Author: Stephen Weiner
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2010-02-15
Genre: Social Science
The archaeological record is a combination of what is seen by eye, as well as the microscopic record revealed with the help of instrumentation. The information embedded in the microscopic record can significantly add to our understanding of past human behaviour, provided this information has not been altered by the passage of time. Microarchaeology seeks to understand the microscopic record in terms of the type of information embedded in this record, the materials in which this information resides, and the conditions under which a reliable signal can be extracted. This book highlights the concepts needed to extract information from the microscopic record. Intended for all archaeologists and archaeological scientists, it will be of particular interest to students who have some background in the natural sciences as well as archaeology.
Author: Thomas E. Levy
Release Date: 2017-11-21
Genre: Social Science
This volume asks how the current Information Technology Revolution influences archaeological interpretations of techno-social change. Does cyber-archaeology provide a way to breathe new life into grand narratives of technological revolution and culture change, or does it further challenge these high-level theoretical explanations? Do digital recording methods have the potential to create large, regional-scale databases to ease investigation of high-level theoretical issues, or have they simply exposed deeper issues of archaeological practice that prevent this? In short, this volume cuts beyond platitudes about the revolutionary potential of the Information Technology Revolution and instead critically engages both its possibilities and limitations. The contributions to this volume are drawn from long-term regional studies employing a cyber-archaeology framework, primarily in the southern Levant, a region with rich archaeological data sets spanning the Paleolithic to the present day. As such, contributors are uniquely placed to comment on the interface between digital methods and grand narratives of long-term techno-social change. Cyber-Archaeology and Grand Narratives provides a much-needed challenge to current approaches, and a first step toward integrating innovative digital methods with archaeological theory.
Author: Jane Balme
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2014-01-14
Genre: Social Science
This much-enhanced new edition of the highly accessible guide to practical archaeology is a vital resource for students. It features the latest methodologies, a wealth of case studies from around the world, and contributions from leading specialists in archaeological materials analysis. New edition updated to include the latest archaeological methods, an enhanced focus on post-excavation analysis and new material including a dedicated chapter on analyzing human remains Covers the full range of current analytic methods, such as analysis of stone tools, human remains and absolute dating Features a user-friendly structure organized according to material types such as animal bones, ceramics and stone artifacts, as well as by thematic topics ranging from dating techniques to report writing, and ethical concerns. Accessible to archaeology students at all levels, with detailed references and extensive case studies featured throughout
Author: Elizabeth Reitz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-06-05
Genre: Social Science
One of the most significant developments in archaeology in recent years is the emergence of its environmental branch: the study of humans’ interactions with their natural surroundings over long periods and of organic remains instead of the artifacts and household items generally associated with sites. With the current attention paid to human responsibility for environmental change, this innovative field is recognized by scientists, conservation and heritage managers and policymakers worldwide. In this context comes Environmental Archaeology by Elizabeth Reitz and Myra Shackley, updating the seminal 1981 text Environmental Archaeology by Myra Shackley. Rigorously detailed yet concise and accessible, this volume surveys the complex and technical field of environmental archaeology for researchers interested in the causes, consequences and potential future impact of environmental change and archaeology. Its coverage acknowledges the multiple disciplines involved in the field, expanding the possibilities for using environmental data from archaeological sites in enriching related disciplines and improving communication among them. Introductory chapters explain the processes involved in the formation of sites, introduce research designs and field methods and walk the reader through biological classifications before focusing on the various levels of biotic and abiotic materials found at sites, including: Sediments and soils. Viruses, bacteria, archaea, protists and fungi. Bryophytes and vascular plants. Wood, charcoal, stems, leaves and roots. Spores, pollen and other microbotanical remains. Arthropods, molluscs, echinoderms and vertebrates. Stable isotopes, elements and biomolecules. The updated Environmental Archaeology is a major addition to the resource library of archaeologists, environmentalists, historians, researchers, policymakers—anyone involved in studying, managing or preserving historical sites. The updated Environmental Archaeology is a major addition to the resource library of archaeologists, environmentalists, historians, researchers, policymakers—anyone involved in studying, managing, or preserving historical sites.
Author: Birgit Öhlinger
Publisher: Dr Ludwig Reichert
Release Date: 2016-02-24
Genre: Sicily (Italy)
Der vierte Band der Reihe Italika widmet sich der kultisch-religiosen Lebenswelt der indigenen Gesellschaften des archaischen Siziliens. Durch einen innovativen religionssoziologischen und sozialarchaologischen Ansatz werden neuartige Einblicke in die Kultlandschaften der lokalen Gemeinschaften ermoglicht. Anhand von 16 ausgewahlten Fallbeispielen werden zentrale Kult- und Ritualorte in ihrem jeweiligen Siedlungskontext untersucht und deren Formations- und Transformationsprozesse im Spannungsfeld kultureller Kontakte nachgezeichnet, die sich im Zuge der sogenannten grossen Kolonisation der Griechen und Phonizier ab dem 8. Jh. v. Chr. zwangslaufig ergaben. Besonders ab dem 6. Jh. v. Chr. entstanden teils dichte Kontaktzonen, deren Auswirkungen auf die lokale Kultarchitektur und Opferpraxis beleuchtet werden. Im Zentrum der Studie stehen Fragen nach der Funktion von indigenen Kultorten und der daran gekoppelten sozialen Strukturen und lokalen Identitaten sowie das Aufzeigen von Interdependenzen zwischen Religionsentwicklung und sozialem Wandel.
Author: Timo Stickler
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Release Date: 2010-01-01
Korinth ragte durch seine große Bevölkerungszahl, seine strategisch günstige Lage, seinen schon im Altertum sprichwörtlichen Reichtum und nicht zuletzt durch seine politischen Ambitionen aus dem Kreis der mittelgroßen griechischen Stadtstaaten heraus. Die am Isthmus gelegene Polis übte eine Art Hegemonie über viele der von ihr gegründeten Städte, vor allem in Nordwestgriechenland, aus, die sie befähigte, überregional machtpolitische Ziele zu verfolgen. Timo Stickler geht der Geschichte dieser politisch-militärischen Rolle Korinths und seiner Kolonien im 5. Jahrhundert v. Chr. nach. Eine solche Untersuchung im Licht der neueren Forschung war bislang ein Desiderat und stellt einen wichtigen Beitrag zur Geschichte des klassischen Griechenland jenseits der Großmächte Athen und Sparta dar.
Jens-Arne Dickmann skizziert die Geschichte Pompejis und vermittelt in Grundzügen den heutigen Wissensstand über diese faszinierende Ruinenstadt. Fast 1700 Jahre dauerte es, ehe man den Ort, der bei einem Ausbruch des Vesuv 79 n. Chr. unterging, und erste antike Überreste identifizierte. Nach über 250 Jahren Forschung sind das Gesicht der Stadt und ihre Geschichte ebenso bekannt wie viele Einzelheiten über Wohnsituation und Wirtschaftsweise, Verkehrsverhältnisse, Politik, religiöse Praxis sowie Kunst und Kultur in Pompeji.
Author: Christa Jungnickel
Publisher: Pro BUSINESS
Release Date: 2016-09-26
Publisher: Edition Open Access (EOA)! Studies 7 (also available online) presents the biography of the eighteenth-century English natural philosopher and chemist Henry Cavendish. Two gifted eighteenth-century Londoners, Charles Cavendish and his painfully preeminent son Henry were descendants of paired revolutions, one political and one scientific. Scions of a powerful revolutionary family, they gave an original turn to the duty of public service that attached to their social rank. The English aristocracy knew one of its finest hours when Henry Cavendish gently laid his delicate weights in the scales of the first great precision balance of the century. For this action to happen, it took two generations and two kinds of invention, one in social forms and the other in scientific methods. This joint biography of father and son tells how it came to pass. Henry Cavendish is best known for his researches in chemistry, electricity, and heat, but in truth he worked in every part of physical science, bringing to it his unique combination of experimental precision and mathematical penetration. His accomplishment is likened to the highest example: since the death of Newton, Humphry Davy wrote, England has suffered "no scientific loss so great as that of Cavendish." Through inheritance he became immensely rich. Regarding intellect and fortune, he is called "the wisest of the rich and the richest of the wise." In his exclusive devotion to science, he is compared with "the most austere anchorites," who were "not more faithful to their vows." With reference to his legendary shyness, he is described as a man of "most reserved disposition," of a "degree bordering on disease." He was, to be sure, all of these things: one of the best scientists of his time, one of the richest men in the kingdom, a member of one of the politically most influential aristocratic families, a scientific fanatic, and a person of extraordinary peculiarities. This biography, a major revision of the original published in 1999, offers an enlarged understanding of the eighteenth century world of science and a reevaluation both of the scientific genius and of the remarkable personality of Henry Cavendish. It is a comprehensive study of science, family, and society in the eighteenth century. The publications of the Studies series are dedicated to key subjects in the history and development of knowledge, bringing together perspectives from different fields and combining source-based empirical research with theoretically guided approaches. (Second revised edition 2016) (Auch online verfügbar: http://edition-open-access.de/studies/7/index.html)