Natural Polymers

Author: Maya J. John
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 9781849734035
Release Date: 2012
Genre: SCIENCE

This two volume set provides a valuable reference on natural polymer composites, including both natural and protein fibres, and natural polymer nanocomposites.

Natural Polymers

Author: Maya J. John
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 9781849734028
Release Date: 2012
Genre: SCIENCE

This two volume set provides a valuable reference on natural polymer composites, including both natural and protein fibres, and natural polymer nanocomposites.

Alternative Solvents for Green Chemistry

Author: Francesca Kerton
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 9781782626138
Release Date: 2015-11-09
Genre: Science

Everyone is becoming more environmentally conscious and therefore, chemical processes are being developed with their environmental burden in mind. This also means that more traditional chemical methods are being replaced with new innovations and this includes new solvents. Solvents are everywhere, but how necessary are they? They are used in most areas including synthetic chemistry, analytical chemistry, pharmaceutical production and processing, the food and flavour industry and the materials and coatings sectors. However, the principles of green chemistry guide us to use less of them, or to use safer, more environmentally friendly solvents if they are essential. Therefore, we should always ask ourselves, do we really need a solvent? Green chemistry, as a relatively new sub-discipline, is a rapidly growing field of research. Alternative solvents - including supercritical fluids and room temperature ionic liquids - form a significant portion of research in green chemistry. This is in part due to the hazards of many conventional solvents (e.g. toxicity and flammability) and the significant contribution that solvents make to the waste generated in many chemical processes. Solvents are important in analytical chemistry, product purification, extraction and separation technologies, and also in the modification of materials. Therefore, in order to make chemistry more sustainable in these fields, a knowledge of alternative, greener solvents is important. This book, which is part of a green chemistry series, uses examples that tie in with the 12 principles of green chemistry e.g. atom efficient reactions in benign solvents and processing of renewable chemicals/materials in green solvents. Readers get an overview of the many different kinds of solvents, written in such a way to make the book appropriate to newcomers to the field and prepare them for the 'green choices' available. The book also removes some of the mystique associated with 'alternative solvent' choices and includes information on solvents in different fields of chemistry such as analytical and materials chemistry in addition to catalysis and synthesis. The latest research developments, not covered elsewhere, are included such as switchable solvents and biosolvents. Also, some important areas that are often overlooked are described such as naturally sourced solvents (including ethanol and ethyl lactate) and liquid polymers (including poly(ethyleneglycol) and poly(dimethylsiloxane)). As well as these additional alternative solvents being included, the book takes a more general approach to solvents, not just focusing on the use of solvents in synthetic chemistry. Applications of solvents in areas such as analysis are overviewed in addition to the more widely recognised uses of alternative solvents in organic synthesis. Unfortunately, as the book shows, there is no universal green solvent and readers must ascertain their best options based on prior chemistry, cost, environmental benefits and other factors. It is important to try and minimize the number of solvent changes in a chemical process and therefore, the importance of solvents in product purification, extraction and separation technologies are highlighted. The book is aimed at newcomers to the field whether research students beginning investigations towards their thesis or industrial researchers curious to find out if an alternative solvent would be suitable in their work.

Natural Rubber Materials

Author: Jithin Joy
Publisher:
ISBN: 162870876X
Release Date: 2013
Genre: Composite materials

The combination of its unique morphology, physical properties, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness make natural rubber an appealing constituent for many materials and applications. This comprehensive two volume set covers the synthesis, characterization and applications of natural rubber based blends, interpenetrating polymer networks, composites and nanocomposites. Volume 1 covers different types of natural rubber-based blends and IPNs as well as manufacturing methods, thermo mechanical characterization techniques, life cycle analysis and their applications. Volume 2 focuses on natural rubber-based composites and Nanocomposites including the different types of fillers, the filler-matrix reinforcement mechanisms, manufacturing techniques, and applications. This is the first book to consolidate the current state of the art information on natural rubber based materials with contributions from established international experts in the field. The book provides a "one stop" reference resource for professionals, researchers, industrial practitioners, graduate students, and senior undergraduates in the fields of polymer science and engineering, materials science, surface science, bioengineering and chemical engineering.

Polyhydroxyalkanoate PHA based Blends Composites and Nanocomposites

Author: Visakh P M
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 9781782622314
Release Date: 2014-10-30
Genre: Science

There is much interest in biodegradable polymers for different uses and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) have potential applications in a broad range of areas from food packaging to biomedical applications. The book will provide a comprehensive overview of the recent accomplishments in the area of polyhydroxyalkanoates providing a resource that helps find solutions to both fundamental and applied problems. The book introduces polyhydroxyalkanoates including their biosynthesis, recovery and extraction followed by specific chapters on blends, composites and nanocomposites. The book finishes with the applications of the materials including additives in paints, adhesives, production of plastics as well as tissue engineering and drug delivery. The book provides a reference for students and researchers in chemistry, polymer science, materials science, biotechnology and life sciences working in the field of bio-based and biodegradable polymers and composites as well as those interested in its applications.

Eco friendly Polymer Nanocomposites

Author: Vijay Kumar Thakur
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9788132224730
Release Date: 2015-07-20
Genre: Technology & Engineering

This book contains precisely referenced chapters, emphasizing environment-friendly polymer nanocomposites with basic fundamentals, practicality and alternatives to traditional nanocomposites through detailed reviews of different environmental friendly materials procured from different resources, their synthesis and applications using alternative green approaches. The book aims at explaining basics of eco-friendly polymer nanocomposites from different natural resources and their chemistry along with practical applications which present a future direction in the biomedical, pharmaceutical and automotive industry. The book attempts to present emerging economic and environmentally friendly polymer nanocomposites that are free from side effects studied in the traditional nanocomposites. This book is the outcome of contributions by many experts in the field from different disciplines, with various backgrounds and expertises. This book will appeal to researchers as well as students from different disciplines. The content includes industrial applications and will fill the gap between the research works in laboratory to practical applications in related industries.

Bio Based Polymers and Composites

Author: Richard Wool
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080454348
Release Date: 2011-08-30
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Bio-Based Polymers and Composites is the first book systematically describing the green engineering, chemistry and manufacture of biobased polymers and composites derived from plants. This book gives a thorough introduction to bio-based material resources, availability, sustainability, biobased polymer formation, extraction and refining technologies, and the need for integrated research and multi-disciplinary working teams. It provides an in-depth description of adhesives, resins, plastics, and composites derived from plant oils, proteins, starches, and natural fibers in terms of structures, properties, manufacturing, and product performance. This is an excellent book for scientists, engineers, graduate students and industrial researchers in the field of bio-based materials. * First book describing the utilization of crops to make high performance plastics, adhesives, and composites * Interdisciplinary approach to the subject, integrating genetic engineering, plant science, food science, chemistry, physics, nano-technology, and composite manufacturing. * Explains how to make green materials at low cost from soyoil, proteins, starch, natural fibers, recycled newspapers, chicken feathers and waste agricultural by-products.

A Handbook of Applied Biopolymer Technology

Author: Sanjay Kumar Sharma
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 9781849731515
Release Date: 2011
Genre: Science

Covers the latest research in green chemistry principles for new, environmentally friendly processes in the fields of engineering, science and technology.

Cellulose Nanocomposites

Author: American Chemical Society. Meeting
Publisher: Amer Chemical Society
ISBN: 0841239800
Release Date: 2006-01-01
Genre: Science

Introduction to cellulose nanocomposites; strategies for preparation of cellulose wiskers from microcrystalline cellulose as reinforcement in nanocomposites; self-assembly of cellulose nanocrystals: parabolic focal conic films; cellulose fibrils: isolation, characterization, and capability for technical applications; morphology of cellulose and its nanocomposites; useful insights into cellulose nanocomposites using raman spectroscopy; novel methods for interfacial modification of cellulose - reinforced composites; cellulose nanocrystals for thermoplastic reinforcement: effect of filler surface chemistry on composite properties; the structure and mechanical properties of cellulose nanocomposites prepared by twin screw extrusion; preparation and properties of biopolymer-based nanocomposites films using microcrystalline cellulose; nanocompusites based on cellulose microfibril; cellulose microfibers as reinforcing agents for structural materials; dispersion of soybean stock-based nanofiber in plastic matrix; polysulfone-cellulose nanocomposites; bacterial cellulose and its nanocomposites for biomedical applications.

Natural Rubber Materials

Author: Sabu Thomas
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 9781849737654
Release Date: 2013-12-05
Genre: Science

The combination of its unique morphology, physical properties, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness make natural rubber an appealing constituent for many materials and applications. This comprehensive two volume set covers the synthesis, characterization and applications of natural rubber based blends, interpenetrating polymer networks, composites and nanocomposites. Volume 1 covers different types of natural rubber-based blends and IPNs as well as manufacturing methods, thermo mechanical characterization techniques, life cycle analysis and their applications. Volume 2 focuses on natural rubber-based composites and Nanocomposites including the different types of fillers, the filler-matrix reinforcement mechanisms, manufacturing techniques, and applications. This is the first book to consolidate the current state of the art information on natural rubber based materials with contributions from established international experts in the field. The book provides a "one stop" reference resource for professionals, researchers, industrial practitioners, graduate students, and senior undergraduates in the fields of polymer science and engineering, materials science, surface science, bioengineering and chemical engineering.

New Polymer Nanocomposites for Environmental Remediation

Author: Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780128110348
Release Date: 2018-02-19
Genre: Technology & Engineering

New Polymer Nanocomposites for Environmental Remediation summarizes recent progress in the development of materials’ properties, fabrication methods and their applications for treatment of contaminants, pollutant sensing and detection. This book presents current research into how polymer nanocomposites can be used in environmental remediation, detailing major environmental issues, and key materials properties and existing polymers or nanomaterials that can solve these issues. The book covers the fundamental molecular structure of polymers used in environmental applications, the toxicology, economy and life-cycle analysis of polymer nanocomposites, and an analysis of potential future applications of these materials. Recent research and development in polymer nanocomposites has inspired the progress and use of novel and cost-effective environmental applications. Presents critical, actionable guidelines to the structure and property design of nanocomposites in environmental remediation Focuses on taking technology out of the lab and into the real world Summarizes the latest developments in polymer nanocomposites and their applications in catalytic degradation, adsorptive removal and detection of contaminants in the environment Enables researchers to stay ahead of the curve, with a full discussion of regulatory issues and potential new applications and materials in this area

Algae Based Polymers Blends and Composites

Author: Khalid Mahmood Zia
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780128123614
Release Date: 2017-06-19
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Algae Based Polymers, Blends, and Composites: Chemistry, Biotechnology and Material Sciences offers considerable detail on the origin of algae, extraction of useful metabolites and major compounds from algal bio-mass, and the production and future prospects of sustainable polymers derived from algae, blends of algae, and algae based composites. Characterization methods and processing techniques for algae-based polymers and composites are discussed in detail, enabling researchers to apply the latest techniques to their own work. The conversion of bio-mass into high value chemicals, energy, and materials has ample financial and ecological importance, particularly in the era of declining petroleum reserves and global warming. Algae are an important source of biomass since they flourish rapidly and can be cultivated almost everywhere. At present the majority of naturally produced algal biomass is an unused resource and normally is left to decompose. Similarly, the use of this enormous underexploited biomass is mainly limited to food consumption and as bio-fertilizer. However, there is an opportunity here for materials scientists to explore its potential as a feedstock for the production of sustainable materials. Provides detailed information on the extraction of useful compounds from algal biomass Highlights the development of a range of polymers, blends, and composites Includes coverage of characterization and processing techniques, enabling research scientists and engineers to apply the information to their own research and development Discusses potential applications and future prospects of algae-based biopolymers, giving the latest insight into the future of these sustainable materials

Monomers Polymers and Composites from Renewable Resources

Author: Mohamed Naceur Belgacem
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080560512
Release Date: 2011-10-10
Genre: Technology & Engineering

The progressive dwindling of fossil resources, coupled with the drastic increase in oil prices, have sparked a feverish activity in search of alternatives based on renewable resources for the production of energy. Given the predominance of petroleum- and carbon-based chemistry for the manufacture of organic chemical commodities, a similar preoccupation has recently generated numerous initiatives aimed at replacing these fossil sources with renewable counterparts. In particular, major efforts are being conducted in the field of polymer science and technology to prepare macromolecular materials based on renewable resources. The concept of the bio-refinery, viz. the rational exploitation of the vegetable biomass in terms of the separation of its components and their utilisation as such, or after suitable chemical modifications, is thus gaining momentum and considerable financial backing from both the public and private sectors. This collection of chapters, each one written by internationally recognised experts in the corresponding field, covers in a comprehensive fashion all the major aspects related to the synthesis, characterization and properties of macromolecular materials prepared using renewable resources as such, or after appropriate modifications. Thus, monomers such as terpenes and furans, oligomers like rosin and tannins, and polymers ranging from cellulose to proteins and including macromolecules synthesized by microbes, are discussed with the purpose of showing the extraordinary variety of materials that can be prepared from their intelligent exploitation. Particular emphasis has been placed on recent advances and imminent perspectives, given the incessantly growing interest that this area is experiencing in both the scientific and technological realms. Discusses bio-refining with explicit application to materials Replete with examples of applications of the concept of sustainable development Presents an impressive variety of novel macromolecular materials

Biodegradable and Biocompatible Polymer Composites

Author: Navinchandra Gopal Shimpi
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 9780081010587
Release Date: 2017-09-18
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Biodegradable and Biocompatible Polymer Composites: Processing, Properties and Applications begins by discussing the current state-of-the-art, new challenges and opportunities for various biodegradable and biocompatible polymer composite systems. Interfacial characterization of composites and the structure-property relationships in various composite systems are explained in detail via a theoretical model. Processing techniques for various macro and nanocomposite systems and the influence of processing parameters on properties of the composite are also reviewed in detail. The characterization of microstructure, elastic, visco-elastic, static and dynamic mechanical, thermal, rheological, optical, and electrical properties are highlighted, as are a broad range of applications. The book is a useful reference resource for both researchers and engineers working in composites materials science, biotechnology and nanotechnology, and is also useful for students attending chemistry, physics, and materials science and engineering courses. Presents recent outcomes and highlights the going importance of biodegradable and biocompatible polymer composites and their impact on the environment Analyzes all the main processing techniques, characterization and applications of biodegradable composites Written by leading international experts working in the field of biodegradable and biocompatible polymer composites Covers a broad range of application fields, including medical and pharmaceutical, agricultural, packaging and transport