Author: World Health Organization
Publisher: World Health Organization
Release Date: 2000
This report issues a call for urgent action to combat the growing epidemic of obesity, which now affects developing and industrialized countries alike. Adopting a public health approach, the report responds to both the enormity of health problems associated with obesity and the notorious difficulty of treating this complex, multifactorial disease. With these problems in mind, the report aims to help policy-makers introduce strategies for prevention and management that have the greatest chance of success. The importance of prevention as the most sensible strategy in developing countries, where obesity coexists with undernutrition, is repeatedly emphasized. Recommended lines of action, which reflect the consensus reached by 25 leading authorities, are based on a critical review of current scientific knowledge about the causes of obesity in both individuals and populations. While all causes are considered, major attention is given to behavioural and societal changes that have increased the energy density of diets, overwhelmed sophisticated regulatory systems that control appetite and maintain energy balance, and reduced physical activity. Specific topics discussed range from the importance of fat content in the food supply as a cause of population-wide obesity, through misconceptions about obesity held by both the medical profession and the public, to strategies for dealing with the alarming prevalence of obesity in children. The report has eleven chapters presented in five parts. Part one, which assesses the magnitude of the problem, explains the system for classifying overweight and obesity based on the body mass index, considers the importance of fat distribution, and provides an overview of trends in all regions of the world, concluding that obesity is increasing worldwide at an alarming rate. Chapters in part two evaluate the true costs of obesity in terms of physical and mental ill health, and the human and financial resources diverted to deal with these problems. Specific health consequences discussed include increased risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other noncommunicable diseases, endocrine and metabolic disturbances, debilitating health problems, and psychological problems. The health benefits and risks of weight loss are also assessed. Part three draws on the latest research findings to consider specific factors involved in the development of overweight and obesity. Discussion centres on factors, such as high intakes of fat, that may disrupt normal physiological regulation of appetite and energy balance, and the role of dietary factors and levels of physical activity. In terms of opportunities for prevention, particular attention is given to the multitude of environmental and societal forces that adversely affect food intake and physical activity and may thus overwhelm the physiological regulatory systems that keep weight stable in the long term. The possible role of genetic and biological susceptibility is also briefly considered. Against this background, the fourth and most extensive part maps out strategies for prevention and management at both the population and individual levels. Separate chapters address the need to develop population-based strategies that tackle the environmental and societal factors implicated in the development of obesity, and compare the effectiveness of current options for managing overweight or obese individuals. Specific strategies discussed include dietary management, physical activity and exercise programmes, behaviour modification, drug treatment, and gastric surgery. While noting striking recent progress in the development of drug treatments, the report concludes that gastric surgery continues to show the best long-term success in treating the severely obese. The final part sets out key conclusions and recommendations for responding to the global obesity epidemic and identifies priority areas where more research is urgently needed. "... the volume is clearly written, and carries a wealth of summary information that is likely to be invaluable for anyone interested in the public health aspects of obesity and fatness, be they students, practitioner or researcher." - Journal of Biosocial Science
Author: James M. Rippe
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2012-05-11
The prevalence of obesity in the United States and the rest of the industrialized world has skyrocketed in the past 20 years. Linked to heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome, it is also the leading cause of osteoarthritis and the second leading cause of cancer. With contributions from leading experts in the field, Obesity: Prevention and Treatment bridges the gap between emerging understanding of the pathophysiology of obesity with concrete clinical applications for physicians and other healthcare workers in all disciplines of medicine. Following an overview of issues related to the prevention and management of obesity, the book discusses: Energy balance, the metabolic predictors of weight gain, and the role of adipokines, genetics, and the environment on obesity The epidemiology of obesity The identification and evaluation of the overweight patient as a guide to the selection of treatment Nutritional aspects of obesity treatment and management Exercise risks to which the obese patient may be more prone and steps that can be taken to mitigate these risks Behavior modification strategies for the obese patient The definition, assessment, consequences, and treatment of childhood obesity Drugs and surgical options for treatment The implications of public policy on the problem of obesity The significance of intra-abdominal and ectopic fat deposition in endocrine aspects of obesity Currently, over two thirds of the adult population in the United States is either overweight or obese. With these grim statistics, it is critically important that clinicians from all branches of medicine play an active role in diagnosing and treating obesity and its related conditions. This volume arms clinicians with the information they need to create an appropriate prevention and treatment program for their patients.
Author: Colin Marshall
Release Date: 2003-07-01
Genre: Health & Fitness
Obesity is epidemic in America. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) state that obese and overweight people are susceptible to many obesity-related diseases. Reliable information shows that obesity or its fundamental causes can lead to arthero-sclerosis, high blood pressure the silent killer, arthritis, type II diabetes and some forms of cancer. These conditions, and very often their medical treatment, can result in heart attack, stroke, congestive heart failure, a degraded immune system and vulnerability to many diseases. That is why obesity must be considered an insidious killer; it creates a risk to health deterioration and premature death. The Marshall Plan is the definitive answer to the problem of epidemic obesity. It lays out the necessary knowledge in understandable detail. It is not a diet in the conventional meaning of the word. It is a lifestyle that uses ordinary food correctly consumed and simple natural and pleasurable recreational exercise correctly performed. The book lays out the essentials of fat and weight control as a series of discussion chapters giving a brief explanation of each of the principles involved and then a number of simple straight forward instructions at the end of each chapter.
Author: Kathleen Y. Wolin
Release Date: 2009
Genre: Health & Fitness
An overview written for general readers of the history, prevention, treatment, causes, and consequences of obesity. * The work is combines materials from history, epidemiology, behavioral science, surgery, pharmacology, economics, and policy * Includes a glossary of key terms related to the study of obesity
Author: Gareth Williams
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2009-07-08
This comprehensive textbook addresses one of the major public health concerns of our era – obesity. Clearly and simply, Obesity: science to practice provides a balanced, coherent account of obesity: how to define and measure it, its epidemiology, the physiological basis, associated diseases, how to assess, manage and treat it, and also strategies for prevention. The book is generously illustrated, including graphs and flow charts for easy reference. The chapters cite key references so that interested readers may pursue a given topic in more detail. Well presented and thoroughly edited by one of the leading experts in the field, this is the textbook of choice for anyone working in obesity.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared obesity a global epidemic. Its prevalence has more than doubled since 1980, causing a myriad of health problems for children and adults. Obesity: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Prevention, Second Edition explores the molecular mechanisms and pathophysiology leading to obesity and metabolic disorders. It examines the safety of obesity drugs and drug development strategies as well as the role of physical activity, nutrition, and nutraceutical supplements in obesity treatment and prevention. With contributions from a cadre of internationally known experts, the book covers a spectrum of essential topics related to this widespread phenomenon, including: The relationship between obesity and type 2 diabetes The addiction mechanism related to refined foods as a significant factor in obesity The correlation between obesity and environmental estrogens, endocrine disruption, cigarette smoking, and inflammatory response The role of drug and chemical toxicities and genomic imprinting disorders in obesity The safety and regulation of prescription and over-the-counter weight loss drugs Various diets, the glycemic index, and the role of exercise in treating or preventing obesity Controversy over effective vs. banned weight loss supplements Childhood obesity and its prevention Bariatric surgery for weight management and reversal of metabolic disorders As the public has become more aware of the deadly adverse effects of obesity, numerous products and programs have targeted the overweight and obese population, many with dangerous side effects. It is essential that we develop strategic, therapeutic intervention supported by credible data. This volume is an ideal reference point for researchers looking for new avenues of inquiry and practicing medical professionals, clinical nutritionists, and dietitians seeking guidance for their patients.
Author: Alexandra A. Brewis
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
Release Date: 2011
In a world now filled with more people who are overweight than underweight, public health and medical perspectives paint obesity as a catastrophic epidemic that threatens to overwhelm health systems and undermine life expectancies globally. In many societies, being obese also creates profound personal suffering because it is so culturally stigmatized. Yet despite loud messages about the health and social costs of being obese, weight gain is a seemingly universal aspect of the modern human condition. Grounded in a holistic anthropological approach and using a range of ethnographic and ecological case studies, Obesity shows that the human tendency to become and stay fat makes perfect sense in terms of evolved human inclinations and the physical and social realities of modern life. Drawing on her own fieldwork in the rural United States, Mexico, and the Pacific Islands over the last two decades, Alexandra A. Brewis addresses such critical questions as why obesity is defined as a problem and why some groups are so much more at risk than others. She suggests innovative ways that anthropology and other social sciences can use community-based research to address the serious public health and social justice concerns provoked by the global spread of obesity.
Author: Thomas A. Wadden
Publisher: Guilford Press
Release Date: 2002-01-09
A timely and practical resource for practitioners in mental health, medical, allied health fields, and students. This volume brings together an array of leading experts to discuss the causes and consequences of obesity today and present a framework for treatment.
Author: Evelyn B. Kelly
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
Release Date: 2006-01-01
Genre: Health & Fitness
Providing readers and researchers with an introduction to the medical, scientific, legal, and cultural issues surrounding obesity, this book examines contemporary issues and debates that provoke the most heated disagreements and misunderstandings, such as whether obesity is an illness.
Author: George L. Blackburn
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning
Release Date: 1994
Genre: Health & Fitness
This book addresses both basic and sophisticated approaches To The understanding of a current treatment for obesity, one of the most prevalent medical problems in the U.S. The book is divided into two parts. Part I addresses the problem of obesity and presents an approach To The evaluation of the obese individual. Part II provides an extensive discussion of traditional and innovative treatments for obesity that reflect the expertise and opinions of the most respected investigators and clinicians who work in this field.
Author: Dr Karin Eli
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Release Date: 2014-09-28
Genre: Social Science
How do the media represent obesity and eating disorders? How are these representations related to one another? And how do the news media select which scientific findings and policy decisions to report? Multi-disciplinary in approach, Obesity, Eating Disorders and the Media presents critical new perspectives on media representations of obesity and eating disorders, with analyses of print, online, and televisual media framings. Exploring abjection and alarm as the common themes linking media framings of obesity and eating disorders, Obesity, Eating Disorders and the Media shows how the media similarly position these conditions as dangerous extremes of body size and food practice. The volume then investigates how news media selectively cover and represent science and policy concerning obesity and eating disorders, with close attention to the influence of pre-existing framings alongside institutional and moral agendas. A rich, comprehensive analysis of media framings of obesity and eating disorders - as embodied conditions, complex disorders, public health concerns, and culturally significant phenomena - this volume will be of interest to scholars and students across the social sciences and all those interested in understanding cultural aspects of obesity and eating disorders.