Author: Chandra Shekhar Nautiyal
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2008-07-10
Molecular Mechanisms of Plant and Microbe Coexistence presents studies on the complex and manifold interactions of plants and microbes at the population, genomics and proteomics level. The role of soil microbial diversity in enhancing plant health and plant microbe beneficial symbioses is discussed. Microbial communities are shown in the light of evolution. Main topics include genome coexistence and the functional genomics and proteomics of plant-associated microbes, which could form the basis for new environmentally benign strategies to combat infectious plant diseases and regulate plant growth. Further chapters focus on the role of signaling during the different stages of plant microbe coexistence, in symbiotic or pathogenic relationships, in quorum sensing and plant viral infections. Methods for studying the interactions in the root zone complement the book, which will certainly be of relevance in the practical application to agriculture, food security and for maintaining the balance of our ecosystems.
Sustainable agriculture is a rapidly growing field aiming at producing food and energy in a sustainable way for humans and their children. It is a discipline that addresses current issues: climate change, increasing food and fuel prices, poor-nation starvation, rich-nation obesity, water pollution, soil erosion, fertility loss, pest control and biodiversity depletion. This series gathers review articles that analyze current agricultural issues and knowledge, then proposes alternative solutions.
This books presents an updated compilation on fundamental interaction mechanisms of microbial communities with the plant roots and rhizosphere (belowground) and leaves and aerial parts (aboveground). Plant rhizopshere recruits its own microbial composition that survive there and help plants grow and develop better under biotic and abiotic conditions. Similar is the case with the beneficial microorganisms which are applied as inoculants with characteristic functions. The mechanism of plant-microbe interactions is interesting phenomenon in biological perspectives with numerous implications in the fields. The First volume focuses on the basic and fundamental mechanisms that have been worked out by the scientific communities taking into account different plant-microbe systems. This includes methods that decipher mechanisms at cellular, physiological, biochemical and molecular levels and the functions that are the final outcome of any beneficial or non-beneficial interactions in crop plants and microbes. Recent advances in this research area is covered in different book chapters that reflect the impact of microbial interactions on soil and plant health, dynamics of rhizosphere microbial communities, interaction mechanisms of microbes with multiple functional attributes, microbiome of contrasting crop production systems (organic vs conventional), mechanisms behind symbiotic and pathogenic interactions, endophytic (bacterial and fungal) interaction and benefits, rhizoplane and endosphere associations, signalling cascades and determinants in rhizosphere, quorum sensing in bacteria and impact on interaction, mycorrhizal interaction mechanisms, induced disease resistance and plant immunization, interaction mechanisms that suppress disease and belowground microbial crosstalk with plant rhizosphere. Methods based on multiphasic and multi-omics approaches were discussed in detail by the authors. Content-wise, the book offers an advanced account on various aspects of plant-microbe interactions and valuable implications in agro-ecological perspectives.
The existence of living organisms in diverse ecosystems has been the focus of interest to human beings, primarily to obtain insights into the diversity and dynamics of the communities. This book discusses how the advent of novel molecular biology techniques, the latest being the next-generation sequencing technologies, helps to elucidate the identity of novel organisms, including those that are rare. The book highlights the fact that oceans, marine environments, rivers, mountains and the gut are ecosystems with great potential for obtaining bioactive molecules, which can be used in areas such as agriculture, food, medicine, water supplies and bioremediation. It then describes the latest research in metagenomics, a field that allows elucidation of the maximum biodiversity within an ecosystem, without the need to actually grow and culture the organisms. Further, it describes how human-associated microbes are directly responsible for our health and overall wellbeing.“/p>
The book addresses current public concern about the adverse effect of agrochemicals and their effect on the agro-ecosystem. This book also aims to satisfy and contribute to the increasing interest in understanding the co-operative activities among microbial populations and their interaction with plants. It contains chapters on a variety of interrelated aspects of plant-microbe interactions with a single theme of stress management and sustainable agriculture. The book will be very useful for students, academicians, researcher working on plant-microbe interaction and also for policy makers involved in food security and sustainable agriculture.
Author: Johan Runas
Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated
Release Date: 2010
"Genetic diversity and species diversity are both crucial for ecosystem stability. Analysis of plant diversity aims to understand the organization and the variability of biological populations within ecosystems. This book provides a review on chemotaxonomical criteria helping to understand complex structures of plant diversity. It focuses particularly on the chemotaxonomic usefulness of phenolic compounds in analysis of chemical polymorphisms at different taxonomic levels. The relationship between grazing pressure and grassland vegetation is also examined, using drastically improved information technology such as remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS) and Ground Positioning Systems (GPS). Furthermore, an overview of the unique ecosystem of the South Brazilian Campos grasslands are given. The role of disturbance in maintaining Campos biodiversity and dynamics, and the importance of its conservation, is looked at as well. Other chapters in this book discuss the relationship between management and vegetation, and also suggest ways to conserve the species diversity of both plants and butterflies in semi-natural grassland."--Publisher's description.
The book covers the entire field of plant pathology in one volume. It provides up-to-date information and discussess both general and specialised topics. Almost all types of diseases are covered, including root diseases, seed-borne diseases, post-harvest diseases of fruits and vegetables, diseases caused by bacteria,viruses, mycoplasms and nematodes. NOn-parasitic diseases are also discussed in detail.Life and diseases cycles of important plant pathogens are adequately covered. The text is profusely illustrated with about 200 figures in the form of line diagrams and photographs. The chapter-end questions provide a refresher exercise to the reader. With its coverage, apart from the plant pathology courses, the book also meets the complete requirements of agriculture and botany students. Key features During the last few decades, the application of biotechnology to plant pathology has revolutionized out understanding of genetics for building resistance in plants against diseases, by way of producing transgenic plants. And hence, a new chapter "Application of Biotechnology to Plant Pathology" has been added along with the chapter "Phytopathological Techniques in Plant Pathology". This would familiarize the student of Plant pathology to some of the basis techniques. The present edition gives the latest information avilable on plant diseases and their management. Several chapters have been thoroughly revised to bring in new information. This edition also contains discussion on a number of diseases that were not included in the earlier edition.
Author: Desh Pal S Verma
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 1986-12-31
Increased interest in the basic biology of plants and microorganisms stems from the fact that crop productivity is directly affected by plant-microbe interactions. In spite of the fact that plants exist in the environment amongst diverse species of microorganisms, only a few ever establish a direct relationship. Emerging awareness concerning the indirect effect of microbial association on plant growth and the possibility of using one microbe against another for controlling pathogenic interactions is at the genesis of new fields of studies. The primary reason for a microbe to associate with· photoautotrophic organisms (plants) is to tap its nutritional requirements, fixed carbon, as a source of energy. By hook or by crook, a microbe must survive. Some have evolved mechanisms to exploit plants to develop a niche for their biotropic demands. When in contact with a living plant, microorganisms may live in a passive association using exudates from the plant, invade it pathogenically or coexist with it in symbiosis. The plant responds to the interloper, either reacting in a hypersensitive manner to contain the invasion of pathogens, or by inducing a set of genes that leads toward symbiosis, or by simply succumbing to the invader. Thus, prior to contact wi th the plant, mic roorganism is able to sense the presence of the host and activate accordingly a set of genes required for the forthcoming interaction, whether symbiotic or pathogenic.
Author: Peter Westhoff
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Release Date: 1998
This unique textbook is for undergraduate and graduate students studying the molecular development and genetics of plants. This translation of a new, modern German text fills a gap in textbooks that teach current knowledge in the molecular sciences, focusing on plants. It integrates classical concepts with novel insights coming from recent advances in molecular biology and is prepared very much with the student in mind. The German edition has been updated by the authors with a bibliography based on English language review articles and incorporating the latest research findings.
This book presents a compilation of case studies from different countries on achieving agricultural sustainability. The book stresses that, in order to meet the needs of our rapidly growing population, it is imperative to increase agricultural productivity. If global food production is to keep pace with an increasing population, while formulating new food production strategies for developing countries, the great challenge for modern societies is to boost agricultural productivity. Today, the application of chemicals to enhance plant growth or induced resistance in plants is limited due to the negative effects of chemical treatment and the difficulty of determining the optimal concentrations to benefit the plant. In the search for alternative means to solve these problems, biological applications have been extensively studied. Naturally occurring plant-microbe-environment interactions are utilized in many ways to enhance plant productivity. As such, a greater understanding of how plants and microbes coexist and benefit one another can yield new strategies to improve plant productivity in the most sustainable way. Developing sustainable agricultural practices requires understanding both the basic and applied aspects of agriculturally important microorganisms, with a focus on transforming agricultural systems from being nutrient-deficient to nutrient-rich. This work is divided into two volumes, the aim being to provide a comprehensive description and to highlight a holistic approach, respectively. Taken together, the two volumes address the fundamentals, applications, research trends and new prospects of agricultural sustainability. Volume one consists of two sections, with the first addressing the role of microbes in sustainability, and the second exploring beneficial soil microbe interaction in several economically important crops. Section I elucidates various mechanisms and beneficial natural processes that enhance soil fertility and create rhizospheric conditions favourable for high fertility and sustainable soil flora. It examines the mechanism of action and importance of rhizobacteria and mycorrhizal associations in soil. In turn, section II presents selected case studies involving economically important crops. This section explains how agriculturally beneficial microbes have been utilized in sustainable cultivation with high productivity. Sustainable food production without degrading the soil and environmental quality is a major priority throughout the world, making this book a timely addition. It offers a comprehensive collection of information that will benefit students and researchers working in the field of rhizospheric mechanisms, agricultural microbiology, biotechnology, agronomy and sustainable agriculture, as well as policymakers in the area of food security and sustainable agriculture.
Author: Christopher A. Mullin
Publisher: An American Chemical Society Publication
Release Date: 1992
Presents the most recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms by which insects acquire resistance to natural, synthetic, and bioengineered insecticides. Examines the major identified molecular mechanisms including gene amplification and changes in structural genes or gene expression that confer resistance. Also compares mechanisms among Diptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Homoptera, and Orthoptera and summarizes biochemical and genetic strategies that can be used to delay the development of resistance to insect control agents for the future.