Methods Matter Improving Causal Inference in Educational and Social Science Research

Author: Richard J. Murnane
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199780310
Release Date: 2010-08-19
Genre: Psychology

Educational policy-makers around the world constantly make decisions about how to use scarce resources to improve the education of children. Unfortunately, their decisions are rarely informed by evidence on the consequences of these initiatives in other settings. Nor are decisions typically accompanied by well-formulated plans to evaluate their causal impacts. As a result, knowledge about what works in different situations has been very slow to accumulate. Over the last several decades, advances in research methodology, administrative record keeping, and statistical software have dramatically increased the potential for researchers to conduct compelling evaluations of the causal impacts of educational interventions, and the number of well-designed studies is growing. Written in clear, concise prose, Methods Matter: Improving Causal Inference in Educational and Social Science Research offers essential guidance for those who evaluate educational policies. Using numerous examples of high-quality studies that have evaluated the causal impacts of important educational interventions, the authors go beyond the simple presentation of new analytical methods to discuss the controversies surrounding each study, and provide heuristic explanations that are also broadly accessible. Murnane and Willett offer strong methodological insights on causal inference, while also examining the consequences of a wide variety of educational policies implemented in the U.S. and abroad. Representing a unique contribution to the literature surrounding educational research, this landmark text will be invaluable for students and researchers in education and public policy, as well as those interested in social science.

Methods Matter Improving Causal Inference in Educational and Social Science Research

Author: Richard J. Murnane
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199890156
Release Date: 2010-08-19
Genre: Psychology

Educational policy-makers around the world constantly make decisions about how to use scarce resources to improve the education of children. Unfortunately, their decisions are rarely informed by evidence on the consequences of these initiatives in other settings. Nor are decisions typically accompanied by well-formulated plans to evaluate their causal impacts. As a result, knowledge about what works in different situations has been very slow to accumulate. Over the last several decades, advances in research methodology, administrative record keeping, and statistical software have dramatically increased the potential for researchers to conduct compelling evaluations of the causal impacts of educational interventions, and the number of well-designed studies is growing. Written in clear, concise prose, Methods Matter: Improving Causal Inference in Educational and Social Science Research offers essential guidance for those who evaluate educational policies. Using numerous examples of high-quality studies that have evaluated the causal impacts of important educational interventions, the authors go beyond the simple presentation of new analytical methods to discuss the controversies surrounding each study, and provide heuristic explanations that are also broadly accessible. Murnane and Willett offer strong methodological insights on causal inference, while also examining the consequences of a wide variety of educational policies implemented in the U.S. and abroad. Representing a unique contribution to the literature surrounding educational research, this landmark text will be invaluable for students and researchers in education and public policy, as well as those interested in social science.

Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy

Author: D. C. Phillips
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 9781483364759
Release Date: 2014-05-19
Genre: Education

Education is a field sometimes beset by theories-of-the-day and with easy panaceas that overpromise the degree to which they can alleviate pressing educational problems. The two-volume Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy introduces readers to theories that have stood the test of time and those that have provided the historical foundation for the best of contemporary educational theory and practice. Drawing together a team of international scholars, this invaluable reference examines the global landscape of all the key theories and the theorists behind them and presents them in the context needed to understand their strengths and weaknesses. In addition to interpretations of long-established theories, this work offers essays on cutting-edge research and concise, to-the-point definitions of key concepts, ideas, schools, and figures. Features: Over 300 signed entries by trusted experts in the field are organized into two volumes and overseen by a distinguished General Editor and an international Editorial Board. Entries are followed by cross references and further reading suggestions. A Chronology of Theory within the field of education highlights developments over the centuries; a Reader’s Guide groups entries thematically, and a master Bibliography facilitates further study. The Reader’s Guide, detailed index, and cross references combine for strong search-and-browse capabilities in the electronic version. Available in a choice of print or electronic formats, Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy is an ideal reference for anyone interested in the roots of contemporary educational theory.

Evaluation von Studium und Lehre

Author: Daniel Großmann
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 9783658108861
Release Date: 2016-06-15
Genre: Social Science

In diesem Sammelband werden Probleme in der Evaluation von Studium und Lehre aufgezeigt und ein möglicher Umgang mit ihnen erörtert. Obgleich Evaluationen in Form von Befragungen Studierender zur Lehr- und Studiensituation flächendeckend verbreitet sind, weisen die genutzten Instrumente und Verfahren methodische Probleme auf und besteht daher Kritik an deren Genauigkeit und Verlässlichkeit sowie dem Umgang mit den gewonnenen Ergebnissen. In den Beiträgen werden historische und methodische Grundlagen besprochen, Potentiale und Grenzen spezifischer Evaluationsverfahren aufgezeigt und mögliche externe Einflüsse auf Evaluationsergebnisse betrachtet.

Causal Inference for Statistics Social and Biomedical Sciences

Author: Guido W. Imbens
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781316094396
Release Date: 2015-04-06
Genre: Mathematics

Most questions in social and biomedical sciences are causal in nature: what would happen to individuals, or to groups, if part of their environment were changed? In this groundbreaking text, two world-renowned experts present statistical methods for studying such questions. This book starts with the notion of potential outcomes, each corresponding to the outcome that would be realized if a subject were exposed to a particular treatment or regime. In this approach, causal effects are comparisons of such potential outcomes. The fundamental problem of causal inference is that we can only observe one of the potential outcomes for a particular subject. The authors discuss how randomized experiments allow us to assess causal effects and then turn to observational studies. They lay out the assumptions needed for causal inference and describe the leading analysis methods, including matching, propensity-score methods, and instrumental variables. Many detailed applications are included, with special focus on practical aspects for the empirical researcher.

Evaluation Theory Models and Applications

Author: Daniel L. Stufflebeam
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118870228
Release Date: 2014-09-26
Genre: Education

The golden standard evaluation reference text Now in its second edition, Evaluation Theory, Models, and Applications is the vital text on evaluation models, perfect for classroom use as a textbook, and as a professional evaluation reference. The book begins with an overview of the evaluation field and program evaluation standards, and proceeds to cover the most widely used evaluation approaches. With new evaluation designs and the inclusion of the latest literature from the field, this Second Edition is an essential update for professionals and students who want to stay current. Understanding and choosing evaluation approaches is critical to many professions, and Evaluation Theory, Models, and Applications, Second Edition is the benchmark evaluation guide. Authors Daniel L. Stufflebeam and Chris L. S. Coryn, widely considered experts in the evaluation field, introduce and describe 23 program evaluation approaches, including, new to this edition, transformative evaluation, participatory evaluation, consumer feedback, and meta-analysis. Evaluation Theory, Models, and Applications, Second Edition facilitates the process of planning, conducting, and assessing program evaluations. The highlighted evaluation approaches include: Experimental and quasi-experimental design evaluations Daniel L. Stufflebeam's CIPP Model Michael Scriven's Consumer-Oriented Evaluation Michael Patton's Utilization-Focused Evaluation Robert Stake's Responsive/Stakeholder-Centered Evaluation Case Study Evaluation Key readings listed at the end of each chapter direct readers to the most important references for each topic. Learning objectives, review questions, student exercises, and instructor support materials complete the collection of tools. Choosing from evaluation approaches can be an overwhelming process, but Evaluation Theory, Models, and Applications, Second Edition updates the core evaluation concepts with the latest research, making this complex field accessible in just one book.

The Design and Conduct of Meaningful Experiments Involving Human Participants

Author: R. Barker Bausell
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199385256
Release Date: 2015-01-29
Genre: Psychology

Designing and conducting experiments involving human participants requires a skillset different from that needed for statistically analyzing the resulting data. The Design and Conduct of Meaningful Experiments Involving Human Participants combines an introduction to scientific culture and ethical mores with specific experimental design and procedural content. Author R. Barker Bausell assumes no statistical background on the part of the reader, resulting in a highly accessible text. Clear instructions are provided on topics ranging from the selection of a societally important outcome variable to potentially efficacious interventions to the conduct of the experiment itself. Early chapters introduce the concept of experimental design in an intuitive manner involving both hypothetical and real-life examples of how people make causal inferences. The fundamentals of formal experimentation, randomization, and the use of control groups are introduced in the same manner, followed by the presentation and explanation of common (and later, more advanced) designs. Replete with synopses of examples from the journal literature and supplemented by 25 experimental principles, this book is designed to serve as an interdisciplinary supplementary text for research-methods courses in the educational, psychological, behavioral, social, and health sciences. It also serves as an excellent primary text for methods seminar courses.

Homeownership Built to Last

Author: Eric S. Belsky
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 9780815725657
Release Date: 2014-06-27
Genre: Political Science

The ups and downs in housing markets over the past two decades are without precedent, and the costs—financial, psychological, and social—have been enormous. Yet Americans overwhelmingly still aspire to homeownership, and many still view access to homeownership as an important ingredient for building wealth among historically disadvantaged groups. This timely volume reexamines the goals, risks, and rewards of homeownership in the wake of the housing bubble and subprime lending crisis. Housing, real estate, and finance experts explore the role of government in supporting homeownership, deliberate how homeownership can be made more sustainable, and discuss how best to balance affordability, access, and risk, particularly for minorities and low income families. Contributors: Eric S. Belsky (JCHS); Raphael W. Bostic (University of Southern California); Mark Calabria (Cato Institute); Kaloma Cardwell (University of California, Berkeley); Mark Cole (Hope LoanPort); J. Michael Collins (University of Wisconsin– Madison); Marsha J. Courchane (Charles River Associates); Andrew Davidson (Andrew Davidson and Co.); Christopher E. Herbert (JCHS); Leonard C. Kiefer (Freddie Mac); Alex Levin (Andrew Davidson and Co.); Adam J. Levitin (Georgetown University Law Center); Mark R. Lindblad (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill); Jeffrey Lubell (Abt Associates); Patricia A. McCoy (University of Connecticut School of Law); Daniel T. McCue (JCHS); Jennifer H. Molinsky (JCHS); Stephanie Moulton (Ohio State University); john a. powell (University of California–Berkeley); Roberto G. Quercia (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill); Janneke H. Ratcliffe (University of North Carolina); Carolina Reid (University of California–Berkeley); William M. Rohe (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill); Rocio Sanchez-Moyano (JCHS); Susan Wachter (University of Pennsylvania); Peter M. Zorn (Freddie Mac)

konomische Theorie der Demokratie

Author: Anthony Downs
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
ISBN: 3165290520
Release Date: 1968
Genre: Business & Economics

English summary: It was Anthony Downs' objective to create a model dealing with voter and government behavior. In order to do so, he established goals which governments, parties and lobbyists as well as the voters can pursue. To motivate all those concerned, he introduced the self-interest axiom and called for rationality in order to attain these goals. With the help of marginal analysis, each voter determines his/her party differential, which will help to determine each voter's choice at the ballot box and to decide which party's rule will give him/her greater utility in the future. Downs describes how crucial the concept of ideology is to his theory. He maintains that a two-party democracy could not provide stable and effective government unless there is a large measure of ideological consensus amongst its citizens, and that political parties encouraged voters to be irrational by remaining vague and ambiguous. German description: Anthony Downs' inzwischen klassisches Demokratie-Modell des Wahler- und Regierungsverhaltens orientiert sich an der okonomischen Theorie. Er nimmt an, dass politische Parteien und Wahler in der Verfolgung bestimmter, deutlich spezifizierter Ziele optimal handeln. So treffen die Wahler unter Ungewissheit uber den Wahlvorgang und die zukunftige Regierungsbildung ihre Wahl nach dem mutmasslichen Nutzen. Die Regierung versucht, mit Hilfe der Manipulation des Budgets ihre Wiederwahl zu erreichen.Ideologien der Parteien auf der einen Seite, Interessengruppen auf der anderen stellen den Wahlern bzw. der Regierung Informationen zur rationalen Entscheidungsfindung zur Verfugung. Dabei wird deutlich, dass Mehrparteiensysteme und Verhaltniswahlrecht jedes Wahl-Kalkul unlosbar werden lassen. Auf die weiteren Folgerungen fur Demokratie-Forschung und -Verstandnis geht Downs im letzten Teil seines Werkes ausfuhrlich ein.

Statistik f r Dummies

Author: Deborah J. Rumsey
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9783527658299
Release Date: 2012-10-22
Genre: Mathematics

Entdecken Sie mit "Statistik f?r Dummies" Ihren Spa? an der Statistik und werfen Sie einen Blick hinter die Kulissen der so beliebten Manipulation von Zahlenmaterial! Deborah Rumsey zeigt Ihnen das n?tige statistische Handwerkszeug wie Stichprobe, Wahrscheinlichkeit, Bias, Median, Durchschnitt und Korrelation. Sie lernen die verschiedenen grafischen Darstellungsm?glichkeiten von statistischem Material kennen und werden ?ber die unterschiedlichen Methoden der Auswertung erstaunt sein. Sch?rfen Sie mit diesem Buch Ihr Bewusstsein f?r Zahlen und deren Interpretation, so dass Ihnen keiner mehr etwas vormachen kann!

Handbuch Transitional Justice

Author: Anja Mihr
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 9783658023928
Release Date: 2017-09-14
Genre: Political Science

Dieses Handbuch ist eine systematische und methodische Einführung in das Thema Transitional Justice, das bislang vor allem durch Länderstudien zur strafrechtlichen Aufarbeitung, Entschuldigungen, Kompensationen, Erinnerungsarbeiten oder Wahrheitskommissionen wie etwa zu Südafrika, Ruanda, Chile oder dem ehemaligen Jugoslawien, bekannt geworden ist. Die Beiträge zeigen best-practice ebenso auf wie die zahlreichen Maßnahmen, die inzwischen unter dem Konzept Transtional Justice in der Politik zur Anwendung gekommen sind und ein eigenes Forschungsfeld für die Wissenschaft darstellen. Dabei stehen weniger die Fallstudien im Mittelpunkt, sondern die methodische Ausrichtung zur Analyse und Bewertung der Transitional Justice-Prozesse. Materialreiche Fall- oder Areastudien bearbeiten den Umgang mit Unrechtsregimen; gezielte empirische Befunde werden für die verschiedenen Gebiete der Welt zur Illustration der Prozesse hinzugezogen. Der Band thematisiert vorrangig die Politikfelder Friedens- und Konfliktforschung, Demokratisierung und Demokratievergleich, Internationale Beziehungen und Zeitgeschichte.

Datenanalyse mit Stata

Author: Ulrich Kohler
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 9783110469509
Release Date: 2016-11-21
Genre: Business & Economics

Dieses Buch bietet eine Einführung in das Datenanalysepaket Stata und ist zugleich das einzige Buch über Stata, das auch Anfängern eine ausreichende Erklärung statistischer Verfahren liefert. „Datenanalyse mit Stata" ist kein Befehls-Handbuch sondern erläutert alle Schritte einer Datenanalyse an praktischen Beispielen. Die Beispiele beziehen sich auf Themen der öffentlichen Diskussion oder der direkten Umgebung der meisten Leser. Damit eignet sich diese Buch als Einstieg in Data Analytics in allen Disziplinen. Die neue Auflage bietet einen systematischeren Zugang zum Datenmanagement in Gegenwart von „Missing Values" und behandelt die in der Stata-Programmversion 14 implementierte Unicode-Codierung.