Author: Chandra Shekhar Nautiyal
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2008-07-10
Molecular Mechanisms of Plant and Microbe Coexistence presents studies on the complex and manifold interactions of plants and microbes at the population, genomics and proteomics level. The role of soil microbial diversity in enhancing plant health and plant microbe beneficial symbioses is discussed. Microbial communities are shown in the light of evolution. Main topics include genome coexistence and the functional genomics and proteomics of plant-associated microbes, which could form the basis for new environmentally benign strategies to combat infectious plant diseases and regulate plant growth. Further chapters focus on the role of signaling during the different stages of plant microbe coexistence, in symbiotic or pathogenic relationships, in quorum sensing and plant viral infections. Methods for studying the interactions in the root zone complement the book, which will certainly be of relevance in the practical application to agriculture, food security and for maintaining the balance of our ecosystems.
This books presents an updated compilation on fundamental interaction mechanisms of microbial communities with the plant roots and rhizosphere (belowground) and leaves and aerial parts (aboveground). Plant rhizopshere recruits its own microbial composition that survive there and help plants grow and develop better under biotic and abiotic conditions. Similar is the case with the beneficial microorganisms which are applied as inoculants with characteristic functions. The mechanism of plant-microbe interactions is interesting phenomenon in biological perspectives with numerous implications in the fields. The First volume focuses on the basic and fundamental mechanisms that have been worked out by the scientific communities taking into account different plant-microbe systems. This includes methods that decipher mechanisms at cellular, physiological, biochemical and molecular levels and the functions that are the final outcome of any beneficial or non-beneficial interactions in crop plants and microbes. Recent advances in this research area is covered in different book chapters that reflect the impact of microbial interactions on soil and plant health, dynamics of rhizosphere microbial communities, interaction mechanisms of microbes with multiple functional attributes, microbiome of contrasting crop production systems (organic vs conventional), mechanisms behind symbiotic and pathogenic interactions, endophytic (bacterial and fungal) interaction and benefits, rhizoplane and endosphere associations, signalling cascades and determinants in rhizosphere, quorum sensing in bacteria and impact on interaction, mycorrhizal interaction mechanisms, induced disease resistance and plant immunization, interaction mechanisms that suppress disease and belowground microbial crosstalk with plant rhizosphere. Methods based on multiphasic and multi-omics approaches were discussed in detail by the authors. Content-wise, the book offers an advanced account on various aspects of plant-microbe interactions and valuable implications in agro-ecological perspectives.
Author: Iqbal Ahmad
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2017-10-02
Biofilms are predominant mode of life for microbes under natural conditions. The three-dimensional structure of the biofilm provides enhanced protection from physical, chemical and biological stress conditions to associated microbial communities. These complex and highly structured microbial communities play a vital role in maintaining the health of plants, soils and waters. Biofilm associated with plants may be pathogenic or beneficial based on the nature of their interactions. Pathogenic or undesirable biofilm requires control in many situations, including soil, plants, food and water. Written by leading experts from around the world, Biofilms in Plant and Soil Health provides an up-to-date review on various aspects of microbial biofilms, and suggests future and emerging trends in biofilms in plant and soil health. Issues are addressed in four sub areas: I) The fundamentals and significance of biofilm in plant and soil health, and the concept of mono and mixed biofilms by PGPR and fungal biofilms. II) Biochemical and molecular mechanisms in biofilm studies in plant associated bacteria, and techniques in studying biofilms and their characterization, gene expression and enhanced antimicrobial resistance in biofilms, as well as biotic and biotic factors affecting biofilm in vitro. III) The ecological significance of soil associated biofilms and stress management and bioremediation of contaminated soils and degraded ecosystems. IV) Pathogenic biofilm associated with plant and food and its control measures. This book is recommended for students and researchers working in agricultural and environmental microbiology, biotechnology, soil sciences, soil and plant health and plant protection. Researchers working in the area of quorum sensing, biofilm applications, and understanding microbiome of soil and plants will also find it useful.
Sustainable agriculture is a rapidly growing field aiming at producing food and energy in a sustainable way for humans and their children. It is a discipline that addresses current issues: climate change, increasing food and fuel prices, poor-nation starvation, rich-nation obesity, water pollution, soil erosion, fertility loss, pest control and biodiversity depletion. This series gathers review articles that analyze current agricultural issues and knowledge, then proposes alternative solutions.
The book addresses current public concern about the adverse effect of agrochemicals and their effect on the agro-ecosystem. This book also aims to satisfy and contribute to the increasing interest in understanding the co-operative activities among microbial populations and their interaction with plants. It contains chapters on a variety of interrelated aspects of plant-microbe interactions with a single theme of stress management and sustainable agriculture. The book will be very useful for students, academicians, researcher working on plant-microbe interaction and also for policy makers involved in food security and sustainable agriculture.
Author: Naveen Kumar Arora
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2013-08-15
Plant microbe interaction is a complex relationship that can have various beneficial impacts on both the communities. An urgent need of today’s world is to get high crop yields in an ecofriendly manner. Utilization of beneficial and multifaceted plant growth promoting (PGP) microorganisms can solve the problem of getting enhanced yields without disturbing the ecosystem thus leading to sustainability. For this to achieve understanding of the intricate details of how the beneficial microbes form associations with the host plant and sustain that for millions of years must be known. A holistic approach is required wherein the diversity of microbes associated with plant and the network of mechanisms by which they benefit the host must be studied and utilized. ‘Plant Microbe Symbiosis – Fundamentals and Advances’ provides a comprehensive understanding of positive interactions that occur between plant and microorganisms and their utilization in the fields. The book reviews the enormous diversity of plant associated microbes, the dialog between plant-microbes-microbes and mechanisms of action of PGP microbes. Utilization of PGPRs as nutrient providers, in combating phytopathogens and ameliorating the stressed and polluted soils is also explained. Importantly, the book also throws light on the unanswered questions and future direction of research in the field. It illustrates how the basic knowledge can be amalgamated with advanced technology to design the future bioformulations.
The use of microbial plant protection products is growing and their importance will strongly increase due to political and public pressure. World population is growing and the amount of food needed by 2050 will be double of what is produced now whereas the area of agricultural land is decreasing. We must increase crop yield in a sustainable way. Chemical plant growth promoters must be replaced by microbiological products. Also here, the use of microbial products is growing and their importance will strongly increase. A growing area of agricultural land is salinated. Global warming will increase this process. Plants growth is inhibited by salt or even made impossible and farmers tend to disuse the most salinated lands. Microbes have been very successfully used to alleviate salt stress of plants. Chemical pollution of land can make plant growth difficult and crops grown are often polluted and not suitable for consumption. Microbes have been used to degrade these chemical pollutants.
This book presents a compilation of case studies from different countries on achieving agricultural sustainability. The book stresses that, in order to meet the needs of our rapidly growing population, it is imperative to increase agricultural productivity. If global food production is to keep pace with an increasing population, while formulating new food production strategies for developing countries, the great challenge for modern societies is to boost agricultural productivity. Today, the application of chemicals to enhance plant growth or induced resistance in plants is limited due to the negative effects of chemical treatment and the difficulty of determining the optimal concentrations to benefit the plant. In the search for alternative means to solve these problems, biological applications have been extensively studied. Naturally occurring plant-microbe-environment interactions are utilized in many ways to enhance plant productivity. As such, a greater understanding of how plants and microbes coexist and benefit one another can yield new strategies to improve plant productivity in the most sustainable way. Developing sustainable agricultural practices requires understanding both the basic and applied aspects of agriculturally important microorganisms, with a focus on transforming agricultural systems from being nutrient-deficient to nutrient-rich. This work is divided into two volumes, the aim being to provide a comprehensive description and to highlight a holistic approach, respectively. Taken together, the two volumes address the fundamentals, applications, research trends and new prospects of agricultural sustainability. Volume one consists of two sections, with the first addressing the role of microbes in sustainability, and the second exploring beneficial soil microbe interaction in several economically important crops. Section I elucidates various mechanisms and beneficial natural processes that enhance soil fertility and create rhizospheric conditions favourable for high fertility and sustainable soil flora. It examines the mechanism of action and importance of rhizobacteria and mycorrhizal associations in soil. In turn, section II presents selected case studies involving economically important crops. This section explains how agriculturally beneficial microbes have been utilized in sustainable cultivation with high productivity. Sustainable food production without degrading the soil and environmental quality is a major priority throughout the world, making this book a timely addition. It offers a comprehensive collection of information that will benefit students and researchers working in the field of rhizospheric mechanisms, agricultural microbiology, biotechnology, agronomy and sustainable agriculture, as well as policymakers in the area of food security and sustainable agriculture.
Author: Johan Runas
Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated
Release Date: 2010
"Genetic diversity and species diversity are both crucial for ecosystem stability. Analysis of plant diversity aims to understand the organization and the variability of biological populations within ecosystems. This book provides a review on chemotaxonomical criteria helping to understand complex structures of plant diversity. It focuses particularly on the chemotaxonomic usefulness of phenolic compounds in analysis of chemical polymorphisms at different taxonomic levels. The relationship between grazing pressure and grassland vegetation is also examined, using drastically improved information technology such as remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS) and Ground Positioning Systems (GPS). Furthermore, an overview of the unique ecosystem of the South Brazilian Campos grasslands are given. The role of disturbance in maintaining Campos biodiversity and dynamics, and the importance of its conservation, is looked at as well. Other chapters in this book discuss the relationship between management and vegetation, and also suggest ways to conserve the species diversity of both plants and butterflies in semi-natural grassland."--Publisher's description.
Author: John M. Walker
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2008-02-12
In The Protein Protocols Handbook, I have attempted to provide a cross-section of analytical techniques commonly used for proteins and peptides, thus providing a benehtop manual and guide both for those who are new to the protein chemistry laboratory and for those more established workers who wish to use a technique for the first time. We each, of course, have our own favorite, commonly used gel system, g- staining method, blotting method, and so on; I'm sure you will find yours here. H- ever, I have also described a variety of altematives for many of these techniques; though they may not be superior to the methods you commonly use, they may nev- theless be more appropriate in a particular situation. Only by knowing the range of techniques that are available to you, and the strengths and limitations of these te- niques, will you be able to choose the method that best suits your purpose.
The book covers the entire field of plant pathology in one volume. It provides up-to-date information and discussess both general and specialised topics. Almost all types of diseases are covered, including root diseases, seed-borne diseases, post-harvest diseases of fruits and vegetables, diseases caused by bacteria,viruses, mycoplasms and nematodes. NOn-parasitic diseases are also discussed in detail.Life and diseases cycles of important plant pathogens are adequately covered. The text is profusely illustrated with about 200 figures in the form of line diagrams and photographs. The chapter-end questions provide a refresher exercise to the reader. With its coverage, apart from the plant pathology courses, the book also meets the complete requirements of agriculture and botany students. Key features During the last few decades, the application of biotechnology to plant pathology has revolutionized out understanding of genetics for building resistance in plants against diseases, by way of producing transgenic plants. And hence, a new chapter "Application of Biotechnology to Plant Pathology" has been added along with the chapter "Phytopathological Techniques in Plant Pathology". This would familiarize the student of Plant pathology to some of the basis techniques. The present edition gives the latest information avilable on plant diseases and their management. Several chapters have been thoroughly revised to bring in new information. This edition also contains discussion on a number of diseases that were not included in the earlier edition.
Plant cell walls are complex, dynamic cellular structures essential for plant growth, development, physiology and adaptation. Plant Cell Walls provides an in depth and diverse view of the microanatomy, biosynthesis and molecular physiology of these cellular structures, both in the life of the plant and in their use for bioproducts and biofuels. Plant Cell Walls is a textbook for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, as well as a professional-level reference book. Over 400 drawings, micrographs, and photographs provide visual insight into the latest research, as well as the uses of plant cell walls in everyday life, and their applications in biotechnology. Illustrated panels concisely review research methods and tools; a list of key terms is given at the end of each chapter; and extensive references organized by concept headings provide readers with guidance for entry into plant cell wall literature. Cell wall material is of considerable importance to the biofuel, food, timber, and pulp and paper industries as well as being a major focus of research in plant growth and sustainability that are of central interest in present day agriculture and biotechnology. The production and use of plants for biofuel and bioproducts in a time of need for responsible global carbon use requires a deep understanding of the fundamental biology of plants and their cell walls. Such an understanding will lead to improved plant processes and materials, and help provide a sustainable resource for meeting the future bioenergy and bioproduct needs of humankind.
This book, divided into 13 chapters, explores recent discoveries in the area of molecular plant-microbe interactions. It focuses mainly on the mechanisms controlling plant disease resistance and the cross talk among the signalling pathways involved, and the strategies used by fungi and viruses to suppress these defences. Two chapters deal with the role of symbionts (such as the symbiotic actinobacteria and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) during their interactions with plants.