Morse Theory and Floer Homology

Author: Michèle Audin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781447154969
Release Date: 2013-11-29
Genre: Mathematics

This book is an introduction to modern methods of symplectic topology. It is devoted to explaining the solution of an important problem originating from classical mechanics: the 'Arnold conjecture', which asserts that the number of 1-periodic trajectories of a non-degenerate Hamiltonian system is bounded below by the dimension of the homology of the underlying manifold. The first part is a thorough introduction to Morse theory, a fundamental tool of differential topology. It defines the Morse complex and the Morse homology, and develops some of their applications. Morse homology also serves a simple model for Floer homology, which is covered in the second part. Floer homology is an infinite-dimensional analogue of Morse homology. Its involvement has been crucial in the recent achievements in symplectic geometry and in particular in the proof of the Arnold conjecture. The building blocks of Floer homology are more intricate and imply the use of more sophisticated analytical methods, all of which are explained in this second part. The three appendices present a few prerequisites in differential geometry, algebraic topology and analysis. The book originated in a graduate course given at Strasbourg University, and contains a large range of figures and exercises. Morse Theory and Floer Homology will be particularly helpful for graduate and postgraduate students.

Infinite Dimensional Morse Theory and Multiple Solution Problems

Author: K.C. Chang
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461203858
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Mathematics

The book is based on my lecture notes "Infinite dimensional Morse theory and its applications", 1985, Montreal, and one semester of graduate lectures delivered at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1987. Since the aim of this monograph is to give a unified account of the topics in critical point theory, a considerable amount of new materials has been added. Some of them have never been published previously. The book is of interest both to researchers following the development of new results, and to people seeking an introduction into this theory. The main results are designed to be as self-contained as possible. And for the reader's convenience, some preliminary background information has been organized. The following people deserve special thanks for their direct roles in help ing to prepare this book. Prof. L. Nirenberg, who first introduced me to this field ten years ago, when I visited the Courant Institute of Math Sciences. Prof. A. Granas, who invited me to give a series of lectures at SMS, 1983, Montreal, and then the above notes, as the primary version of a part of the manuscript, which were published in the SMS collection. Prof. P. Rabinowitz, who provided much needed encouragement during the academic semester, and invited me to teach a semester graduate course after which the lecture notes became the second version of parts of this book. Professors A. Bahri and H. Brezis who suggested the publication of the book in the Birkhiiuser series.

An Invitation to Morse Theory

Author: Liviu Nicolaescu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 146141105X
Release Date: 2011-12-02
Genre: Mathematics

This self-contained treatment of Morse theory focuses on applications and is intended for a graduate course on differential or algebraic topology, and will also be of interest to researchers. This is the first textbook to include topics such as Morse-Smale flows, Floer homology, min-max theory, moment maps and equivariant cohomology, and complex Morse theory. The reader is expected to have some familiarity with cohomology theory and differential and integral calculus on smooth manifolds. Some features of the second edition include added applications, such as Morse theory and the curvature of knots, the cohomology of the moduli space of planar polygons, and the Duistermaat-Heckman formula. The second edition also includes a new chapter on Morse-Smale flows and Whitney stratifications, many new exercises, and various corrections from the first edition.

Symplectic Invariants and Hamiltonian Dynamics

Author: Helmut Hofer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3034801041
Release Date: 2011-03-31
Genre: Mathematics

The discoveries of the last decades have opened new perspectives for the old field of Hamiltonian systems and led to the creation of a new field: symplectic topology. Surprising rigidity phenomena demonstrate that the nature of symplectic mappings is very different from that of volume preserving mappings. This raises new questions, many of them still unanswered. On the other hand, analysis of an old variational principle in classical mechanics has established global periodic phenomena in Hamiltonian systems. As it turns out, these seemingly different phenomena are mysteriously related. One of the links is a class of symplectic invariants, called symplectic capacities. These invariants are the main theme of this book, which includes such topics as basic symplectic geometry, symplectic capacities and rigidity, periodic orbits for Hamiltonian systems and the action principle, a bi-invariant metric on the symplectic diffeomorphism group and its geometry, symplectic fixed point theory, the Arnold conjectures and first order elliptic systems, and finally a survey on Floer homology and symplectic homology. The exposition is self-contained and addressed to researchers and students from the graduate level onwards.

Symplectic Geometry of Integrable Hamiltonian Systems

Author: Michèle Audin
Publisher: Birkhäuser
ISBN: 9783034880718
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Mathematics

Among all the Hamiltonian systems, the integrable ones have special geometric properties; in particular, their solutions are very regular and quasi-periodic. This book serves as an introduction to symplectic and contact geometry for graduate students, exploring the underlying geometry of integrable Hamiltonian systems. Includes exercises designed to complement the expositiont, and up-to-date references.

Partial Differential Equations

Author: Jürgen Jost
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461448099
Release Date: 2012-11-13
Genre: Mathematics

This book offers an ideal graduate-level introduction to the theory of partial differential equations. The first part of the book describes the basic mathematical problems and structures associated with elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic partial differential equations, and explores the connections between these fundamental types. Aspects of Brownian motion or pattern formation processes are also presented. The second part focuses on existence schemes and develops estimates for solutions of elliptic equations, such as Sobolev space theory, weak and strong solutions, Schauder estimates, and Moser iteration. In particular, the reader will learn the basic techniques underlying current research in elliptic partial differential equations. This revised and expanded third edition is enhanced with many additional examples that will help motivate the reader. New features include a reorganized and extended chapter on hyperbolic equations, as well as a new chapter on the relations between different types of partial differential equations, including first-order hyperbolic systems, Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations, viscosity solutions for elliptic PDEs, and much more. Also, the new edition contains additional material on systems of elliptic partial differential equations, and it explains in more detail how the Harnack inequality can be used for the regularity of solutions.

Morse Theory

Author: Kevin P Knudson
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company
ISBN: 9789814630986
Release Date: 2015-05-29
Genre: Mathematics

Morse Theory: Smooth and Discrete serves as an introduction to classical smooth Morse theory and to Forman's discrete Morse theory, highlighting the parallels between the two subjects. This is the first time both smooth and discrete Morse theory have been treated in a single volume. This makes the book a valuable resource for students and professionals working in topology and discrete mathematics. With a strong focus on examples, the text is suitable for advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate students.

Riemannian Geometry and Geometric Analysis

Author: Jürgen Jost
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319618609
Release Date: 2017-10-13
Genre: Mathematics

This established reference work continues to provide its readers with a gateway to some of the most interesting developments in contemporary geometry. It offers insight into a wide range of topics, including fundamental concepts of Riemannian geometry, such as geodesics, connections and curvature; the basic models and tools of geometric analysis, such as harmonic functions, forms, mappings, eigenvalues, the Dirac operator and the heat flow method; as well as the most important variational principles of theoretical physics, such as Yang-Mills, Ginzburg-Landau or the nonlinear sigma model of quantum field theory. The present volume connects all these topics in a systematic geometric framework. At the same time, it equips the reader with the working tools of the field and enables her or him to delve into geometric research. The 7th edition has been systematically reorganized and updated. Almost no page has been left unchanged. It also includes new material, for instance on symplectic geometry, as well as the Bishop-Gromov volume growth theorem which elucidates the geometric role of Ricci curvature. From the reviews:“This book provides a very readable introduction to Riemannian geometry and geometric analysis... With the vast development of the mathematical subject of geometric analysis, the present textbook is most welcome.” Mathematical Reviews “For readers familiar with the basics of differential geometry and some acquaintance with modern analysis, the book is reasonably self-contained. The book succeeds very well in laying out the foundations of modern Riemannian geometry and geometric analysis. It introduces a number of key techniques and provides a representative overview of the field.” Monatshefte für Mathematik

Lectures on Morse Homology

Author: Augustin Banyaga
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402026951
Release Date: 2004-10-29
Genre: Mathematics

This book presents in great detail all the results one needs to prove the Morse Homology Theorem using classical techniques from algebraic topology and homotopy theory. Most of these results can be found scattered throughout the literature dating from the mid to late 1900's in some form or other, but often the results are proved in different contexts with a multitude of different notations and different goals. This book collects all these results together into a single reference with complete and detailed proofs. The core material in this book includes CW-complexes, Morse theory, hyperbolic dynamical systems (the Lamba-Lemma, the Stable/Unstable Manifold Theorem), transversality theory, the Morse-Smale-Witten boundary operator, and Conley index theory. More advanced topics include Morse theory on Grassmann manifolds and Lie groups, and an overview of Floer homology theories. With the stress on completeness and by its elementary approach to Morse homology, this book is suitable as a textbook for a graduate level course, or as a reference for working mathematicians and physicists.

From Stein to Weinstein and Back

Author: Kai Cieliebak
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 9780821885338
Release Date: 2012
Genre: Mathematics

A beautiful and comprehensive introduction to this important field. --Dusa McDuff, Barnard College, Columbia University This excellent book gives a detailed, clear, and wonderfully written treatment of the interplay between the world of Stein manifolds and the more topological and flexible world of Weinstein manifolds. Devoted to this subject with a long history, the book serves as a super introduction to this area and also contains the authors' new results. --Tomasz Mrowka, MIT This book is devoted to the interplay between complex and symplectic geometry in affine complex manifolds. Affine complex (a.k.a. Stein) manifolds have canonically built into them symplectic geometry which is responsible for many phenomena in complex geometry and analysis. The goal of the book is the exploration of this symplectic geometry (the road from ``Stein to Weinstein'') and its applications in the complex geometric world of Stein manifolds (the road ``back''). This is the first book which systematically explores this connection, thus providing a new approach to the classical subject of Stein manifolds. It also contains the first detailed investigation of Weinstein manifolds, the symplectic counterparts of Stein manifolds, which play an important role in symplectic and contact topology. Assuming only a general background from differential topology, the book provides introductions to the various techniques from the theory of functions of several complex variables, symplectic geometry, $h$-principles, and Morse theory that enter the proofs of the main results. The main results of the book are original results of the authors, and several of these results appear here for the first time. The book will be beneficial for all students and mathematicians interested in geometric aspects of complex analysis, symplectic and contact topology, and the interconnections between these subjects.|This book is devoted to the interplay between complex and symplectic geometry in affine complex manifolds. Affine complex (a.k.a. Stein) manifolds have canonically built into them symplectic geometry which is responsible for many phenomena in complex geometry and analysis. The goal of the book is the exploration of this symplectic geometry (the road from ""Stein to Weinstein"") and its applications in the complex geometric world of Stein manifolds (the road ""back""). This is the first book which systematically explores this connection, thus providing a new approach to the classical subject of Stein manifolds. It also contains the first detailed investigation of Weinstein manifolds, the symplectic counterparts of Stein manifolds, which play an important role in symplectic and contact topology.

Assuming only a general background from differential topology, the book provides introductions to the various techniques from the theory of functions of several complex variables, symplectic geometry, $h$-principles, and Morse theory that enter the proofs of the main results. The main results of the book are original results of the authors, and several of these results appear here for the first time. The book will be beneficial for all students and mathematicians interested in geometric aspects of complex analysis, symplectic and contact topology, and the interconnections between these subjects.

J holomorphic Curves and Symplectic Topology

Author: Dusa McDuff
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 9780821887462
Release Date: 2012
Genre: Mathematics

The theory of $J$-holomorphic curves has been of great importance since its introduction by Gromov in 1985. In mathematics, its applications include many key results in symplectic topology. It was also one of the main inspirations for the creation of Floer homology. In mathematical physics, it provides a natural context in which to define Gromov-Witten invariants and quantum cohomology, two important ingredients of the mirror symmetry conjecture.

The main goal of this book is to establish the fundamental theorems of the subject in full and rigourous detail. In particular, the book contains complete proofs of Gromov's compactness theorem for spheres, of the gluing theorem for spheres, and of the associatively of quantum multiplication in the semipositive case. The book can also serve as an introduction to current work in symplectic topology: there are two long chapters on applications, one concentrating on classical results in symplectic topology and the other concerned with quantum cohomology. The last chapter sketches some recent developments in Floer theory. The five appendices of the book provide necessary background related to the classical theory of linear elliptic operators, Fredholm theory, Sobolev spaces, as well as a discussion of the moduli space of genus zero stable curves and a proof of the positivity of intersections of $J$-holomorphic curves in four-dimensional manifolds. The second edition clarifies various arguments, corrects several mistakes in the first edition, includes some additional results in Chapter 10 and Appendices C and D, and updates the references to recent developments.

Introduction to Symplectic Topology

Author: Dusa McDuff
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780192514011
Release Date: 2017-03-23
Genre: Mathematics

Over the last number of years powerful new methods in analysis and topology have led to the development of the modern global theory of symplectic topology, including several striking and important results. The first edition of Introduction to Symplectic Topology was published in 1995. The book was the first comprehensive introduction to the subject and became a key text in the area. A significantly revised second edition was published in 1998 introducing new sections and updates on the fast-developing area. This new third edition includes updates and new material to bring the book right up-to-date.

Functional Spaces for the Theory of Elliptic Partial Differential Equations

Author: Françoise Demengel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781447128076
Release Date: 2012-01-24
Genre: Mathematics

The theory of elliptic boundary problems is fundamental in analysis and the role of spaces of weakly differentiable functions (also called Sobolev spaces) is essential in this theory as a tool for analysing the regularity of the solutions. This book offers on the one hand a complete theory of Sobolev spaces, which are of fundamental importance for elliptic linear and non-linear differential equations, and explains on the other hand how the abstract methods of convex analysis can be combined with this theory to produce existence results for the solutions of non-linear elliptic boundary problems. The book also considers other kinds of functional spaces which are useful for treating variational problems such as the minimal surface problem. The main purpose of the book is to provide a tool for graduate and postgraduate students interested in partial differential equations, as well as a useful reference for researchers active in the field. Prerequisites include a knowledge of classical analysis, differential calculus, Banach and Hilbert spaces, integration and the related standard functional spaces, as well as the Fourier transformation on the Schwartz space. There are complete and detailed proofs of almost all the results announced and, in some cases, more than one proof is provided in order to highlight different features of the result. Each chapter concludes with a range of exercises of varying levels of difficulty, with hints to solutions provided for many of them.