitions, many processes overlap and the properties are determined by relaxations. At low temperatures, there are temperature ranges with negligible influences by glass transitions. They can be used for investigating so-called basic properties which arise from principles of solid state physics. The chain structure of polymers, however, requires stringent modifications for establishing solid state physics of polymers. Several processes which are specific of polymers, occur only at low temperatures. There are also technological aspects for considering polymers at low temperatures. More and more applications of polymeric materials in low temperature technology appear. Some examples are thermal and electrical insulations, support elements for cryogenic devices, low-loss materials for high frequency equipments. It is hoped that, in addition to the scientific part, a data collection in the appendix may help to apply polymers more intensively in low temperature technology. The author greatly appreciates the contributions by his coworkers of the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe in measurement and discussion of many data presented in the textbook and its appendix. Fruitful disccussions with the colleagues Prof. H. Baur, Prof. S. Hunklinger, Prof. D. Munz and Prof. R.