This book breaks the ground in Geographical texts by transcending a strictly regional or topical focus. It presents the opportunities and constraints that mountains and their resources offer to local and global populations; the impacts of environmental and economic change, development and globalisation on mountain environments. Part of the Ecogeography series edited by Richard Hugget
A core textbook series that aims to provide students with accessible, up-to-date accounts of Ecogeography - the marriage of ecology with geography - in the primary terrestrial and marine environments. This is the first book in the series on Mediterranean Ecogeography. Biological diversity in the Mediterranean Basin is amongst the highest of any region on earth, both in terms of total species numbers and endemism. The flora is estimated at about 25,000 species of flowering plants and ferns, compared with about 6000 species in non-Mediterranean Europe. About 50% of these are endemic. Diversity amongst vertebrate animals is also high, though endemism rates are lower than for plants. The high levels of diversity contribute to, and are a reflection of, the considerable variability of landscape. This results from a combination of factors including geological and tectonic history, relief and physiography, climate, geomorphological processes, hydrology, soils, the incidence of fires and impact of human activities. The landscapes of the Mediterranean Basin are thus varied and fragmented; a mosaic of ecosystems and communities. Mediterranean Ecogeography aims to examine and explain this heterogeneity, and the approach is focused on the ecogeography of the region. Analysing the factors which account for the present distributions of plants and animals, and the functioning of ecosystems within the Mediterranean Basin can help in the understanding of the relationship between people and natural ecosystems. A key to the conservation of these ecosystems is the wise use of resources, biological and physical. In addition, it is vital to assess how the natural environments of the region will respond to further change. In the last twenty years, understanding of the functioning of mediterranean-type ecosystems has advanced through several international projects. This book draws upon the findings of these, and other research in the Mediterranean Basin, to present a comprehensive text on a key region of the world, and the problems and prospects of its environmental exploitation.
Author: Günther Baechler
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2013-03-09
Since all-out interstate wars for the time being seem to belong to the past, con flict studies focus more and more on domestic conflicts. This is a broad field, not only because the arbitrary line between war and sub-war violence disap pears and the analyst is confronted with phenomena reaching from criminal violence and clashes between communities to violent conflicts of long duration and civil wars with massacres and genocides as their characteristics. It is also because there are so many different types of conflicts to be analyzed, so many different types of behavior to be studied, whereas there is often little informa tion available on what is really going on. Against the background of internal conflicts, which tend to be as protracted as diffuse in terms of time, intensity, actors, and their goals, this study aims to follow a specific pathway through the current thicket of violent circumstances. It focuses on causation patterns by exploring the causal role of the environ mental factor in the genesis of violent conflicts occurring today and probably even more so tomorrow. This approach, which for once does not focus on a specific level of the conflict system, on one area in the conflict geography, or on a specific category of actors, analyzes causation dynamics.
Author: Arthur H Westing
Publisher: SAGE Publications Limited
Release Date: 1989-11-01
Genre: Political Science
Comprehensive Security for the Baltic explores the extent to which regional cooperation on environmental protection and natural-resource utilization serves as a confidence-building measure that fosters comprehensive international security. The contributors first provide an overview of the concept of regional political security and the extent to which environmental security might contribute to the former. They then give a detailed overview of the Baltic, examining the formal mechanisms and organizations for regional environmental cooperation, and formulating the means for building regional confidence. Finally they consider the extent to which regional security contributes to a sustainable future, not only at the regio
The Mediterranean Basin with its mountainous shores, high biodiversity and spectacular scenery is located at the intersection of Africa and Eurasia. Through the 8000 years of human development in this area, there have been tremendous changes in its history and biogeography. Approximately 300 million people live here today. Although the evergreen maquis, vineyards, olive plantations and natural woodlands cover the lands all over the basin, it is facing severe destruction of habitats due to deforestation, intensive grazing, fires, and in particular, a severe coastal degradation due to infrastructure development, which is changing the landscape. Both the historical heritage and geography of the land is facing a great threat due to urbanisation and fragmentation. Time has come for its inhabitants to weigh their impact on its ecogeography in order to save the biodiversity as well as the history of the basin. This book synthesises the knowledge from different disciplines so as to increase awareness among the humans in the basin.