Author: Olga Siegmunt
Release Date: 2016-02-04
Genre: Social Science
This Brief presents a framework for understanding the role of school and neighborhood contexts in the development of self-control. Through the application of Gottfredson and Hirschi’s general theory of crime and Shaw and McKay’s social disorganization theory, the authors of this Brief examine the importance of family socialization and school and neighborhood for self-control of youth in three Russian cities, replicating results from an earlier study in Germany. The cases presented in the Brief found that family socialization is important for self-control, but it interacts with school and neighbourhood contexts. According to the study, school social control as a structural characteristic can lead to less delinquency, even if students did not develop self-control. Self-control mediates parental supervision and attachment to parents on one hand, and juvenile delinquency on the other hand. However it was not found to mediate neighbourhood context characteristics. The results of the study provide a research framework that can be applied to other international, comparative contexts. It will be of interest to researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, particularly Developmental and Life-Course Criminology, as well as related fields such as Public Policy and Social Work.
Author: Dietrich Oberwittler
Release Date: 2017-10-02
Genre: Social Science
Police-citizen relations are in the public spotlight following outbursts of anger and violence. Such clashes often happen as a response to fatal police shootings, racial or ethnic discrimination, or the mishandling of mass protests. But even in such cases, citizens’ assessment of the police differs considerably across social groups. This raises the question of the sources and impediments of citizens’ trust and support for police. Why are police-citizen relations much better in some countries than in others? Are police-minority relations doomed to be strained? And which police practices and policing policies generate trust and legitimacy? Research on police legitimacy has been centred on US experiences, and relied on procedural justice as the main theoretical approach. This book questions whether this approach is suitable and sufficient to understand public attitudes towards the police across different countries and regions of the world. This volume shows that the impact of macro-level conditions, of societal cleavages, and of state and political institutions on police-citizen relations has too often been neglected in contemporary research. Building on empirical studies from around the world as well as cross-national comparisons, this volume considerably expands current perspectives on the sources of police legitimacy and citizens’ trust in the police. Combining the analysis of micro-level interactions with a perspective on the contextual framework and varying national conditions, the contributions to this book illustrate the strength of a broadened perspective and lead us to ask how specific national frameworks shape the experiences of policing.
She is the daughter of his enemy...and the keeper of his heart. Richard de Claiborne, the dark earl of Dunsmore, serves King Edward Plantagenet well. Sworn to obey his king's every order, he nevertheless chafes at the command he wed the daughter of his enemy--a man who slew his father in cold blood. But King Edward wants peace in his lands, and he will stop at nothing to get it. If he has to order his most powerful Marcher lord to marry a Welsh princess, he considers it a small price to pay. Princess Gwenllian is a political pawn. When she's forced to marry the evil Black Hawk de Claiborne, she quakes at his fierceness and brutality. But she does her duty to her father and her people, knowing she will never surrender to her enemy. In the halls of Black Hawk's great keep, Gwen glimpses a man who can be tender and passionate-and who teaches her about breathtaking sensuality and a desire so great it threatens every vow she ever made to keep her heart locked tight. As war once more looms between Wales and England, Gwen realizes a terrible truth: she's in love with the enemy. When long-buried secrets threaten to destroy her fragile happiness, she must make a terrible choice-or watch the man she loves sacrifice his life to save hers...
Author: Michael R. Gottfredson
Release Date: 1990
Genre: Social Science
By articulating a general theory of crime and related behavior, the authors present a new and comprehensive statement of what the criminological enterprise should be about. They argue that prevalent academic criminology—whether sociological, psychological, biological, or economic—has been unable to provide believable explanations of criminal behavior. The long-discarded classical tradition in criminology was based on choice and free will, and saw crime as the natural consequence of unrestrained human tendencies to seek pleasure and to avoid pain. It concerned itself with the nature of crime and paid little attention to the criminal. The scientific, or disciplinary, tradition is based on causation and determinism, and has dominated twentieth-century criminology. It concerns itself with the nature of the criminal and pays little attention to the crime itself. Though the two traditions are considered incompatible, this book brings classical and modern criminology together by requiring that their conceptions be consistent with each other and with the results of research. The authors explore the essential nature of crime, finding that scientific and popular conceptions of crime are misleading, and they assess the truth of disciplinary claims about crime, concluding that such claims are contrary to the nature of crime and, interestingly enough, to the data produced by the disciplines themselves. They then put forward their own theory of crime, which asserts that the essential element of criminality is the absence of self-control. Persons with high self-control consider the long-term consequences of their behavior; those with low self-control do not. Such control is learned, usually early in life, and once learned, is highly resistant to change. In the remainder of the book, the authors apply their theory to the persistent problems of criminology. Why are men, adolescents, and minorities more likely than their counterparts to commit criminal acts? What is the role of the school in the causation of delinquincy? To what extent could crime be reduced by providing meaningful work? Why do some societies have much lower crime rates than others? Does white-collar crime require its own theory? Is there such a thing as organized crime? In all cases, the theory forces fundamental reconsideration of the conventional wisdom of academians and crimina justic practitioners. The authors conclude by exploring the implications of the theory for the future study and control of crime.
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of the First International Symposium on Data-Driven Process Discovery and Analysis held in Campione d'Italia, Italy, in June/July 2011. The 11 revised full papers were carefully selected from 31 submissions. In addition to the thorough review process, the lively discussions at the event itself also helped the authors to improve their papers and to foster interesting extensions. The selected papers cover a wide range of topics spanning from theoretical issues related to process representation to practical experience in process discovery and analysis.
Author: Dina Siegel
Release Date: 2015-12-08
Genre: Social Science
This book presents a vivid description of the solutions that researchers have discovered for ethical dilemmas that pose themselves at studying disadvantaged, vulnerable and victimized populations. Ethical codes prescribe that the scholar should in all circumstances avoid potential harm, that informed consent is necessary and that the limits of confidentiality should always be respected. However, in the practice of research among women involved in prostitution, illegal immigrant workers, enslaved children, people who sell their organs and all the traffickers thereof, the ethical rules cannot always be followed. This book shows that there is a surprising variety of arguable possibilities in dealing with ethical dilemmas in the field. Authors reflect on concrete experiences from their own fieldwork in a wide variety of settings such as the USA, Singapore, Kosovo and The Netherlands. Some choose to work on the basis of conscientious partiality, others negotiate the rules with their informants and still others purposely break the rules in order to disclose and damage the exploiters. Researchers may find themselves in a vulnerable position. Their experiences, as presented in this volume, will help field workers, university administrators, representatives of vulnerable groups, philosophers of ethics and most of all students to go into the field well-prepared. This is a book that every researcher planning to do fieldwork in the difficult field of hidden, illicit and victimized people should read in advance. Dr. Frank Bovenkerk, Professor (Emeritus), Willem Pompe Institute for Criminal Law and Criminology, Universiteit Utrecht, The Netherlands This book allows a peek in the kitchen of empirical fieldwork, going into not only “best practices,” but mistakes made, in a frank, courageous and honest way. Dr. Brenda C. Oude Breuil, Willem Pompe Institute for Criminal Law and Criminology, Universiteit Utrecht, The Netherlands
This Brief provides an overview and history of the definition of serial homicide, from the perspectives of psychology, medicine, criminology and forensics. It reviews research to provide a standard definition of serial homicide (as opposed to multiple or mass homicide), and provide insights on profiles of victims and offenders for police practitioners. It also includes a discussion of the media approach to covering serial homicide. The Brief is divided into four major sections covering: definitions and overview of serial homicide, profiling perpetrators according to different typologies, profiling victims, applied case studies, and recommendations for investigation and prevention. The author’s approach is aimed primarily at researchers in police studies, but will be of interest to researchers in related fields such as criminal justice, sociology, psychology, and public policy.
Author: Jon Shane
Release Date: 2015-09-19
Genre: Social Science
While confidential informants (CI’s) can play a crucial role in police investigations, they also have the potential to cause great harm if they are dishonest. The process by which police agencies qualify a CI to work and the strength of agency policy may be the source of the problem. This Brief examines the integrity problem involving CIs in police operations within the United States, provides an overview of pitfalls and problems related to veracity and informant integrity including the difficulties in detecting when a CI is lying, and compares the provisions of actual published police policy to the model CI policy published by the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP). The analysis shows a wide divergence between actual police policy and the national standard promulgated by the IACP. The Brief provides policy recommendations for improving use of CIs that can potentially reduce or eliminate integrity problems that can lead to organizational accidents such as wrongful arrests and convictions, injuries or deaths. Some Courts have issued measures to ensure that information received from CIs is reliable by examining sworn testimony and documents related to their work. However, as this Brief explores, this judicial effort arises only after a police operation has taken place, and the use of force – even deadly force—has already been employed. The author proposes integrity testing beforehand, which would allow police to have a greater understanding of a CI’s motivation, ability and veracity when conducting law enforcement operations. In addition, there are aspects of police policy that can enhance CI management such as training, supervision and entrapment that can further guard against integrity problems. Although integrity testing is not flawless, it does interpose an additional step in the CI management process that can help guard against wrongful conviction and perjury that harms the judicial process.
Author: Elizabeth A. Stanko
Release Date: 2015-10-20
Genre: Social Science
This brief takes the reader through a 10-year journey of seeking to embed Evidence Based Policing within one of the largest police forces in the world - the Metropolitan Police Service in London, England - from the inside. As a topic, Evidence Based Policing has generated considerable recent interest and academic discussion - although largely remains without a consistent guiding voice for police practitioners. The aim of the brief is to expand upon the current discussions and address this gap within the day-to-day reality of policing where translation of research is a routine part of the day job. The book is organised into three sections: the first explores receptivity to evidence, asking practitioners to locate where they are on a continuum of evidence based craftwork; the second presents the importance of programme integrity and effective implementation in police craft; and the final section explores the challenges in professionalising policing and offers a more nuanced discussion around what it really means to be evidenced based. Throughout the brief the authors promote an insider whole-force strategic approach in landing evidence into policing 'business as normal' as opposed to an external academic or educated individual officer translation approach. Over the course of the monograph the authors draw upon their decade of experience providing case studies, toolkits, exercises, anecdotes and research experience as an inspiration for police practitioners both to practically support and inspire better evidence based working as part of the day job.
Disability Servitude traces the history and legacy of institutional peonage. For over a century, public and private institutions across the country relied on the unpaid, forced labor of their residents and patients in order to operate. This book describes the work they performed, in some cases for ten or more hours a day, seven days a week, and the lawsuits they brought in an effort to get paid. The impact of those lawsuits included accelerated de-institutionalization, but they fell short of obtaining equal and fair compensation for their plaintiffs. Instead, thousands of resident and patient-workers were replaced by non-disabled employees. Disability Servitude includes a detailed history of longstanding problems with the oversight of the sub-minimum wage provision in the Fair Labor Standards Act oversight. Beckwith shows how that history has resulted in the continued segregation and exploitation of over 400,000 workers with disabilities in sheltered workshops that legally pay far less than minimum wage.
Given China's rapid development, many observers assert that world economic growth and key economic indicators are now depending on the country alone, including the prospects of the dollar, the Euro, oil prices, industrial commodities, global equity markets and bond prices. On the other hand, China faces a number of major social and economic challenges which could undermine future growth, such as prevalent corruption, financial crime, and the relative lack of the rule of law. Financial Crime in China builds upon original research into the topic and offers a never-before-seen look at the systemic spread of state-controlled corruption in the form of bank fraud, securities fraud, insider trading, and Ponzi schemes. Cheng presents an authentic picture of financial crime in China by identifying the latest manifestations, analyzing empirical data and case studies, and drawing conclusions about the origin, characteristics, dynamics, and developmental features of financial criminality in the context of political economy.
Author: Wesley G. Jennings
Release Date: 2015-12-24
Genre: Social Science
This Brief examines criminal careers by providing the most extensive and comprehensive investigation to date on the official offending, self-reported offending, and trajectories of offending of the Pittsburgh Youth Study (PYS) participants. The PYS is a longitudinal study, which was initiated in 1987, and involves repeated follow-ups on several community cohorts (starting in grades 1, 4, and 7) of inner-city boys in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. This Brief covers the Youngest and Oldest PYS cohorts (which had the most follow-up and most data available) from ages 10-30. It provides the most complete descriptive analyses of the criminal careers of these males to date. The three cohorts are commonly referred to as the Youngest, Middle, and Oldest cohorts, respectively. Consistent with several prior publications with the PYS data (Loeber et al., 2008), this book focuses only on data from the Youngest and Oldest cohorts as these cohorts were followed up the most frequently and have the longest time window of data available. It will be of interest to researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, as well as related fields like Sociology, Developmental Psychology, Social Policy, and Education.
Author: Josine Junger-Tas
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2011-09-18
Genre: Social Science
This book presents the first comprehensive analysis of the second International Self-Report Delinquency study (ISRD-2). An earlier volume, Juvenile Delinquency in Europe and Beyond (Springer, 2010) focused mainly on the findings with regard to delinquency, victimization and substance use in each of the individual participating ISRD-2 countries. The Many Faces of Youth Crime is based on analysis of the merged data set and has a number of unique features: The analyses are based on an unusually large number of respondents (about 67,000 7th, 8th and 9th graders) collected by researchers from 31 countries; It includes reports on the characteristics, experiences and behaviour of first and second generation migrant youth from a variety of cultures; It is one of the first large-scale international studies asking 12-16 year olds about their victimization experiences (bullying, assault, robbery, theft); It describes both intriguing differences between young people from different countries and country clusters in the nature and extent of delinquency, victimization and substance use, as well as remarkable cross-national uniformities in delinquency, victimization, and substance use patterns; A careful comparative analysis of the social responses to offending and victimization adds to our limited knowledge on this important issue; Detailed chapters on the family, school, neighbourhood, lifestyle and peers provide a rich comparative description of these institutions and their impact on delinquency; It tests a number of theoretical perspectives (social control, self-control, social disorganization, routine activities/opportunity theory) on a large international sample from a variety of national contexts; It combines a theoretical focus with a thoughtful consideration of the policy implications of the findings; An extensive discussion of the ISRD methodology of ‘flexible standardization’ details the challenges of comparative research. The book consists of 12 chapters, which also may be read individually by those interested in particular special topics (for instance, the last chapter should be of special interest to policy makers). The material is presented in such a way that it is accessible to more advanced students, researchers and scholars in a variety of fields, such as criminology, sociology, deviance, social work, comparative methodology, youth studies, substance use studies, and victimology.
Author: James C. Brown
Release Date: 2016-02-10
Genre: Social Science
This Brief provides a quantitative and qualitative analysis of proactive strategies for management transitions in criminal justice and other public administration civic service agencies. These organizations have a unique need for managing transitions effectively. Compared to private organizations: they have a relatively high frequency of management transitions due to the terms of elected and appointed officials, and these new managers more often come from outside the organization. Through an mixed-methods study of criminal justice command level staff in New York state, researchers found a number of key components to successful transitions. Based on their study, the researchers prepared a set of guidelines called the Command Transition Matrix. This tool is aimed at police and public administration leadership. The methodology used to develop it will be of interest to researchers in Criminal Justice Administration, Public Policy, and Management Science.
Author: L. Xavier Cano
Publisher: Xlibris Corporation
Release Date: 2014-01
Genre: Business & Economics
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