Matter and Methods at Low Temperatures

Author: Frank Pobell
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783662032251
Release Date: 2013-04-17
Genre: Science

This textbook contains information essential for successful experiments at low temperatures. The first chapters describe the low-temperature properties of liquids and solid matter, including liquid helium. Most of the book is devoted to refrigeration techniques and the physics on which they rely, the definition of temperature, thermometry, and a variety of design and construction techniques. The lively and practical style make it easy to read and particularly useful to anyone beginning research in low-temperature physics. Low-temperature scientists will find it of great value due to its extensive compilation of materials data and relevant new results.

Matter and Methods at Low Temperatures

Author: Frank Pobell
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783662085783
Release Date: 2013-04-17
Genre: Science

The aim of this book is to provide information about performing experi ments at low temperatures, as well as basic facts concerning the low tem perature properties of liquid and solid matter. To orient the reader, I begin with chapters on these low temperature properties. The major part of the book is then devoted to refrigeration techniques and to the physics on which they are based. Of equal importance, of course, are the definition and measurement of temperature; hence low temperature thermometry is extensively discussed in subsequent chapters. Finally, I describe a variety of design and construction techniques which have turned out to be useful over the years. The content of the book is based on the three-hour-per-week lecture course which I have given several times at the University of Bayreuth between 1983 and 1991. It should be particularly suited for advanced stu dents whose intended masters (diploma) or Ph.D. subject is experimental condensed matter physics at low temperatures. However, I believe that the book will also be of value to experienced scientists, since it describes sev eral very recent advances in experimental low temperature physics and technology, for example, new developments in nuclear refrigeration and thermometry.

Experimental techniques in condensed matter physics at low temperatures

Author: Robert Coleman Richardson
Publisher: Addison-Wesley Longman
ISBN: UVA:X001355492
Release Date: 1988
Genre: Science

This practical book provides recipes for the construction of devices used in low temperature experimentation. Advice for solving various experimental problems at low temperatures include bridge and frequency measuring techniques, recommended procedures for reducing vibrations and stray electric signals, and calculations for optimizing the pumping seeds of gases. Edited by Nobel laureate Robert Richardson and Eric N. Smith, both of Cornell University, this volume emphasizes 'what works', rather than what might be the optimum method, and lists current sources for purchasing components and equipment.

Low Temperature Detectors for Neutrinos and Dark Matter

Author: Klaus Pretzl
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642729591
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

For the last few years astrophysicists and elementary particle physicists have been working jointly on the following fascinating phenomena: 1. The solar neutrino puzzle and the question: What happens to the neutrinos on their way from the sun to the earth? 2. The growing evidence that our universe is filled with about 10 times more matter than is visible and the question: What is dark matter made of? 3. The supernovae explosions and the question: What do neutrinos tell us about such explosions and vice versa? The experimental investigation of these phenomena is difficult and involves unconventional techniques. These are presently under development, and bring together such seemingly disparate disciplines as astrophysics and elementary particle physics on the one hand and superconductivity and solid-state physics on the other. This book contains the proceedings of a workshop held in March 1987 at which the above subjects and their experimental investigation were discussed. The proposed experimental methods are very new. They involve frontier developments in low temperature and solid-state physics. The book should be useful to researchers and students who actively work on these subjects or plan to enter the field. It also offers the non-expert reader with some physics background a good survey of the activities in this field.

Experimental Techniques for Low Temperature Measurements

Author: Jack Ekin
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198570547
Release Date: 2006-10-12
Genre: Science

Aimed at a broad readership across applied science, this illustrated text builds a consistent, self-supporting knowledge base of low-temperature apparatus design. Many recent developments in measurement techniques, superconductors, and scaling theory not previously published are covered.

Low Temperature Physics

Author: Hans-Christian Stahl
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540231646
Release Date: 2005-04-05
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Presents experiment, theory and technology in a unified manner. Contains numerous illustrations, tables and references as well as carefully selected problems for students. Surveys the fascinating historical development of the field.

Physics and Chemistry at Low Temperatures

Author: Leonid Khriachtchev
Publisher: Pan Stanford Publishing
ISBN: 9789814267519
Release Date: 2011-06-22
Genre: Medical

Covering the fundamental and practical aspects of the processes of thermodynamics as well as experimental and theoretical methods used in the field, this informed examination highlights how the development of thermodynamics has been essentially based on the potentials of cryogenic technology. Penned by leading scientists with strong experience in the field who predict that many useful and exciting phenomena remain to be discovered in the future, this well-researched educational resource contains both a history of and practical recommendations for the ongoing study of matter at low temperature.

Low Temperature Plasma Technology

Author: Paul K. Chu
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781466509900
Release Date: 2013-07-15
Genre: Science

Written by a team of pioneering scientists from around the world, Low Temperature Plasma Technology: Methods and Applications brings together recent technological advances and research in the rapidly growing field of low temperature plasmas. The book provides a comprehensive overview of related phenomena such as plasma bullets, plasma penetration into biofilms, discharge-mode transition of atmospheric pressure plasmas, and self-organization of microdischarges. It describes relevant technology and diagnostics, including nanosecond pulsed discharge, cavity ringdown spectroscopy, and laser-induced fluorescence measurement, and explores the increasing research on atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasma jets. The authors also discuss how low temperature plasmas are used in the synthesis of nanomaterials, environmental applications, the treatment of biomaterials, and plasma medicine. This book provides a balanced and thorough treatment of the core principles, novel technology and diagnostics, and state-of-the-art applications of low temperature plasmas. It is accessible to scientists and graduate students in low-pressure plasma physics, nanotechnology, plasma medicine, and materials science. The book is also suitable as an advanced reference for senior undergraduate students.

Condensed Matter Field Theory

Author: Alexander Altland
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521769754
Release Date: 2010-03-11
Genre: Science

This primer is aimed at elevating graduate students of condensed matter theory to a level where they can engage in independent research. Topics covered include second quantisation, path and functional field integration, mean-field theory and collective phenomena.

Spacetime Geometry and Gravitation

Author: Pankaj Sharan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783764399702
Release Date: 2009-09-18
Genre: Mathematics

This introductory textbook on the general theory of relativity presents a solid foundation for those who want to learn about relativity. The subject is presented in a physically intuitive, but mathematically rigorous style. The topic of relativity is covered in a broad and deep manner. Besides, the aim is that after reading the book a student should not feel discouraged when she opens advanced texts on general relativity for further reading. The book consists of three parts: An introduction to the general theory of relativity. Geometrical mathematical background material. Topics that include the action principle, weak gravitational fields and gravitational waves, Schwarzschild and Kerr solution, and the Friedman equation in cosmology. The book is suitable for advanced graduates and graduates, but also for established researchers wishing to be educated about the field.

Modern Inorganic Synthetic Chemistry

Author: Ruren Xu
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780444635952
Release Date: 2017-02-11
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Modern Inorganic Synthetic Chemistry, Second Edition captures, in five distinct sections, the latest advancements in inorganic synthetic chemistry, providing materials chemists, chemical engineers, and materials scientists with a valuable reference source to help them advance their research efforts and achieve breakthroughs. Section one includes six chapters centering on synthetic chemistry under specific conditions, such as high-temperature, low-temperature and cryogenic, hydrothermal and solvothermal, high-pressure, photochemical and fusion conditions. Section two focuses on the synthesis and related chemistry problems of highly distinct categories of inorganic compounds, including superheavy elements, coordination compounds and coordination polymers, cluster compounds, organometallic compounds, inorganic polymers, and nonstoichiometric compounds. Section three elaborates on the synthetic chemistry of five important classes of inorganic functional materials, namely, ordered porous materials, carbon materials, advanced ceramic materials, host-guest materials, and hierarchically structured materials. Section four consists of four chapters where the synthesis of functional inorganic aggregates is discussed, giving special attention to the growth of single crystals, assembly of nanomaterials, and preparation of amorphous materials and membranes. The new edition’s biggest highlight is Section five where the frontier in inorganic synthetic chemistry is reviewed by focusing on biomimetic synthesis and rationally designed synthesis. Focuses on the chemistry of inorganic synthesis, assembly, and organization of wide-ranging inorganic systems Covers all major methodologies of inorganic synthesis Provides state-of-the-art synthetic methods Includes real examples in the organization of complex inorganic functional materials Contains more than 4000 references that are all highly reflective of the latest advancement in inorganic synthetic chemistry Presents a comprehensive coverage of the key issues involved in modern inorganic synthetic chemistry as written by experts in the field

Thermochemical Surface Engineering of Steels

Author: Eric J. Mittemeijer
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780857096524
Release Date: 2014-09-27
Genre: Science

Thermochemical surface engineering significantly improves the properties of steels. Edited by two of the world’s leading authorities, this important book summarises the range of techniques and their applications. It covers nitriding, nitrocarburizing and carburizing. There are also chapters on low temperature techniques as well as boriding, sheradizing, aluminizing, chromizing, thermo-reactive deposition and diffusion. Reviews the fundamentals of surface treatments and current performance of improved materials Covers nitriding, nitrocarburizing and carburizing of iron and iron carbon alloys Examines how different thermochemical surface engineering methods can help against corrosion

Principles of Condensed Matter Physics

Author: P. M. Chaikin
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139643054
Release Date: 2000-09-28
Genre: Science

Now in paperback, this book provides an overview of the physics of condensed matter systems. Assuming a familiarity with the basics of quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics, the book establishes a general framework for describing condensed phases of matter, based on symmetries and conservation laws. It explores the role of spatial dimensionality and microscopic interactions in determining the nature of phase transitions, as well as discussing the structure and properties of materials with different symmetries. Particular attention is given to critical phenomena and renormalization group methods. The properties of liquids, liquid crystals, quasicrystals, crystalline solids, magnetically ordered systems and amorphous solids are investigated in terms of their symmetry, generalised rigidity, hydrodynamics and topological defect structure. In addition to serving as a course text, this book is an essential reference for students and researchers in physics, applied physics, chemistry, materials science and engineering, who are interested in modern condensed matter physics.