Military Innovation in the Interwar Period

Author: Williamson R. Murray
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521637600
Release Date: 1998-08-13
Genre: History

In 1914, the armies and navies that faced each other were alike right down to the strengths of their companies and battalions and the designs of their battleships and cruisers. Differences were of degree rather than essence. During the interwar period, however, the armed forces grew increasingly asymmetrical, developing different approaches to the same problems. This 1996 study of major military innovations in the 1920s and 1930s explores differences in exploitation by the seven major military powers. The comparative essays investigate how and why innovation occurred or did not occur, and explain much of the strategic and operative performance of the Axis and Allies in World War II. The essays focus on several instances of how military services developed new technology and weapons and incorporated them into their doctrine, organisation and styles of operations.

Military Innovation in the Interwar Period

Author: Williamson R. Murray
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781107268623
Release Date: 1996-08-28
Genre: History

In 1914, the armies and navies that faced each other were alike right down to the strengths of their companies and battalions and the designs of their battleships and cruisers. Differences were of degree rather than essence. During the interwar period, however, the armed forces grew increasingly asymmetrical, developing different approaches to the same problems. This study of major military innovations in the 1920s and 1930s explores differences in exploitation by the seven major military powers. The comparative essays investigate how and why innovation occurred or did not occur, and explain much of the strategic and operative performance of the Axis and Allies in World War II. The essays focus on several instances of how military services developed new technology and weapons and incorporated them into their doctrine, organisation and styles of operations.

Military Effectiveness Volume 2 The Interwar Period

Author: Allan R. Millett
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139502115
Release Date: 2010-08-09
Genre: History

This three-volume study examines the questions raised by the performance of the military institutions of France, Germany, Russia, the United States, Great Britain, Japan and Italy in the period from 1914 to 1945. Leading military historians deal with the different national approaches to war and military power at the tactical, operational, strategic, and political levels. They form the basis for a fundamental re-examination of how military organizations have performed in the first half of the twentieth century. Volume 2 covers the interwar period. Volumes 1 and 3 address World War I and World War II, respectively. Now in a new edition, with a new introduction by the editors, these classic volumes will remain invaluable for military historians and social scientists in their examination of national security and military issues. They will also be essential reading for future military leaders at Staff and War Colleges.

Uncovering Ways of War

Author: Thomas G. Mahnken
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 0801439868
Release Date: 2002
Genre: History

Using formerly classified sources - in particular, the reports of military attaches and other diplomat-officers - Thomas G. Mahnken sheds light on the shadowy world of U.S. intelligence gathering, tracing how America learned of military developments in Japan, Germany, and Great Britain in the period between the two world wars. The interwar period witnessed both a considerable shift in the balance of power in Europe and Asia and the emergence of new ways of war, such as carrier aviation, amphibious operations, and combined-arms armored warfare. American attempts to follow these developments, Mahnken says, illustrate the problems that intelligence organizations face in their efforts to bridge the gulf between prewar expectations and wartime reality. He finds three reasons for intelligence's relative lack of success: intelligence agencies are more inclined to monitor established weapons systems than to search for new ones; their attention is more likely to focus on technology and doctrine already demonstrated in combat; and they have more success identifying innovation in areas their own country is testing.

Fast Tanks and Heavy Bombers

Author: David E. Johnson
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 9780801467110
Release Date: 2013-01-14
Genre: History

The U.S. Army entered World War II unprepared. In addition, lacking Germany's blitzkrieg approach of coordinated armor and air power, the army was organized to fight two wars: one on the ground and one in the air. Previous commentators have blamed Congressional funding and public apathy for the army's unprepared state. David E. Johnson believes instead that the principal causes were internal: army culture and bureaucracy, and their combined impact on the development of weapons and doctrine. Johnson examines the U.S. Army's innovations for both armor and aviation between the world wars, arguing that the tank became a captive of the conservative infantry and cavalry branches, while the airplane's development was channeled by air power insurgents bent on creating an independent air force. He maintains that as a consequence, the tank's potential was hindered by the traditional arms, while air power advocates focused mainly on proving the decisiveness of strategic bombing, neglecting the mission of tactical support for ground troops. Minimal interaction between ground and air officers resulted in insufficient cooperation between armored forces and air forces. Fast Tanks and Heavy Bombers makes a major contribution to a new understanding of both the creation of the modern U.S. Army and the Army's performance in World War II. The book also provides important insights for future military innovation.

Military Adaptation in War

Author: Williamson Murray
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781107006591
Release Date: 2011-10-10
Genre: History

Addresses how military organizations confront the problem of adapting under the trying, terrifying conditions of war.

The Source of Military Doctrine

Author: Barry R. Posen
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 9780801468575
Release Date: 2014-09-09
Genre: Political Science

Barry R. Posen explores how military doctrine takes shape and the role it plays in grand strategy-that collection of military, economic, and political means and ends with which a state attempts to achieve security. Posen isolates three crucial elements of a given strategic doctrine: its offensive, defensive, or deterrent characteristics, its integration of military resources with political aims, and the degree of military or operational innovation it contains. He then examines these components of doctrine from the perspectives of organization theory and balance of power theory, taking into account the influence of technology and geography. Looking at interwar France, Britain, and Germany, Posen challenges each theory to explain the German Blitzkrieg, the British air defense system, and the French Army's defensive doctrine often associated with the Maginot Line. This rigorous comparative study, in which the balance of power theory emerges as the more useful, not only allows us to discover important implications for the study of national strategy today, but also serves to sharpen our understanding of the origins of World War II.

Winning the Next War

Author: Stephen Peter Rosen
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 0801481961
Release Date: 1994-04-01
Genre: History

Rosen argues that armies and navies are not forever doomed to "fight the last war." Rather, they are able to respond to shifts in the international strategic situation.

Military Effectiveness

Author: Allan R. Millett
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521425919
Release Date: 2010-09-06
Genre: History

Examines questions raised by the performance of the military institutions of France, Germany, Russia, the US, Great Britain, Japan and Italy between 1914 and 1945.

Destined for Glory

Author: Thomas Wildenberg
Publisher: Naval Institute Press
ISBN: 9781612511016
Release Date: 2013-04-08
Genre: History

On 4 June 1942, three squadrons of U.S. Navy Dauntless dive bombers destroyed Japan's carrier force at Midway and changed the course of the Pacific war. As Wildenberg demonstrates in this book, the key ingredient to the Navy's success was the planning and training devoted to the tactic of dive bombing. Examining how political, economic, technical, and operational factors influenced the development of carrier airpower between 1925 and 1942, he shows why dive bombing became the Navy's weapon of choice. He also pays tribute to the select group of naval aviators who drove the evolution of carrier tactics. Although many books have been written about the Battle of Midway, this is the first to focus on how the Navy came to develop the one aerial weapon that proved to be the decisive instrument of victory

Forging Stalin s Army

Author: Sally W Stoecker
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9780429980022
Release Date: 2018-02-19
Genre: Political Science

This innovative study examines the early years of the Red Army as it developed from a revolutionary partisan force into a modern, professional institution under the leadership of Mikhail Tukhachevsky, an important and controversial figure in the politics of the Stalin period. Sally Stoecker combines her institutional analysis of the formative period of the Soviet military with an astute look at the person and political maneuvers of Marshal Tukhachevsky and his complex relationship with Stalin, which eventually led to his spectacular downfall and execution in the Great Terror of the late 1930s. }This innovative study examines the early years of the Red Army as it developed from a revolutionary partisan force into a modern, professional institution under the leadership of Mikhail Tukhachevsky, an important and controversial figure in the politics of the Stalin period. Sally Stoecker combi nes her institutional analysis of the formative period of the Soviet military with an astute look at the person and political maneuvers of Marshal Tukhachevsky and his complex relationship with Stalin, which eventually led to his spectacular downfall and execution in the Great Terror of the late 1930s.Based on newly available archival materials, the book will be welcomed not only by military historians but also by Russian historians for the light it sheds on a vital area of Soviet political history. }

The Cambridge History of Warfare

Author: Geoffrey Parker
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521853591
Release Date: 2005-08-29
Genre: History

War is a compelling subject. It is common to almost all known societies and periods of history. The Cambridge History of Warfare, first published in 2005, provides a detailed account of war in the West from antiquity to the present day, and is unique because of its controversial thesis that war in western societies has followed a unique path leading to western dominance of the globe. From the Greek victory at Marathon to the Gulf War, readable and authoritative, The Cambridge History of Warfare places in context the key events in the history of armed engagement. All aspects of war on land, sea, and in the air are covered: weapons and technology; strategy and defense; discipline and intelligence; mercenaries and standing armies; cavalry and infantry; chivalry and Blitzkrieg; guerilla assault and nuclear arsenals. This volume, first published as The Cambridge Illustrated History of Warfare, includes maps and an updated bibliography.