Microwave and millimeter wave high-power vacuum electron devices (VEDs) are essential elements in specialized military, scientific, medical and space applications. They can produce mega watts of power which would be equal to the power of thousands of solid state power devices (SSPDs). Similarly, in most of today's T/R-Modules of active phased array antennas for radars and electronic warfare applications GaAs based hybrid and MMIC amplifiers are used. The early applications of millimeter-wave MMICs were in military, space and astronomy systems. In the last three decades, microwave remote sensing has shown a high potential in characterization of land surface parameters (soil moisture, vegetation biomass, water covers, etc.). In this context, a very rich activity has been developed to propose techniques (satellite, airborne, in situ) and methodologies to optimize contribution of microwave remote sensing, in terms of precision, spatial, and temporal resolutions. Microwave Radar and Radiometric Remote Sensing provides you with theoretical models, system design and operation, and geoscientific applications of active and passive microwave remote sensing systems. It is aimed to the study of both reviews and original researches related to recent innovative microwave remote sensing instrumentation for land surface applications. Microwave remote sensing provides a unique capability towards achieving this goal. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in microwave remote sensing of land processes through development of advanced airborne and space-borne microwave sensors, and the tools - such as physics-based models and advanced inversion algorithms - needed for analyzing the data. These activities have sharply increased in recent years since the launch of the ERS-1/2, JERS-1, and RADARS AT satellites, and with the availability of radiometric data from SSM/I. A new era has begun with the recent space missions ESA-ENVISAT, NASA-AQUA, and NASDA-ADEOSII, and the upcoming PALSAR and RADARSAT2 missions, which open new horizons for a wide range of operational microwave remote-sensing applications. This book highlights major activities and important results achieved in this area over the past years.
This book demonstrates the capabilities of passive microwave technique for enhanced observations of ocean features, including the detection of (sub)surface events and/or disturbances while laying out the benefits and boundaries of these methods. It represents not only an introduction and complete description of the main principles of ocean microwave radiometry and imagery, but also provides guidance for further experimental studies. Furthermore, it expands the analysis of remote sensing methods, models, and techniques and focuses on a high-resolution multiband imaging observation concept. Such an advanced approach provides readers with a new level of geophysical information and data acquisition granting the opportunity to improve their expertise on advanced microwave technology, becoming now an indispensable tool for diagnostics of ocean phenomena and disturbances.
Principles of Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging: A System Simulation Approach demonstrates the use of image simulation for SAR. It covers the various applications of SAR (including feature extraction, target classification, and change detection), provides a complete understanding of SAR principles, and illustrates the complete chain of a SAR operation. The book places special emphasis on a ground-based SAR, but also explains space and air-borne systems. It contains chapters on signal speckle, radar-signal models, sensor-trajectory models, SAR-image focusing, platform-motion compensation, and microwave-scattering from random media. While discussing SAR image focusing and motion compensation, it presents processing algorithms and applications that feature extraction, target classification, and change detection. It also provides samples of simulation on various scenarios, and includes simulation flowcharts and results that are detailed throughout the book. Introducing SAR imaging from a systems point of view, the author: Considers the recent development of MIMO SAR technology Includes selected GPU implementation Provides a numerical analysis of system parameters (including platforms, sensor, and image focusing, and their influence) Explores wave-target interactions, signal transmission and reception, image formation, motion compensation Covers all platform motion compensation and error analysis, and their impact on final image radiometric and geometric quality Describes a ground-based SFMCW system Principles of Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging: A System Simulation Approach is dedicated to the use, study, and development of SAR systems. The book focuses on image formation or focusing, treats platform motion and image focusing, and is suitable for students, radar engineers, and microwave remote sensing researchers.
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
Release Date: 2015-09-21
Active remote sensing is the principal tool used to study and to predict short- and long-term changes in the environment of Earth - the atmosphere, the oceans and the land surfaces - as well as the near space environment of Earth. All of these measurements are essential to understanding terrestrial weather, climate change, space weather hazards, and threats from asteroids. Active remote sensing measurements are of inestimable benefit to society, as we pursue the development of a technological civilization that is economically viable, and seek to maintain the quality of our life. A Strategy for Active Remote Sensing Amid Increased Demand for Spectrum describes the threats, both current and future, to the effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum required for active remote sensing. This report offers specific recommendations for protecting and making effective use of the spectrum required for active remote sensing.
Author: George P. Petropoulos
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2017-11-02
Extreme weather and climate change aggravate the frequency and magnitude of disasters. Facing atypical and more severe events, existing early warning and response systems become inadequate both in scale and scope. Earth Observation (EO) provides today information at global, regional and even basin scales related to agrometeorological hazards. This book will focus on drought, flood, frost, landslides, and storms/cyclones and will cover different applications of EO data used from prediction to mapping damages for each category. It will explain the added value of EO technology in comparison with conventional techniques applied today through many case studies.
Because prevailing atmospheric/troposcopic conditions greatly influence radio wave propagation above 10 GHz, the unguided propagation of microwaves in the neutral atmosphere can directly impact many vital applications in science and engineering. These include transmission of intelligence, and radar and radiometric applications used to probe the atmosphere, among others. Where most books address either one or the other, Microwave Propagation and Remote Sensing: Atmospheric Influences with Models and Applications melds coverage of these two subjects to help readers develop solutions to the problems they present. This reference offers a brief, elementary account of microwave propagation through the atmosphere and discusses radiometric applications in the microwave band used to characterize and model atmospheric constituents, which is also known as remote sensing. Summarizing the latest research results in the field, as well as radiometric models and measurement methods, this book covers topics including: Free space propagation Reflection, interference, polarization, and other key aspects of electromagnetic wave propagation Radio refraction and its effects on propagation delay Methodology of estimating water vapor attenuation using radiosonde data Knowledge of rain structures and use of climatological patterns to estimate/measure attenuation of rain, snow, fog, and other prevalent atmospheric particles and human-made substances Dual/multifrequency methodology to deal with the influence of clouds on radiometric attenuation Deployment of microwaves to ascertain various tropospheric conditions Composition and characteristics of the troposphere, to help readers fully understand microwave propagation Derived parameters of water, free space propagation, and conditions and variable constituents such as water vapor and vapor pressure, density, and ray bending