Author: Stephen Weiner
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139487313
Release Date: 2010-02-15
Genre: Social Science

The archaeological record is a combination of what is seen by eye, as well as the microscopic record revealed with the help of instrumentation. The information embedded in the microscopic record can significantly add to our understanding of past human behaviour, provided this information has not been altered by the passage of time. Microarchaeology seeks to understand the microscopic record in terms of the type of information embedded in this record, the materials in which this information resides, and the conditions under which a reliable signal can be extracted. This book highlights the concepts needed to extract information from the microscopic record. Intended for all archaeologists and archaeological scientists, it will be of particular interest to students who have some background in the natural sciences as well as archaeology.

Environmental Archaeology

Author: Elizabeth Reitz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461433392
Release Date: 2012-06-05
Genre: Social Science

One of the most significant developments in archaeology in recent years is the emergence of its environmental branch: the study of humans’ interactions with their natural surroundings over long periods and of organic remains instead of the artifacts and household items generally associated with sites. With the current attention paid to human responsibility for environmental change, this innovative field is recognized by scientists, conservation and heritage managers and policymakers worldwide. In this context comes Environmental Archaeology by Elizabeth Reitz and Myra Shackley, updating the seminal 1981 text Environmental Archaeology by Myra Shackley. Rigorously detailed yet concise and accessible, this volume surveys the complex and technical field of environmental archaeology for researchers interested in the causes, consequences and potential future impact of environmental change and archaeology. Its coverage acknowledges the multiple disciplines involved in the field, expanding the possibilities for using environmental data from archaeological sites in enriching related disciplines and improving communication among them. Introductory chapters explain the processes involved in the formation of sites, introduce research designs and field methods and walk the reader through biological classifications before focusing on the various levels of biotic and abiotic materials found at sites, including: Sediments and soils. Viruses, bacteria, archaea, protists and fungi. Bryophytes and vascular plants. Wood, charcoal, stems, leaves and roots. Spores, pollen and other microbotanical remains. Arthropods, molluscs, echinoderms and vertebrates. Stable isotopes, elements and biomolecules. The updated Environmental Archaeology is a major addition to the resource library of archaeologists, environmentalists, historians, researchers, policymakers—anyone involved in studying, managing or preserving historical sites. The updated Environmental Archaeology is a major addition to the resource library of archaeologists, environmentalists, historians, researchers, policymakers—anyone involved in studying, managing, or preserving historical sites.

Cyber Archaeology and Grand Narratives

Author: Thomas E. Levy
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319656939
Release Date: 2017-11-21
Genre: Social Science

This volume asks how the current Information Technology Revolution influences archaeological interpretations of techno-social change. Does cyber-archaeology provide a way to breathe new life into grand narratives of technological revolution and culture change, or does it further challenge these high-level theoretical explanations? Do digital recording methods have the potential to create large, regional-scale databases to ease investigation of high-level theoretical issues, or have they simply exposed deeper issues of archaeological practice that prevent this? In short, this volume cuts beyond platitudes about the revolutionary potential of the Information Technology Revolution and instead critically engages both its possibilities and limitations. The contributions to this volume are drawn from long-term regional studies employing a cyber-archaeology framework, primarily in the southern Levant, a region with rich archaeological data sets spanning the Paleolithic to the present day. As such, contributors are uniquely placed to comment on the interface between digital methods and grand narratives of long-term techno-social change. Cyber-Archaeology and Grand Narratives provides a much-needed challenge to current approaches, and a first step toward integrating innovative digital methods with archaeological theory.

Applied Soils and Micromorphology in Archaeology

Author: Richard I. Macphail
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781107011380
Release Date: 2017-12-21
Genre: Social Science

This book uniquely focuses on all aspects of archaeological soil micromorphology, based upon the authors' joint sixty years of worldwide studies.

Food Research

Author: Janet Chrzan
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 9781785332883
Release Date: 2017-01-30
Genre: Social Science

Biocultural and archaeological research on food, past and present, often relies on very specific, precise, methods for data collection and analysis. These are presented here in a broad-based review. Individual chapters provide opportunities to think through the adoption of methods by reviewing the history of their use along with a discussion of research conducted using those methods. A case study from the author's own work is included in each chapter to illustrate why the methods were adopted in that particular case along with abundant additional resources to further develop and explore those methods.

Research Methods for Anthropological Studies of Food and Nutrition

Author: Janet Chrzan
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 9781785333644
Release Date: 2017-02-28
Genre: Social Science

The dramatic increase in all things food in popular and academic fields during the last two decades has generated a diverse and dynamic set of approaches for understanding the complex relationships and interactions that determine how people eat and how diet affects culture. These volumes offer a comprehensive reference for students and established scholars interested in food and nutrition research in Nutritional and Biological Anthropology, Archaeology, Socio-Cultural and Linguistic Anthropology, Food Studies and Applied Public Health.

Plant Microtechniques and Protocols

Author: Edward Chee Tak Yeung
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319199443
Release Date: 2015-09-19
Genre: Science

A proper understanding of the structural organization of the plant body is essential to any study in plant biology. Experimental studies in vivo and in situ will lead to structural, physiological, and cellular changes of the experimental material. To study macroscopic and microscopic changes, different histological methods and microtechniques can be used as they provide valuable information of the experimental system. In addition, the observed structural changes allow investigators to set hypothesis for further studies based on one’s own observation. Thus, proper selection and utilization of microtechniques are a must for the success of a research program. At present, an up-to-date collection of protocols are not readily available in the literature. The latest work in plant microtechniques was published in 1999 by Ruzin but many others are no longer in print [e.g., Jensen (1964); O’Brien and McCully (1981)]. Furthermore, a majority of published works focus on techniques related to general processing and staining procedures. A comprehensive treatment that encompasses broader applications of microtechniques to other disciplines is lacking [e.g., archeology, wood science, etc.]. There is a need to create a comprehensive volume of botanical methods and protocols which includes traditional and novel techniques that can be used by researchers in plant science and investigators in other disciplines that require plant microtechniques in their research and teaching. This book covers a wide variety of applications and brings them up-to-date to make them understandable and relevant, especially to students using the methods for the first time. It is our intention to create a useful reference for plant histology and related methods that will serve as a foundation for plant scholars, researchers, and teachers in the plant sciences.​

The Oxford Handbook of Zooarchaeology

Author: Umberto Albarella
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780191509988
Release Date: 2017-02-23
Genre: Social Science

Animals have played a fundamental role in shaping human history, and the study of their remains from archaeological sites - zooarchaeology - has gradually been emerging as a powerful discipline and crucible for forging an understanding of our past. The Oxford Handbook of Zooarchaeology offers a cutting-edge compendium of zooarchaeology the world over that transcends environmental, economic, and social approaches, seeking instead to provide a holistic view of the roles played by animals in past human cultures. Incisive chapters written by leading scholars in the field incorporate case studies from across five continents, from Iceland to New Zealand and from Japan to Egypt and Ecuador, providing a sense of the dynamism of the discipline, the many approaches and methods adopted by different schools and traditions, and an idea of the huge range of interactions that have occurred between people and animals throughout the world and its history. Adaptations of human-animal relationships in environments as varied as the Arctic, temperate forests, deserts, the tropics, and the sea are discussed, while studies of hunter-gatherers, farmers, herders, fishermen, and even traders and urban dwellers highlight the importance that animals have had in all forms of human societies. With an introduction that clearly contextualizes the current practice of zooarchaeology in relation to both its history and the challenges and opportunities that can be expected for the future, and a methodological glossary illuminating the way in which zooarchaeologists approach the study of their material, this Handbook will be invaluable not only for specialists in the field, but for anybody who has an interest in our past and the role that animals have played in forging it.

Pottery in Archaeology

Author: Clive Orton
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781107008748
Release Date: 2013-05-13
Genre: Art

Pottery is often the most common find on a site, and can provide the archaeologist with information on many aspects of the past, including chronology, trade, and technology. Scientific developments and statistical techniques have contributed still further to the analysis of pottery in recent years. Divided into three parts (history and potential; a guide to pottery processing and recording; themes in ceramic studies) this book details the routine tasks of handling pottery, and examines the most recent research into the quantitative study and comparison of ceramic assemblages.

International Encyclopedia of Geography 15 Volume Set

Author: Douglas Richardson
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470659632
Release Date: 2017-03-20
Genre: Science

Representing the definitive reference work for this broad and dynamic field, The International Encyclopedia of Geography arises from an unprecedented collaboration between Wiley and the American Association of Geographers (AAG) to review and define the concepts, research, and techniques in geography and interrelated fields. Available as a robust online resource and as a 15-volume full-color print set, the Encyclopedia assembles a truly global group of scholars for a comprehensive, authoritative overview of geography around the world. Contains more than 1,000 entries ranging from 1,000 to 10,000 words offering accessible introductions to basic concepts, sophisticated explanations of complex topics, and information on geographical societies around the world Assembles a truly global group of more than 900 scholars hailing from over 40 countries, for a comprehensive, authoritative overview of geography around the world Provides definitive coverage of the field, encompassing human geography, physical geography, geographic information science and systems, earth studies, and environmental science Brings together interdisciplinary perspectives on geographical topics and techniques of interest across the social sciences, humanities, science, and medicine Features full color throughout the print version and more than 1,000 illustrations and photographs Annual updates to online edition

World Prehistory and Archaeology

Author: Michael Chazan
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781351802895
Release Date: 2017-08-22
Genre: Social Science

An Integrated Picture of Prehistory as an Active Process of Discovery World Prehistory and Archaeology: Pathways through Time, fourth edition, provides an integrated discussion of world prehistory and archaeological methods. This text emphasizes the relevance of how we know and what we know about our human prehistory. A cornerstone of World Prehistory and Archaeology is the discussion of prehistory as an active process of discovery. Methodological issues are addressed throughout the text to engage readers. Archaeological methods are introduced in the first two chapters. Succeeding chapters then address the question of how we know the past to provide an integrated presentation of prehistory. The fourth edition involves readers in the current state of archaeological research, revealing how archaeologists work and interpret what they find. Through the coverage of various new research, author Michael Chazan shows how archaeology is truly a global discipline. Learning Goals Upon completing this book, readers will be able to: * Gain new perspectives and insights into who we are and how our world came into being. * Think about humanity from the perspective of archaeology. * Appreciate the importance of the archaeological record for contemporary society.

Radiocarbon Dating Second Edition

Author: R.E. Taylor
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781315421209
Release Date: 2016-06-03
Genre: Social Science

This volume is a major revision and expansion of Taylor’s seminal book Radiocarbon Dating: An Archaeological Perspective. It covers the major advances and accomplishments of the 14C method in archaeology and analyzes factors that affect the accuracy and precision of 14C-based age estimates. In addition to reviewing the basic principles of the method, it examines 14C dating anomalies and means to resolve them, and considers the critical application of 14C data as a dating isotope with special emphasis on issues in Old and New World archaeology and late Quaternary paleoanthropology. This volume, again a benchmark for 14C dating, critically reflects on the method and data that underpins, in so many cases, the validity of the chronologies used to understand the prehistoric archaeological record.

Heritage and Archaeology in the Digital Age

Author: Matthew L. Vincent
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319653709
Release Date: 2017-11-10
Genre: Social Science

This book examines how computer-based programs can be used to acquire ‘big’ digital cultural heritage data, curate, and disseminate it over the Internet and in 3D visualization platforms with the ultimate goal of creating long-lasting “digital heritage repositories.’ The organization of the book reflects the essence of new technologies applied to cultural heritage and archaeology. Each of these stages bring their own challenges and considerations that need to be dealt with. The authors in each section present case studies and overviews of how each of these aspects might be dealt with. While technology is rapidly changing, the principles laid out in these chapters should serve as a guide for many years to come. The influence of the digital world on archaeology and cultural heritage will continue to shape these disciplines as advances in these technologies facilitate new lines of research. serif">The book is divided into three sections covering acquisition, curation, and dissemination (the major life cycles of cultural heritage data). Acquisition is one of the fundamental challenges for practitioners in heritage and archaeology, and the chapters in this section provide a template that highlights the principles for present and future work that will provide sustainable models for digital documentation. Following acquisition, the next section highlights how equally important curation is as the future of digital documentation depends on it. Preservation of digital data requires preservation that can guarantee a future for generations to come. The final section focuses on dissemination as it is what pushes the data beyond the shelves of storage and allows the public to experience the past through these new technologies, but also opens new lines of investigation by giving access to these data to researchers around the globe. Digital technology promises significant changes in how we approach social sciences, cultural heritage, and archaeology. However, researchers must consider not only the acquisition and curation, but also the dissemination of these data to their colleagues and the public. Throughout the book, many of the authors have highlighted the usefulness of Structure from Motion (SfM) work for cultural heritage documentation; others the utility and excitement of crowdsourcing as a ‘citizen scientist’ tool to engage not only trained students and researchers, but also the public in the cyber-archaeology endeavor. Both innovative tools facilitate the curation of digital cultural heritage and its dissemination. Together with all the chapters in this volume, the authors will help archaeologists, researchers interested in the digital humanities and scholars who focus on digital cultural heritage to assess where the field is and where it is going.

Practical and Theoretical Geoarchaeology

Author: Paul Goldberg
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118688199
Release Date: 2013-05-03
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Practical and Theoretical Geoarchaeology provides an invaluable overview of geoarchaeology and how it can be used effectively in the study of archaeological sites and contexts. Taking a pragmatic and functional approach, this book presents: a fundamental, broad-based perspective of the essentials of modern geoarchaeology in order to demonstrate the breadth of the approaches and the depth of the problems that it can tackle. the rapid advances made in the area in recent years, but also gives the reader a firm grasp of conventional approaches. covers traditional topics with the emphasis on landscapes, as well as anthropogenic site formation processes and their investigation. provides guidelines for the presentation of field and laboratory methods and the reporting of geoarchaeological results. essential reading for archaeology undergraduate and graduate students, practicing archaeologists and geoscientists who need to understand and apply geoarchaeological methodologies. Artwork from the book is available to instructors online at: www.blackwellpublishing.com/goldberg “This is one of the best textbooks that I have read in years. I enjoyed reviewing it, and found it well-written and thorough in its coverage of the traditional earth science aspects of geoarchaeology. The non-traditional aspects were intriguing and equally thorough... I predict that this book will become the textbook of choice for geoarchaeology classes for several years.” Geomorphology 101 (2008) 740–743

Analytical Chemistry in Archaeology

Author: A. M. Pollard
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521655722
Release Date: 2007
Genre: Science

This book is an introductory manual that explains the basic concepts of chemistry behind scientific analytical techniques and that reviews their application to archaeology. It explains key terminology, outlines the procedures to be followed in order to produce good data, and describes the function of the basic instrumentation required to carry out those procedures. The manual contains chapters on the basic chemistry and physics necessary to understand the techniques used in analytical chemistry, with more detailed chapters on Atomic Absorption, Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy, Neutron Activation Analysis, X-ray Flourescence, Electron Microscopy, Infra-red and Raman Spectroscopy, and Mass Spectrometry. Each chapter describes the operation of the instruments, some hints on the practicalities, and a review of the application of the technique to archaeology, including some case studies. With guides to further reading on the topic, it is an essential tool for practitioners, researchers and advanced students alike.