Nuclear techniques are critical in the exploration for oil and in the control of oil wells, and intrinsic to uranium exploration. This volume includes comprehensive review articles by internationally eminent scientists and engineers, on a wide variety of techniques and applications in the area of nuclear geophysics, including important new techniques and equipment being developed for use in the metalliferous and industrial minerals industries. Also included is a description of neutron interaction methods now being introduced to give a total elemental analysis, calorific value and ash-content, on-line.
The fundamentals of methods in nuclear geophysics and their practical applications in engineering geology, hydrology, hydrogeology, agriculture and environmental science are discussed in this book. The methods and apparatus based on absorption and scattering of gamma and neutron radiation for determination of density and soil moisture in natural conditions are presented in Chapters 2, 3, and 4. The theoretical fundamentals and installations of the penetration logging techniques where gamma, gamma-gamma and neutron logging in combination with static penetration form common complexes for engineering geology and hydrogeology exploration without boring holes are described. The developed constructions and practical use penetration logging installations for applications on land and marine shelves are described in Chapters 5, 6, 7, and 8. The physical fundamentals for the use of the natural stable and radioactive isotopes for study of the global hydrological cycle are provided. The experimental data, origin and distribution of cosmogenic and radiogenic isotopes in the oceans, atmospheric moisture, surface and underground waters are presented in Chapters 9, 10, and 11. The sources and conditions of the radioactive contamination of the natural waters are discussed in Chapters 12 and 13. This book will be of interest to scientists and researchers who use nuclear geophysics methods in engineering geology, hydrology, hydrogeology and hydrogeoecology. Lecturers, students, and postgraduates in these subjects will also find it useful.
The book deals primarily with the aspects like energy resources and its proper utilization, disposal of various forms of wastes and its effects and effects of major catastrophic events like nuclear disasters, global warming, etc. It also deals with the choice of suitable disposal sites for solid and hazardous waste, which is growing at an extremely rapid pace due to rapid industrialization, population growth (primarily in countries like India and China) and urbanization. In addition groundwater contamination due to various causes and its effect on the food chain is also amply discussed. The book is specifically aimed with the state-of-art information regarding research and development in these areas of study, coupled to extensive modelling and case based results obtained, both from India as well as other countries. The book is extremely instructive for the students, research workers, scientists, faculty members in Applied Physics, Solid Earth Geophysics, Radiometric Methods and Exploration, Ground Water Geochemistry, Mathematical Modeling Techniques in Earth Sciences, Near Surface Geophysics and Earth and Environmental Sciences.