Natural Polymers

Author: Maya J. John
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 9781849734035
Release Date: 2012
Genre: SCIENCE

This two volume set provides a valuable reference on natural polymer composites, including both natural and protein fibres, and natural polymer nanocomposites.

Alternative Solvents for Green Chemistry

Author: Francesca Kerton
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 9781782626138
Release Date: 2015-11-09
Genre: Science

Everyone is becoming more environmentally conscious and therefore, chemical processes are being developed with their environmental burden in mind. This also means that more traditional chemical methods are being replaced with new innovations and this includes new solvents. Solvents are everywhere, but how necessary are they? They are used in most areas including synthetic chemistry, analytical chemistry, pharmaceutical production and processing, the food and flavour industry and the materials and coatings sectors. However, the principles of green chemistry guide us to use less of them, or to use safer, more environmentally friendly solvents if they are essential. Therefore, we should always ask ourselves, do we really need a solvent? Green chemistry, as a relatively new sub-discipline, is a rapidly growing field of research. Alternative solvents - including supercritical fluids and room temperature ionic liquids - form a significant portion of research in green chemistry. This is in part due to the hazards of many conventional solvents (e.g. toxicity and flammability) and the significant contribution that solvents make to the waste generated in many chemical processes. Solvents are important in analytical chemistry, product purification, extraction and separation technologies, and also in the modification of materials. Therefore, in order to make chemistry more sustainable in these fields, a knowledge of alternative, greener solvents is important. This book, which is part of a green chemistry series, uses examples that tie in with the 12 principles of green chemistry e.g. atom efficient reactions in benign solvents and processing of renewable chemicals/materials in green solvents. Readers get an overview of the many different kinds of solvents, written in such a way to make the book appropriate to newcomers to the field and prepare them for the 'green choices' available. The book also removes some of the mystique associated with 'alternative solvent' choices and includes information on solvents in different fields of chemistry such as analytical and materials chemistry in addition to catalysis and synthesis. The latest research developments, not covered elsewhere, are included such as switchable solvents and biosolvents. Also, some important areas that are often overlooked are described such as naturally sourced solvents (including ethanol and ethyl lactate) and liquid polymers (including poly(ethyleneglycol) and poly(dimethylsiloxane)). As well as these additional alternative solvents being included, the book takes a more general approach to solvents, not just focusing on the use of solvents in synthetic chemistry. Applications of solvents in areas such as analysis are overviewed in addition to the more widely recognised uses of alternative solvents in organic synthesis. Unfortunately, as the book shows, there is no universal green solvent and readers must ascertain their best options based on prior chemistry, cost, environmental benefits and other factors. It is important to try and minimize the number of solvent changes in a chemical process and therefore, the importance of solvents in product purification, extraction and separation technologies are highlighted. The book is aimed at newcomers to the field whether research students beginning investigations towards their thesis or industrial researchers curious to find out if an alternative solvent would be suitable in their work.

Nanomaterials Set

Author: Royal Society of Chemistry
Publisher:
ISBN: 1782620788
Release Date: 2014-02-19
Genre: Science

The possible uses of nanotechnology span many fields from energy to health; as a result there is a wealth of scientific nanoscience research taking place all over the world. When there's so much information available on the topic it can be difficult to get a complete overview of the latest developments. This set brings you the latest information on different nanomaterial systems including fullerenes, polymer nanofibers and nanotubes and nanowires. The set consists of: Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites Edited by Dimitrios Tasis (978-1-84973-568-1, 2013, RSC Nanoscience & Nanotechnology) Fullerenes: Principles and Applications 2nd Edition Edited by Fernando Langa De La Puente and Jean-Francois Nierengarten (978-1-84973-136-2, 2011, RSC Nanoscience & Nanotechnology) Nanoporous Gold: From an Ancient Technology to a High-Tech Material Edited by Arne Wittstock, Jürgen Biener, Jonah Erlebacher and Marcus Bäumer (978-1-84973-374-8, 2012, RSC Nanoscience & Nanotechnology) Nanotubes and Nanowires: 2nd Edition by C N Ram Rao and A Govindaraj (978-1-84973-058-7, 2011, RSC Nanoscience & Nanotechnology) Natural Polymers: Volume 2: Nanocomposites Edited by Maya J John and Sabu Thomas (978-1-84973-403-5, 2012, RSC Green Chemistry) Natural Rubber Materials: Volume 2: Composites and Nanocomposites Edited by Sabu Thomas, Chin Han Chan, Laly Pothen, Jithin Joy and Hanna Maria (978-1-84973-631-2, 2013, RSC Polymer Chemistry Series) Polymer Nanofibers: Building Blocks for Nanotechnology By Dario Pisignano (978-1-84973-574-2, 2013, RSC Nanoscience & Nanotechnology) Polymer-Graphene Nanocomposites Edited by Vikas Mittal (978-1-84973-567-4, 2012, RSC Nanoscience & Nanotechnology) Responsive Photonic Nanostructures: Smart Nanoscale Optical Materials Edited by Yadong Yin (978-1-84973-653-4, 2013, RSC Smart Materials)

Natural Rubber Materials

Author: Sabu Thomas
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 9781849737654
Release Date: 2013-12-05
Genre: Science

The combination of its unique morphology, physical properties, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness make natural rubber an appealing constituent for many materials and applications. This comprehensive two volume set covers the synthesis, characterization and applications of natural rubber based blends, interpenetrating polymer networks, composites and nanocomposites. Volume 1 covers different types of natural rubber-based blends and IPNs as well as manufacturing methods, thermo mechanical characterization techniques, life cycle analysis and their applications. Volume 2 focuses on natural rubber-based composites and Nanocomposites including the different types of fillers, the filler-matrix reinforcement mechanisms, manufacturing techniques, and applications. This is the first book to consolidate the current state of the art information on natural rubber based materials with contributions from established international experts in the field. The book provides a "one stop" reference resource for professionals, researchers, industrial practitioners, graduate students, and senior undergraduates in the fields of polymer science and engineering, materials science, surface science, bioengineering and chemical engineering.

Eco friendly Polymer Nanocomposites

Author: Vijay Kumar Thakur
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9788132224730
Release Date: 2015-07-20
Genre: Technology & Engineering

This book contains precisely referenced chapters, emphasizing environment-friendly polymer nanocomposites with basic fundamentals, practicality and alternatives to traditional nanocomposites through detailed reviews of different environmental friendly materials procured from different resources, their synthesis and applications using alternative green approaches. The book aims at explaining basics of eco-friendly polymer nanocomposites from different natural resources and their chemistry along with practical applications which present a future direction in the biomedical, pharmaceutical and automotive industry. The book attempts to present emerging economic and environmentally friendly polymer nanocomposites that are free from side effects studied in the traditional nanocomposites. This book is the outcome of contributions by many experts in the field from different disciplines, with various backgrounds and expertises. This book will appeal to researchers as well as students from different disciplines. The content includes industrial applications and will fill the gap between the research works in laboratory to practical applications in related industries.

Micro and Nanostructured Polymer Systems

Author: Sabu Thomas
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781498721592
Release Date: 2016-01-05
Genre: Technology & Engineering

This book focuses on the recent trends in micro- and nano-structured polymer systems, particularly natural polymers, biopolymers, biomaterials, and their composites, blends, and IPNs. This valuable volume covers the occurrence, synthesis, isolation, production, properties and applications, modification, as well as the relevant analysis techniques to reveal the structures and properties of polymer systems. Biobased polymer blends and composites occupy a unique position in the dynamic world of new biomaterials. The growing need for lubricious coatings and surfaces in medical devices—an outcome of the move from invasive to noninvasive medicines and procedures—is playing a major role in the advancement of biomaterials technology. Natural polymers have attained their cutting-edge technology through various platforms, and this book presents a multitude of information about them. Topics include biopolymer–synthetic systems, nanomaterial–polymer structures, multi-characterization techniques, polymer blends and composites, polymer gels and polyelectrolytes, and many other interesting aspects of interests to researchers. This book will be valuable to scientists, physicians, pharmacists, engineers, and other specialists in a variety of disciplines, both academic and industrial.

Natural Rubber Materials

Author: Jithin Joy
Publisher:
ISBN: 162870876X
Release Date: 2013
Genre: Composite materials

The combination of its unique morphology, physical properties, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness make natural rubber an appealing constituent for many materials and applications. This comprehensive two volume set covers the synthesis, characterization and applications of natural rubber based blends, interpenetrating polymer networks, composites and nanocomposites. Volume 1 covers different types of natural rubber-based blends and IPNs as well as manufacturing methods, thermo mechanical characterization techniques, life cycle analysis and their applications. Volume 2 focuses on natural rubber-based composites and Nanocomposites including the different types of fillers, the filler-matrix reinforcement mechanisms, manufacturing techniques, and applications. This is the first book to consolidate the current state of the art information on natural rubber based materials with contributions from established international experts in the field. The book provides a "one stop" reference resource for professionals, researchers, industrial practitioners, graduate students, and senior undergraduates in the fields of polymer science and engineering, materials science, surface science, bioengineering and chemical engineering.

Bio Based Polymers and Composites

Author: Richard Wool
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080454348
Release Date: 2011-08-30
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Bio-Based Polymers and Composites is the first book systematically describing the green engineering, chemistry and manufacture of biobased polymers and composites derived from plants. This book gives a thorough introduction to bio-based material resources, availability, sustainability, biobased polymer formation, extraction and refining technologies, and the need for integrated research and multi-disciplinary working teams. It provides an in-depth description of adhesives, resins, plastics, and composites derived from plant oils, proteins, starches, and natural fibers in terms of structures, properties, manufacturing, and product performance. This is an excellent book for scientists, engineers, graduate students and industrial researchers in the field of bio-based materials. * First book describing the utilization of crops to make high performance plastics, adhesives, and composites * Interdisciplinary approach to the subject, integrating genetic engineering, plant science, food science, chemistry, physics, nano-technology, and composite manufacturing. * Explains how to make green materials at low cost from soyoil, proteins, starch, natural fibers, recycled newspapers, chicken feathers and waste agricultural by-products.

Biodegradable Green Composites

Author: Susheel Kalia
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118911099
Release Date: 2016-02-29
Genre: Science

This book comprehensively addresses surface modification of natural fibers to make them more effective, cost-efficient, and environmentally friendly. Topics include the elucidation of important aspects surrounding chemical and green approaches for the surface modification of natural fibers, the use of recycled waste, properties of biodegradable polyesters, methods such as electrospinning, and applications of hybrid composite materials.

Polymer Science and Technology

Author: Joel R. Fried
Publisher: Prentice Hall
ISBN: 9780137039937
Release Date: 2014-07-01
Genre: Technology & Engineering

The Definitive Guide to Polymer Principles, Properties, Synthesis, Applications, and Simulations Now fully revised, Polymer Science and Technology, Third Edition, systematically reviews the field’s current state and emerging advances. Leading polymer specialist Joel R. Fried offers modern coverage of both processing principles and applications in multiple industries, including medicine, biotechnology, chemicals, and electronics. This edition’s new and expanded coverage ranges from advanced synthesis to the latest drug delivery applications. New topics include controlled radical polymerization, click chemistry, green chemistry, block copolymers, nanofillers, electrospinning, and more. A brand-new chapter offers extensive guidance for predicting polymer properties, including additional coverage of group correlations, and new discussions of the use of topological indices and neural networks. This is also the first introductory polymer text to fully explain computational polymer science, including molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods. Simulation concepts are supported with many application examples, ranging from prediction of PVT values to permeability and free volume. Fried thoroughly covers synthetic polymer chemistry; polymer properties in solution and in melt, rubber, and solid states; and all important categories of plastics. This revised edition also adds many new calculations, end-of-chapter problems, and references. In-depth coverage includes Polymer synthesis: step- and chain-growth; bulk, solution, suspension, emulsion, solid-state, and plasma; ionic liquids, and macromers; and genetic engineering Amorphous and crystalline states, transitions, mechanical properties, and solid-state characterization Polymers and the environment: degradation, stability, and more Additives, blends, block copolymers, and composites–including interpenetrating networks, nanocomposites, buckyballs, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and POSS Biopolymers, natural polymers, fibers, thermoplastics, elastomers, and thermosets Engineering and specialty polymers, from polycarbonates to ionic polymers and high-performance fibers Polymer rheology, processing, and modeling Correlations and simulations: group contribution, topological indices, artificial neural networks, molecular dynamics, and Monte Carlo simulations

Handbook of Polymer Nanocomposites Processing Performance and Application

Author: Jitendra K. Pandey
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783642452321
Release Date: 2014-12-01
Genre: Science

Volume C forms one volume of a Handbook about Polymer Nanocomposites. Volume C deals with Polymer nano-composites of cellulose nano-particles. The preparation, architecture, characterisation, properties and application of polymer nanocomposites are discussed within some 27 chapters. Each chapter has been authored by experts in the respective field.

Engineering Technologies for Renewable and Recyclable Materials

Author: Jithin Joy
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781351377515
Release Date: 2018-08-14
Genre: Science

Recycling and reuse of materials is of considerable interest these days. This new resource, Engineering Technologies for Renewable and Recyclable Materials: Physical-Chemical Properties and Functional Aspects, focuses on many recent advances in recycling and reuse of materials, outlining basic tools and novel approaches. It covers such important issues as e-waste recycling, bio-mass recycling, vermitechnology, recovery of metals, polymer recycling, environmental remediation, waste management, recycling of nanostructured materials, and more. Also included is coverage of new research in the use of laser spectroscopy, pyrolysis, and recycled biomaterials for biomedical applications. Written by some of the most innovative minds in various fields of study, this book will help professionals and students understand cutting-edge and futuristic areas of recycling and reuse of materials, facilitating further research and application of some methods into real-world applications and helping to find suitable methods for solving a burning question of waste management. The volume will be of interest to scientists, engineers, technologists, and those in industry.

Nanocellulose Polymer Nanocomposites

Author: Vijay Kumar Thakur
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118872345
Release Date: 2014-10-28
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Biorenewable polymers based nanomaterials are rapidly emerging as one of the most fascinating materials for multifunctional applications. Among biorenewable polymers, cellulose based nanomaterials are of great importance due to their inherent advantages such as environmental friendliness, biodegradability, biocompatibility, easy processing and cost effectiveness, to name a few. They may be produced from biological systems such as plants or be chemically synthesised from biological materials. This book summarizes the recent remarkable achievements witnessed in green technology of cellulose based nanomaterials in different fields ranging from biomedical to automotive. This book also discusses the extensive research developments for next generation nanocellulose-based polymer nanocomposites. The book contains seventeen chapters and each chapter addresses some specific issues related to nanocellulose and also demonstrates the real potentialities of these nanomaterials in different domains. The key features of the book are: Synthesis and chemistry of nanocellulose from different biorenewable resources Different characterization of nanocellulosic materials and their respective polymer nanocomposites Physico-chemical, thermal and mechanical investigation of nanocellulose based polymer nanocomposites Provides elementary information and rich understanding of the present state-of- art of nanocellulose-based materials Explores the full range of applications of different nanocellulose-based materials.

Handbook Of Green Materials Processing Technologies Properties And Applications In 4 Volumes

Author: Oksman Kristiina
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9789814566476
Release Date: 2014-04-11
Genre: Science

Green materials and green nanotechnology have gained widespread interest over the last 15 years; first in academia, then in related industries in the last few years.The Handbook of Green Materials serves as reference literature for undergraduates and graduates studying materials science and engineering, composite materials, chemical engineering, bioengineering and materials physics; and for researchers, professional engineers and consultants from polymer or forest industries who encounter biobased nanomaterials, bionanocomposites, self- and direct-assembled nanostructures and green composite materials in their lines of work.This four-volume set contains material ranging from basic, background information on the fields discussed, to reports on the latest research and industrial activities, and finally the works by contributing authors who are prominent experts of the subjects they address in this set.The four volumes comprise of:The first volume explains the structure of cellulose; different sources of raw material; the isolation/separation processes of nanomaterials from different material sources; and properties and characteristics of cellulose nanofibers and nanocrystals (starch nanomaterials). Information on the different characterization methods and the most important properties of biobased nanomaterials are also covered. The industrial point of view regarding both the processability and access of these nanomaterials, as well as large scale manufacturing and their industrial application is discussed — particularly in relation to the case of the paper industry.The second volume expounds on different bionanocomposites based on cellulose nanofibers or nanocrystals and their preparation/manufacturing processes. It also provides information on different characterization methods and the most important properties of bionanocomposites, as well as techniques of modeling the mechanical properties of nanocomposites. This volume presents the industrial point of view regarding large scale manufacturing and their applications from the perspective of their medical uses in printed electronics and in adhesives.The third volume deals with the ability of bionanomaterials to self-assemble in either liquids or forming organized solid materials. The chemistry of cellulose nanomaterials and chemical modifications as well as different assembling techniques and used characterization methods, and the most important properties which can be achieved by self-assembly, are described. The chapters, for example, discuss subjects such as ultra-light biobased aerogels based on cellulose and chitin, thin films suitable as barrier layers, self-sensing nanomaterials, and membranes for water purification.The fourth volume reviews green composite materials — including green raw materials — such as biobased carbon fibers, regenerated cellulose fibers and thermoplastic and thermoset polymers (e.g. PLA, bio-based polyolefines, polysaccharide polymers, natural rubber, bio-based polyurethane, lignin polymer, and furfurylalchohol). The most important composite processing technologies are described, including: prepregs of green composites, compounding, liquid composite molding, foaming, and compression molding. Industrial applications, especially for green transportation and the electronics industry, are also described.This four-volume set is a must-have for anyone keen to acquire knowledge on novel bionanomaterials — including structure-property correlations, isolation and purification processes of nanofibers and nanocrystals, their important characteristics, processing technologies, industrial up-scaling and suitable industry applications. The handbook is a useful reference not only for teaching activities but also for researchers who are working in this field.

Polymer Gels

Author: Vijay Kumar Thakur
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9789811060809
Release Date: 2018-02-12
Genre: Technology & Engineering

This book summarizes the recent advances in the science and engineering of polymer-gel-based materials in different fields. It also discusses the extensive research developments for the next generation of smart materials. It takes an in-depth look at the current perspectives and market opportunities while pointing to new possibilities and applications. The book addresses important topics such as stimuli responsive polymeric nanoparticles for cancer therapy; polymer gel containing metallic materials; chemotherapeutic applications in oncology; conducting polymer-based gels and their applications in biological sensors; imprinted polymeric gels for pharmaceutical and biomedical purposes; applications of biopolymeric gels in the agricultural sector; application of polymer gels and their nanocomposites in electrochemistry; smart polyelectrolyte gels as a platform for biomedical applications; agro-based polymer gels and their application in purification of industrial water wastes; polymer gel composites for bio-applications. It will be of interest to researchers working in both industry and academia.