Introduction to Microwave Remote Sensing offers an extensive overview of this versatile and extremely precise technology for technically oriented undergraduates and graduate students. This textbook emphasizes an important shift in conceptualization and directs it toward students with prior knowledge of optical remote sensing: the author dispels any linkage between microwave and optical remote sensing. Instead, he constructs the concept of microwave remote sensing by comparing it to the process of audio perception, explaining the workings of the ear as a metaphor for microwave instrumentation. This volume takes an “application-driven” approach. Instead of describing the technology and then its uses, this textbook justifies the need for measurement then explains how microwave technology addresses this need. Following a brief summary of the field and a history of the use of microwaves, the book explores the physical properties of microwaves and the polarimetric properties of electromagnetic waves. It examines the interaction of microwaves with matter, analyzes passive atmospheric and passive surface measurements, and describes the operation of altimeters and scatterometers. The textbook concludes by explaining how high resolution images are created using radars, and how techniques of interferometry can be applied to both passive and active sensors.
The considerable progress in instrumentation and in the development of methods for the processing and analysis of data places remote sensing at the center of various international programs for the surveillance and tracking of climatic and anthropogenic changes and effects on the environment. This volume presents optical imaging and LiDAR systems: their instrumentation, physics of measurement, processing methods and data analysis. The estimation of a digital terrain model based on optical images and LiDAR data is also discussed. This book, part of a set of six volumes, has been produced by scientists who are internationally renowned in their fields. It is addressed to students (engineers, Masters, PhD), engineers and scientists, specialists in Earth observation techniques and imaging systems. Through this pedagogical work, the authors contribute to breaking down the barriers that hinder the use of Earth observation data. Provides clear and concise descriptions of modern remote sensing methods Explores the most current remote sensing techniques with physical aspects of the measurement (theory) and their applications Provides chapters on physical principles, measurement, and data processing for each technique described Describes optical remote sensing technology, including a description of acquisition systems and measurement corrections to be made
Author: C. Mätzler
Release Date: 2006-01-01
Genre: Technology & Engineering
Combines theoretical concepts with experimental results on thermal microwave radiation to increase the understanding of the complex nature of terrestrial media. Emphasising on radiative transfer models, this book covers the terrestrial aspects, from clear to cloudy atmosphere, precipitation, ocean and land surfaces, vegetation, snow and ice.
Because prevailing atmospheric/troposcopic conditions greatly influence radio wave propagation above 10 GHz, the unguided propagation of microwaves in the neutral atmosphere can directly impact many vital applications in science and engineering. These include transmission of intelligence, and radar and radiometric applications used to probe the atmosphere, among others. Where most books address either one or the other, Microwave Propagation and Remote Sensing: Atmospheric Influences with Models and Applications melds coverage of these two subjects to help readers develop solutions to the problems they present. This reference offers a brief, elementary account of microwave propagation through the atmosphere and discusses radiometric applications in the microwave band used to characterize and model atmospheric constituents, which is also known as remote sensing. Summarizing the latest research results in the field, as well as radiometric models and measurement methods, this book covers topics including: Free space propagation Reflection, interference, polarization, and other key aspects of electromagnetic wave propagation Radio refraction and its effects on propagation delay Methodology of estimating water vapor attenuation using radiosonde data Knowledge of rain structures and use of climatological patterns to estimate/measure attenuation of rain, snow, fog, and other prevalent atmospheric particles and human-made substances Dual/multifrequency methodology to deal with the influence of clouds on radiometric attenuation Deployment of microwaves to ascertain various tropospheric conditions Composition and characteristics of the troposphere, to help readers fully understand microwave propagation Derived parameters of water, free space propagation, and conditions and variable constituents such as water vapor and vapor pressure, density, and ray bending
Microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing techniques are fast becoming a necessity in many aspects of security as detection and classification of objects or intruders becomes more difficult. This groundbreaking resource offers you expert guidance in this burgeoning area. It provides you with a thorough treatment of the principles of microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing for security applications, as well as practical coverage of the design of radiometer, radar, and imaging systems. You learn how to design active and passive sensors for intruder detection, concealed object detection, and human activity classification. This detailed book presents the fundamental concepts practitioners need to understand, including electromagnetic wave propagation in free space and in media, antenna theory, and the principles of receiver design. You find in-depth discussions on the interactions of electromagnetic waves with human tissues, the atmosphere and various building and clothing materials. This timely volume explores recently developed detection techniques, such as micro-Doppler radar signatures and correlation radiometry. The book is supported with over 200 illustrations and 1,135 equations.
Remote Sensing of Aerosols, Clouds, and Precipitation compiles recent advances in aerosol, cloud, and precipitation remote sensing from new satellite observations. The book examines a wide range of measurements from microwave (both active and passive), visible, and infrared portions of the spectrum. Contributors are experts conducting state-of-the-art research in atmospheric remote sensing using space, airborne, and ground-based datasets, focusing on supporting earth observation satellite missions for aerosol, cloud, and precipitation studies. A handy reference for scientists working in remote sensing, earth science, electromagnetics, climate physics, and space engineering. Valuable for operational forecasters, meteorologists, geospatial experts, modelers, and policymakers alike. Presents new approaches in the field, along with further research opportunities, based on the latest satellite data Focuses on how remote sensing systems can be designed/developed to solve outstanding problems in earth and atmospheric sciences Edited by a dynamic team of editors with a mixture of highly skilled and qualified authors offering world-leading expertise in the field
Microwave and millimeter wave high-power vacuum electron devices (VEDs) are essential elements in specialized military, scientific, medical and space applications. They can produce mega watts of power which would be equal to the power of thousands of solid state power devices (SSPDs). Similarly, in most of today's T/R-Modules of active phased array antennas for radars and electronic warfare applications GaAs based hybrid and MMIC amplifiers are used. The early applications of millimeter-wave MMICs were in military, space and astronomy systems. In the last three decades, microwave remote sensing has shown a high potential in characterization of land surface parameters (soil moisture, vegetation biomass, water covers, etc.). In this context, a very rich activity has been developed to propose techniques (satellite, airborne, in situ) and methodologies to optimize contribution of microwave remote sensing, in terms of precision, spatial, and temporal resolutions. Microwave Radar and Radiometric Remote Sensing provides you with theoretical models, system design and operation, and geoscientific applications of active and passive microwave remote sensing systems. It is aimed to the study of both reviews and original researches related to recent innovative microwave remote sensing instrumentation for land surface applications. Microwave remote sensing provides a unique capability towards achieving this goal. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in microwave remote sensing of land processes through development of advanced airborne and space-borne microwave sensors, and the tools - such as physics-based models and advanced inversion algorithms - needed for analyzing the data. These activities have sharply increased in recent years since the launch of the ERS-1/2, JERS-1, and RADARS AT satellites, and with the availability of radiometric data from SSM/I. A new era has begun with the recent space missions ESA-ENVISAT, NASA-AQUA, and NASDA-ADEOSII, and the upcoming PALSAR and RADARSAT2 missions, which open new horizons for a wide range of operational microwave remote-sensing applications. This book highlights major activities and important results achieved in this area over the past years.
Author: John A. Richards
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2009-10-08
Genre: Technology & Engineering
This book is concerned with remote sensing based on the technology of imaging radar. It assumes no prior knowledge of radar on the part of the reader, commencing with a treatment of the essential concepts of microwave imaging and progressing through to the development of multipolarisation and interferometric radar, modes which underpin contemporary applications of the technology. The use of radar for imaging the earth’s surface and its resources is not recent. Aircraft-based microwave systems were operating in the 1960s, ahead of optical systems that image in the visible and infrared regions of the spectrum. Optical remote sensing was given a strong impetus with the launch of the first of the Landsat series of satellites in the mid 1970s. Although the Seasat satellite launched in the same era (1978) carried an imaging radar, it operated only for about 12 months and there were not nearly so many microwave systems as optical platforms in service during the 1980s. As a result, the remote sensing community globally tended to develop strongly around optical imaging until Shuttle missions in the early to mid 1980s and free-flying imaging radar satellites in the early to mid 1990s became available, along with several sophisticated aircraft platforms. Since then, and particularly with the unique capabilities and flexibility of imaging radar, there has been an enormous surge of interest in microwave imaging technology. Unlike optical imaging, understanding the theoretical underpinnings of imaging radar can be challenging, particularly when new to the field.
Introduction to Satellite Remote Sensing: Atmosphere, Ocean and Land Applications is the first reference book to cover ocean applications, atmospheric applications, and land applications of remote sensing. Applications of remote sensing data are finding increasing application in fields as diverse as wildlife ecology and coastal recreation management. The technology engages electromagnetic sensors to measure and monitor changes in the earth’s surface and atmosphere. The book opens with an introduction to the history of remote sensing, starting from when the phrase was first coined. It goes on to discuss the basic concepts of the various systems, including atmospheric and ocean, then closes with a detailed section on land applications. Due to the cross disciplinary nature of the authors’ experience and the content covered, this is a must have reference book for all practitioners and students requiring an introduction to the field of remote sensing. Provides study questions at the end of each chapter to aid learning Covers all satellite remote sensing technologies, allowing readers to use the text as instructional material Includes the most recent technologies and their applications, allowing the reader to stay up-to-date Delves into laser sensing (LIDAR) and commercial satellites (DigitalGlobe) Presents examples of specific satellite missions, including those in which new technology has been introduced
Author: Timothy A Warner
Release Date: 2009-06-18
'A magnificent achievement. A who's who of contemporary remote sensing have produced an engaging, wide-ranging and scholarly review of the field in just one volume' - Professor Paul Curran, Vice-Chancellor, Bournemouth University Remote Sensing acquires and interprets small or large-scale data about the Earth from a distance. Using a wide range of spatial, spectral, temporal, and radiometric scales Remote Sensing is a large and diverse field for which this Handbook will be the key research reference. Organized in four key sections: • Interactions of Electromagnetic Radiation with the Terrestrial Environment: chapters on Visible, Near-IR and Shortwave IR; Middle IR (3-5 micrometers); Thermal IR ; Microwave • Digital sensors and Image Characteristics: chapters on Sensor Technology; Coarse Spatial Resolution Optical Sensors ; Medium Spatial Resolution Optical Sensors; Fine Spatial Resolution Optical Sensors; Video Imaging and Multispectral Digital Photography; Hyperspectral Sensors; Radar and Passive Microwave Sensors; Lidar • Remote Sensing Analysis - Design and Implementation: chapters on Image Pre-Processing; Ground Data Collection; Integration with GIS; Quantitative Models in Remote Sensing; Validation and accuracy assessment; • Remote Sensing Analysis - Applications: LITHOSPHERIC SCIENCES: chapters on Topography; Geology; Soils; PLANT SCIENCES: Vegetation; Agriculture; HYDROSPHERIC and CRYSOPHERIC SCIENCES: Hydrosphere: Fresh and Ocean Water; Cryosphere; GLOBAL CHANGE AND HUMAN ENVIRONMENTS: Earth Systems; Human Environments & Links to the Social Sciences; Real Time Monitoring Systems and Disaster Management; Land Cover Change Illustrated throughout, an essential resource for the analysis of remotely sensed data, the SAGE Handbook of Remote Sensing provides researchers with a definitive statement of the core concepts and methodologies in the discipline.