Memory Systems

Author: Bruce Jacob
Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann
ISBN: 0080553842
Release Date: 2010-07-28
Genre: Computers

Is your memory hierarchy stopping your microprocessor from performing at the high level it should be? Memory Systems: Cache, DRAM, Disk shows you how to resolve this problem. The book tells you everything you need to know about the logical design and operation, physical design and operation, performance characteristics and resulting design trade-offs, and the energy consumption of modern memory hierarchies. You learn how to to tackle the challenging optimization problems that result from the side-effects that can appear at any point in the entire hierarchy. As a result you will be able to design and emulate the entire memory hierarchy. Understand all levels of the system hierarchy -Xcache, DRAM, and disk. Evaluate the system-level effects of all design choices. Model performance and energy consumption for each component in the memory hierarchy.

Cache and Memory Hierarchy Design

Author: Steven A. Przybylski
Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann
ISBN: 9781558601369
Release Date: 1990
Genre: Computers

A widely read and authoritative book for hardware and software designers. This innovative book exposes the characteristics of performance-optimal single- and multi-level cache hierarchies by approaching the cache design process through the novel perspective of minimizing execution time.

Static Analysis

Author: Jens Palsberg
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642032363
Release Date: 2009-07-20
Genre: Computers

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Static Analysis, SAS 2009, held in Los Angeles, CA, USA in August 2009 - co-located with LICS 2009, the 24th IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science. The 21 revised full papers presented together with two invited lectures were carefully reviewed and selected from 52 submissions. The papers address all aspects of static analysis including abstract domains, abstract interpretation, abstract testing, compiler optimizations, control flow analysis, data flow analysis, model checking, program specialization, security analysis, theoretical analysis frameworks, type based analysis, and verification systems.

The Memory System

Author: Bruce Jacob
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 9781598295887
Release Date: 2009-07-08
Genre: Computers

Today, computer-system optimization, at both the hardware and software levels, must consider the details of the memory system in its analysis; failing to do so yields systems that are increasingly inefficient as those systems become more complex. This lecture seeks to introduce the reader to the most important details of the memory system; it targets both computer scientists and computer engineers in industry and in academia. Roughly speaking, computer scientists are the users of the memory system and computer engineers are the designers of the memory system. Both can benefit tremendously from a basic understanding of how the memory system really works: the computer scientist will be better equipped to create algorithms that perform well and the computer engineer will be better equipped to design systems that approach the optimal, given the resource limitations. Currently, there is consensus among architecture researchers that the memory system is "the bottleneck," and this consensus has held for over a decade. Somewhat inexplicably, most of the research in the field is still directed toward improving the CPU to better tolerate a slow memory system, as opposed to addressing the weaknesses of the memory system directly. This lecture should get the bulk of the computer science and computer engineering population up the steep part of the learning curve. Not every CS/CE researcher/developer needs to do work in the memory system, but, just as a carpenter can do his job more efficiently if he knows a little of architecture, and an architect can do his job more efficiently if he knows a little of carpentry, giving the CS/CE worlds better intuition about the memory system should help them build better systems, both software and hardware. Table of Contents: Primers / It Must Be Modeled Accurately / ...\ and It Will Change Soon

Portable Electronics World Class Designs

Author: John Donovan
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0080950833
Release Date: 2009-03-12
Genre: Technology & Engineering

All the design and development inspiration and direction an electronics engineer needs in one blockbuster book! John Donovan, Editor-in Chief, Portable Design has selected the very best electronic design material from the Newnes portfolio and has compiled it into this volume. The result is a book covering the gamut of electronic design from design fundamentals to low-power approaches with a strong pragmatic emphasis. In addition to specific design techniques and practices, this book also discusses various approaches to solving electronic design problems and how to successfully apply theory to actual design tasks. The material has been selected for its timelessness as well as for its relevance to contemporary electronic design issues. Contents: Chapter 1 System Resource Partitioning and Code Optimization Chapter 2 Low Power Design Techniques, Design Methodology, and Tools Chapter 3 System-Level Approach to Energy Conservation Chapter 4 Radio Communication Basics Chapter 5 Applications and Technologies Chapter 6 RF Design Tools Chapter 7 On Memory Systems and Their Design Chapter 8 Storage in Mobile Consumer Electronics Devices Chapter 9 Analog Low-Pass Filters Chapter 10 Class A Amplifiers Chapter 11 MPEG-4 and H.264 Chapter 12 Liquid Crystal Displays *Hand-picked content selected by John Donovan, Editor-in Chief, Portable Design *Proven best design practices for low-power, storage, and streamlined development *Case histories and design examples get you off and running on your current project

Computer Organization and Architecture

Author: William Stallings
Publisher: Prentice Hall
ISBN: 9780136073734
Release Date: 2010
Genre: Computers

Four-time winner of the best Computer Science and Engineering textbook of the year award from the Textbook and Academic Authors Association, Computer Organization and Architecture: Designing for Performance provides a thorough discussion of the fundamentals of computer organization and architecture, covering not just processor design, but memory, I/O, and parallel systems. Coverage is supported by a wealth of concrete examples emphasizing modern RISC, CISC, and superscalar systems. Undergraduates and professionals in computer science, computer engineering, and electrical engineering courses will learn the fundamentals of processor and computer design from this award-winning text. The eighth revision has been updated to reflect major advances in computer technology, including multicore processors and embedded processors. Interactive simulations have been expanded and keyed into relevant sections of text.

Architecture of Computing Systems ARCS 2013

Author: Hana Kubatova
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783642364242
Release Date: 2013-02-12
Genre: Computers

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 26th International Conference on Architecture of Computing Systems, ARCS 2013, held in Prague, Czech Republic, in February 2013. The 29 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 73 submissions. The topics covered are computer architecture topics such as multi-cores, memory systems, and parallel computing, adaptive system architectures such as reconfigurable systems in hardware and software, customization and application specific accelerators in heterogeneous architectures, organic and autonomic computing including both theoretical and practical results on self-organization, self-configuration, self-optimization, self-healing, and self-protection techniques, operating systems including but not limited to scheduling, memory management, power management, RTOS, energy-awareness, and green computing.

AN INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL COMPUTER DESIGN

Author: V. RAJARAMAN
Publisher: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
ISBN: 8120334094
Release Date: 2008-03-01
Genre: Computers

This highly acclaimed, well established, book now in its fifth edition, is intended for an introductory course in digital computer design for B.Sc. students of computer science, B.Tech. students of computer science and engineering, and BCA/MCA students of computer applications. A knowledge of programming in C or Java would be useful to give the student a proper perspective to appreciate the development of the subject. The first part of the book presents the basic tools and developes procedures suitable for the design of digital circuits and small digital systems. It equips students with a firm understanding of logic principles before they study the intricacies of logic organization and architecture of computers in the second part. Besides discussing data representation, arithmetic operations, Boolean algebra and its application in designing combinatorial and sequential switching circuits, the book introduces the Algorithmic State Machines which are used to develop a hardware description language for the design of digital systems. The organization of a small hypothetical computer is described to illustrate how instruction sets are evolved. Real computers (namely, Pentium and MIPs machines) are described and compared with the hypothetical computer. After discussing the features of a CPU, I/O devices and I/O organization, cache and virtual memory, the book concludes with a new chapter on the use of parallelism to enhance the speed of computers. Besides, the fifth edition has new material in CMOS gates, MSI/ALU and Pentium5 architecture. The chapter on Cache and Virtual Memory has been rewritten.

Computer Organisation and Architecture

Author: D.A.Godse A.P.Godse
Publisher: Technical Publications
ISBN: 818941156X
Release Date: 2006-01-01
Genre:

OverviewGeneral organization and architecture; Structural/functional view of a computer; Evolution/brief history of computers.System busesComputer components-memory, cpu, i/o; Interconnection structures; Bus interconnection, multiple bus hierarchies, pci bus structure.Memory organizationInternal memory-characteristics, hierarchy; Semiconductor main memory-types of ram, chip logic, memory module organisation; cache memory-elements of cache design, address mapping and translation, replacement algorithms; Advanced dram organization; Performance characteristics of two-level memories; External memory : magnetic disk, tape, raid, optical memory; High speed memories : associative and interleaved memories.Data path designFixed point representation; Floating point representation; Design of basic serial and parallel high speed adders, subtractors, multipliers, Booth's algorithm; The arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) : Combinational and sequential ALU's.The central processing unitBasic instruction cycle; Instructions sets, formats and addressing; Processor organization;Register organization; Instruction pipelining; Co-processors, pipeline processors; RISC computers, RISC versus CISC characteristics.The control unitMicro-operations; Hardwired implementation; Microprogrammed control; Micro-instruction format; Applications of microprogramming.Input and output unitExternal devices : keyboard, monitor, disk drive and device drivers; I/O modules : programmed I/O, interrupt driven I/O, DMA, I/O channels and I/O processors; Serial transmission and synchronization.Multiple processor organizationsFlynn's classification of parallel processing systems; Pipelining concepts.

Computer Organisation

Author: D.A.Godse A.P.Godse
Publisher: Technical Publications
ISBN: 8189411640
Release Date: 2007-01-01
Genre:

Performance MeasureDefinition, Throughput and Response time, Measuring performance (MIPs, FLOPs etc).PreliminariesComputer Arithmetic - Number representation and Arithmetic, Floating point representation, Multiplication and Division algorithms and Circuits, Operation on Data structures, Arrays, Lists, Stacks and Queues.Instruction types and sequencing, Addressing modes with case study for Pentium processor.Input / Output OrganizationI/O devices types access methods, Interrupts, DMA, I/O processors. Types of buses and arbitration, Various bus standards, I/O interface - Serial and Parallel ports.Basic Processing UnitThe data path and components of Instruction execution, Bus organization, Hardwired control, Micro-programmed control, Exceptions and their handling, Performance Enhancement using pipelining - Pipelining introduction, Instruction set, Hazards, Case study.Memory OrganizationRAM organization - SRAM and DRAM, ROM and Flash memory addressing, Cache - mapping, Handling cache miss, Multi level caches, Virtual memory - Concept address translation, paging, TLB, segmentation.PeripheralsStorage Devices - Organization, Access techniques, Input and Output devices - Organization, Access techniques, Network devices - Modems, Serial communication links.Multiprocessor Systems(Introduction only) Connection techniques, Cache issues.

IBM XIV Storage System Architecture and Implementation

Author: Bertrand Dufrasne
Publisher: IBM Redbooks
ISBN: 9780738440163
Release Date: 2017-11-03
Genre: Computers

Not a new version - included warning for self signed X509 certificates - see section 5.2 This IBM® Redbooks® publication describes the concepts, architecture, and implementation of the IBM XIV® Storage System. The XIV Storage System is a scalable enterprise storage system that is based on a grid array of hardware components. It can attach to both Fibre Channel Protocol (FCP) and IP network Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) capable hosts. This system is a good fit for clients who want to be able to grow capacity without managing multiple tiers of storage. The XIV Storage System is suited for mixed or random access workloads, including online transaction processing, video streamings, images, email, and emerging workload areas, such as Web 2.0 and cloud storage. The focus of this edition is on the XIV Gen3 running Version 11.5.x of the XIV system software, which brings enhanced value for the XIV Storage System in cloud environments. It offers multitenancy support, VMware vCloud Suite integration, more discrete performance classes, and RESTful API enhancements that expand cloud automation integration. Version 11.5 introduces support for three-site mirroring to provide high availability and disaster recovery. It also enables capacity planning through the Hyper-Scale Manager, mobile push notifications for real-time alerts, and enhanced security. Version 11.5.1 supports 6TB drives and VMware vSphere Virtual Volumes (VVOL). In the first few chapters of this book, we describe many of the unique and powerful concepts that form the basis of the XIV Storage System logical and physical architecture. We explain how the system eliminates direct dependencies between the hardware elements and the software that governs the system. In subsequent chapters, we explain the planning and preparation tasks that are required to deploy the system in your environment by using the intuitive yet powerful XIV Storage Manager GUI or the XIV command-line interface. We also describe the performance characteristics of the XIV Storage System and present options for alerting and monitoring, including enhanced secure remote support. This book is for IT professionals who want an understanding of the XIV Storage System. It is also for readers who need detailed advice on how to configure and use the system.

Green IT Technologies and Applications

Author: Jae H. Kim
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642221798
Release Date: 2011-07-25
Genre: Science

This book is the first of its kind in presenting comprehensive technical issues and solutions for rapidly growing Green IT. It brings together in a single volume both green communications and green computing under the theme of Green IT, and presents exciting research and developments taking place therein in a survey style. Written by the subject matter experts consisting of an international team of recognized researchers and practitioners in the field, Green IT: Technologies and Applications will serve as an excellent source of information on the latest technical trend of Green IT for graduate/undergraduate students, researchers, engineers, and engineering managers in the IT (Electrical, Communications, Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Information Science) as well as interdisciplinary areas such as sustainability, environment, and energy. The book comprises three parts: Green Communications, Green Computing, and Smart Grid and Applications. Part I Green Communications deals with energy efficient architectures and associated performance measures in wireless communications. It covers energy issues in PHY, MAC, Routing, Application layers and their solutions for a variety of networks. Part II Green Computing deals with various energy issues in data centers, computing clusters, computing storage, and associated optimization techniques. Energy management strategies are presented to balance between energy efficiency and required qualities of services. Part III Smart Grid and Applications presents an overview and research challenges for smart grid. Applications include modeling of urban pollutant for transportation networks, Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) architecture with long range radio, and Green IT standards.

Architecture of Computing Systems ARCS 2012

Author: Andreas Herkersdorf
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642282928
Release Date: 2012-02-09
Genre: Computers

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Architecture of Computing Systems, ARCS 2012, held in Munich, Germany, in February/March 2012. The 20 revised full papers presented in 7 technical sessions were carefully reviewed and selected from 65 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on robustness and fault tolerance, power-aware processing, parallel processing, processor cores, optimization, and communication and memory.