Neighborhood Disorganization and Social Control

Author: Olga Siegmunt
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319215907
Release Date: 2016-02-04
Genre: Social Science

This Brief presents a framework for understanding the role of school and neighborhood contexts in the development of self-control. Through the application of Gottfredson and Hirschi’s general theory of crime and Shaw and McKay’s social disorganization theory, the authors of this Brief examine the importance of family socialization and school and neighborhood for self-control of youth in three Russian cities, replicating results from an earlier study in Germany. The cases presented in the Brief found that family socialization is important for self-control, but it interacts with school and neighbourhood contexts. According to the study, school social control as a structural characteristic can lead to less delinquency, even if students did not develop self-control. Self-control mediates parental supervision and attachment to parents on one hand, and juvenile delinquency on the other hand. However it was not found to mediate neighbourhood context characteristics. The results of the study provide a research framework that can be applied to other international, comparative contexts. It will be of interest to researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, particularly Developmental and Life-Course Criminology, as well as related fields such as Public Policy and Social Work.

A General Theory of Crime

Author: Michael R. Gottfredson
Publisher:
ISBN: 0804717737
Release Date: 1990
Genre: Social Science

By articulating a general theory of crime and related behavior, the authors present a new and comprehensive statement of what the criminological enterprise should be about. They argue that prevalent academic criminology—whether sociological, psychological, biological, or economic—has been unable to provide believable explanations of criminal behavior. The long-discarded classical tradition in criminology was based on choice and free will, and saw crime as the natural consequence of unrestrained human tendencies to seek pleasure and to avoid pain. It concerned itself with the nature of crime and paid little attention to the criminal. The scientific, or disciplinary, tradition is based on causation and determinism, and has dominated twentieth-century criminology. It concerns itself with the nature of the criminal and pays little attention to the crime itself. Though the two traditions are considered incompatible, this book brings classical and modern criminology together by requiring that their conceptions be consistent with each other and with the results of research. The authors explore the essential nature of crime, finding that scientific and popular conceptions of crime are misleading, and they assess the truth of disciplinary claims about crime, concluding that such claims are contrary to the nature of crime and, interestingly enough, to the data produced by the disciplines themselves. They then put forward their own theory of crime, which asserts that the essential element of criminality is the absence of self-control. Persons with high self-control consider the long-term consequences of their behavior; those with low self-control do not. Such control is learned, usually early in life, and once learned, is highly resistant to change. In the remainder of the book, the authors apply their theory to the persistent problems of criminology. Why are men, adolescents, and minorities more likely than their counterparts to commit criminal acts? What is the role of the school in the causation of delinquincy? To what extent could crime be reduced by providing meaningful work? Why do some societies have much lower crime rates than others? Does white-collar crime require its own theory? Is there such a thing as organized crime? In all cases, the theory forces fundamental reconsideration of the conventional wisdom of academians and crimina justic practitioners. The authors conclude by exploring the implications of the theory for the future study and control of crime.

Data Driven Process Discovery and Analysis

Author: Karl Aberer
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783642340444
Release Date: 2013-11-19
Genre: Computers

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of the First International Symposium on Data-Driven Process Discovery and Analysis held in Campione d'Italia, Italy, in June/July 2011. The 11 revised full papers were carefully selected from 31 submissions. In addition to the thorough review process, the lively discussions at the event itself also helped the authors to improve their papers and to foster interesting extensions. The selected papers cover a wide range of topics spanning from theoretical issues related to process representation to practical experience in process discovery and analysis.

Police Citizen Relations Across the World

Author: Dietrich Oberwittler
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781315406640
Release Date: 2017-10-02
Genre: Social Science

Police-citizen relations are in the public spotlight following outbursts of anger and violence. Such clashes often happen as a response to fatal police shootings, racial or ethnic discrimination, or the mishandling of mass protests. But even in such cases, citizens’ assessment of the police differs considerably across social groups. This raises the question of the sources and impediments of citizens’ trust and support for police. Why are police-citizen relations much better in some countries than in others? Are police-minority relations doomed to be strained? And which police practices and policing policies generate trust and legitimacy? Research on police legitimacy has been centred on US experiences, and relied on procedural justice as the main theoretical approach. This book questions whether this approach is suitable and sufficient to understand public attitudes towards the police across different countries and regions of the world. This volume shows that the impact of macro-level conditions, of societal cleavages, and of state and political institutions on police-citizen relations has too often been neglected in contemporary research. Building on empirical studies from around the world as well as cross-national comparisons, this volume considerably expands current perspectives on the sources of police legitimacy and citizens’ trust in the police. Combining the analysis of micro-level interactions with a perspective on the contextual framework and varying national conditions, the contributions to this book illustrate the strength of a broadened perspective and lead us to ask how specific national frameworks shape the experiences of policing.

Crime Prevention in the 21st Century

Author: Benoit LeClerc
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319277936
Release Date: 2016-08-27
Genre: Social Science

This volume brings together a series of original contributions made by international experts dedicated to guiding efforts in preventing crime. The collection is divided into seven sections that cover cutting edge approaches to crime prevention: 1) the offenders’ perspective on crime prevention 2) crime script analysis 3) crime mapping and spatial analysis 4) social network analysis 5) agent-based modelling 6) crime-proofing legislations 7) technologies of crime prevention Each section includes one theoretical chapter to introduce the research approach followed by a series of empirical/applied contributions. The theoretical chapter aims to introduce and explain the approach of interest and discusses under which circumstances this strategy could best assist crime prevention. The objective of empirical/applied contributions is simply to showcase how these approaches can be apply. This collection can be seen as the end result of the convergence of novel ideas and analytical skills in the area of crime and crime prevention worldwide. It will be of interest to researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, as well as related fields like Sociology and Psychology, Security, Urban Planning, and Public Policy.

Community Oriented Policing and Technological Innovations

Author: Georgios Leventakis
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319892948
Release Date: 2018-04-26
Genre: Social Science

This Brief presents new approaches and innovative challenges to address bringing technology into community-oriented policing efforts. “Community-oriented policing” is an approach that encourages police to develop and maintain personal relationships with citizens and community organizations. By developing these partnerships, the goal is to enhance trust and legitimacy of police by the community (and vice versa), and focus on engaging the community crime prevention and detection efforts for sustainable, long-term crime reduction. The contributions to this volume emphasize how technological innovations can advance community-oriented policing goals, such as: -Strengthening community policing principles through effective and efficient tools, procedures and approaches - Accelerating communication between citizens and police forces - Early identification, timely intervention, as well as better crime reporting, identification of risks, unreported and undiscovered crime through the community Contributions to this volume were developed out of the Next Generation Community Policing (NGCP) International Conference was co-organized by nine contributing research and development projects, funded by the Horizon 2020 SECURITY Program of the European Commission. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as related fields such as sociology, public health, security, IT and public policy. This book is open access under a CC BY license.

Out of Control

Author: Erich Goode
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 9780804758192
Release Date: 2008
Genre: Social Science

A supplemental textbook that examines the self-control theory of crime from a range of perspectives, both supportive and critical.

Handbook of LGBT Communities Crime and Justice

Author: Dana Peterson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461491880
Release Date: 2013-12-04
Genre: Social Science

Contemporary scholars have begun to explore non-normative sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender expression in a growing victimization literature, but very little research is focused on LGBTQ communities’ patterns of offending (beyond sex work) and their experiences with police, the courts, and correctional institutions. This Handbook, the first of its kind in Criminology and Criminal Justice, will break new ground by presenting a thorough treatment of all of these under-explored issues in one interdisciplinary volume that features current empirical work.

International Handbook of Juvenile Justice

Author: Scott H. Decker
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319450902
Release Date: 2016-12-20
Genre: Social Science

This comprehensive reference work presents an in-depth analysis of juvenile justice systems across the world. The second edition of this Handbook has been updated with 13 new chapters, now covering a total of 34 countries, across North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East from an international and comparative perspective. The International Handbook of Juvenile Justice is the result of research conducted by a group of outstanding scholars working in the field of juvenile justice. It reflects a collective concern about trends in juvenile justice over the past two decades, trends that have begun to blur the difference between criminal and juvenile justice. Also new to the second edition, each chapter is formatted to increase the comparative aspect of the book, highlighting: · The legal status of juveniles · Age of majority · The country’s stance toward the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child · Trends in juvenile crime over the period 2004-2014 · Causes of juvenile crime · Policing and juveniles · Courts and juveniles · Custodial rules for juveniles (detention, prison, mixing juveniles with adults) · Alternative sanctions for juveniles: home confinement, restorative justice, restitution, etc. · Differences in treatment of boys and girls This seminal work highlights similarities and differences between the various systems, and will be an important reference for researchers in criminology and criminal justice, particularly interested in juvenile delinquency and youth crime, as well as related disciplines like sociology, social work, and public policy.

Contemporary Organized Crime

Author: Hans Nelen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319559735
Release Date: 2017-07-12
Genre: Social Science

This edited volume explores recent research and developments in the study of organized crime. It covers six key areas: drug-related issues; human trafficking and prostitution; sports and crime; procurement and corruption; and enforcement and prevention. The contributors provide timely research for understanding various aspects of organized crime, as well as the responses that have been developed worldwide to prevent and contain them. The contributions were presented at seminars of the Centre for Information and Research on Organized Crime (CIROC). It represents the third installment of such a volume, after Global Organized Crime: Trends and Developments (Siegel et al, 2003) and Organized Crime: Culture, Markets and Policies (Siegel and Nelen, 2008). It will be of interest to researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, particularly with an interest in organized crime and criminal networks, as well as related fields such as Comparative Law, and Political Science. This collection represents the most current thinking on entrenched problems of organized crime....This book is an important contribution in developing new approaches to organized crime and its control. Jay S. Albanese, Ph.D., Professor and Chair, Criminal Justice Programs, Virginia Commonwealth University The book is very well organised and written and deals with a diversity of topics and approaches. Ernesto U.Savona, Director of Transcrime, Professor of Criminology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan

Gender Based Violence

Author: Yanyi K. Djamba
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319166704
Release Date: 2015-06-10
Genre: Social Science

This book offers new perspectives on gender-based violence in three regions where the subject has been taboo in everyday discourse often due to patriarchal cultural norms that limit women’s autonomy. The contributions to this book provide rare insight into not only the levels and the socio-demographic determinants of domestic violence, but topics ranging from men’s attitudes toward wife beating; domestic violence-related adolescent deaths, and women’s health problems due to sexual and physical abuse. With a comprehensive introduction that provides a comparative international research framework for discussing gender-based violence in these three unique regions, this volume provides a key basis for understanding gender-based violence on a more global level. Part I, on Africa, covers men’s attitudes towards domestic violence, the impact of poverty and fertility, the association between adolescent deaths and domestic violence, and the link between domestic abuse and HIV. Part II, on the Middle East, covers the importance of consanguinity on domestic violence in Egypt and Jordan, the effects of physical abuse on reproductive health, and the link between political unrests and women’s experience and attitudes towards domestic violence. Part III, on India, shows how sexual abuse puts women at risk of reproductive tract infections and sexually transmitted infections, as well as the role of gender norms in wife abuse and the role of youth aggressive behavior in nonconsensual sex. With such a deep and broad coverage of factors of intimate partner abuse, this book serves as a reference document for researchers, decision-makers, and organizations that are searching for ways to reduce gender-based domestic violence. This book is of interest for researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, as well as Sociology, Social Work, Public Health and Human Rights.

The Many Faces of Youth Crime

Author: Josine Junger-Tas
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1441994556
Release Date: 2011-09-18
Genre: Social Science

This book presents the first comprehensive analysis of the second International Self-Report Delinquency study (ISRD-2). An earlier volume, Juvenile Delinquency in Europe and Beyond (Springer, 2010) focused mainly on the findings with regard to delinquency, victimization and substance use in each of the individual participating ISRD-2 countries. The Many Faces of Youth Crime is based on analysis of the merged data set and has a number of unique features:  The analyses are based on an unusually large number of respondents (about 67,000 7th, 8th and 9th graders) collected by researchers from 31 countries;  It includes reports on the characteristics, experiences and behaviour of first and second generation migrant youth from a variety of cultures;  It is one of the first large-scale international studies asking 12-16 year olds about their victimization experiences (bullying, assault, robbery, theft);  It describes both intriguing differences between young people from different countries and country clusters in the nature and extent of delinquency, victimization and substance use, as well as remarkable cross-national uniformities in delinquency, victimization, and substance use patterns;  A careful comparative analysis of the social responses to offending and victimization adds to our limited knowledge on this important issue;  Detailed chapters on the family, school, neighbourhood, lifestyle and peers provide a rich comparative description of these institutions and their impact on delinquency;  It tests a number of theoretical perspectives (social control, self-control, social disorganization, routine activities/opportunity theory) on a large international sample from a variety of national contexts;  It combines a theoretical focus with a thoughtful consideration of the policy implications of the findings;  An extensive discussion of the ISRD methodology of ‘flexible standardization’ details the challenges of comparative research. The book consists of 12 chapters, which also may be read individually by those interested in particular special topics (for instance, the last chapter should be of special interest to policy makers). The material is presented in such a way that it is accessible to more advanced students, researchers and scholars in a variety of fields, such as criminology, sociology, deviance, social work, comparative methodology, youth studies, substance use studies, and victimology.

The Cambridge Handbook of Violent Behavior and Aggression

Author: Daniel J. Flannery
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139465670
Release Date: 2007-09-03
Genre: Psychology

From a team of leading experts comes a comprehensive, multidisciplinary examination of the most current research including the complex issue of violence and violent behavior. The handbook examines a range of theoretical, policy, and research issues and provides a comprehensive overview of aggressive and violent behavior. The breadth of coverage is impressive, ranging from research on biological factors related to violence and behavior-genetics to research on terrrorism and the impact of violence in different cultures. The authors examine violence from international cross-cultural perspectives, with chapters that examine both quantitative and qualitative research. They also look at violence at multiple levels: individual, family, neighborhood, cultural, and across multiple perspectives and systems, including treatment, justice, education, and public health.

Organized Crime Corruption and Crime Prevention

Author: Stefano Caneppele
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783319018393
Release Date: 2013-10-30
Genre: Social Science

​​​This volume collects new contributions to research on mafias, organized crime, money laundering, and other forms of complex crimes, gathering some of the most authoritative and well-known scholars in the field. The chapters for this volume are original peices written in honor of the retirement of Dr. Ernesto U. Savona, highlighting his research and legacy. Throughout his academic career, Professor Ernesto U. Savona has investigated complex crimes ranging from organized crime, to economic crime, to money laundering. In his work, he has tried to bring together academics, policy makers, and practitioners to bring understanding for crime problems and innovative solutions. His passion towards the practical application of the findings of scientific research led him to found Transcrime in 1994, which is today among the most important criminological think-tanks in Europe.This important book is aimed at scholars studying criminal policy and research, particularly in the areas of criminal networks, organized crime, white collar crime, the history of criminology.

Illegal Entrepreneurship Organized Crime and Social Control

Author: Georgios A. Antonopoulos
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319316086
Release Date: 2016-06-16
Genre: Social Science

This book covers organized crime groups, empirical studies of organized crime, criminal finances and money laundering, and crime prevention, gathering some of the most authoritative and well-known scholars in the field. The contributions to this book are new chapters written in honor of Professor Dick Hobbs, on the occasion of his retirement. They reflect his powerful influence on the study of organized crime, offering a novel perspective that located organized crime in its socio-economic context, studied through prolonged ethnographic engagement. Professor Hobbs has influenced a generation of criminology researchers engaged in studying organized crime groups, and this work provides a both a look back and this influence and directions for future research. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, particularly with a focus on organized crime and financial crime, as well as those interested in corruption, crime prevention, and applications of ethnographic methods.