Author: Derek Fee
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-12-06
In order to alleviate their problems many less developed countries (LDCs) are endeavoring to develop to the full their energy resources and in particular their hydrocarbon resources. However, the development of these resources is hindered by many factors, among which are the following: badly established estimates of indigenous resources; under-exploration; lack of competent Government institutions to monitor the hydrocarbon sector; lack of local markets to exploit non-oil hydrocarbon finds; refineries which are outdated, producing the wrong product mix and where economies of scale make upgrading difficult. The purpose of this work is to examine the hydrocarbon sector in the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) group of countries. An examination of such a diverse group of nations on a global scale is difficult since the group includes relatively rich countries such as Trinidad and Tobago with a GNP per capita of $4000, to the sub-Saharan countries such as Mali with a GNP per capita of $120. No easy solutions will be presented to improve the present energy situation in these countries but the reasons for the lack of hydrocarbon development will be examined. The work of the World Bank and similar international financial institutions will be assessed and a potted review of the hydrocarbon sector in each country will be presented.
Author: Richard M. Auty
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Release Date: 1990
Genre: Technology & Engineering
This book is the first cross-country analysis of resource-based industrialization (RBI), a controversial industrialization strategy favored by developing countries in the 1970s. It examines the expectations and the actual experience of RBI in the oil-exporting countries Bahrain, Cameroon, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. Auty shows that these countries underestimated the risks associated with RBI's large capital-intensive projects and that many RBI plants were poorly implemented and became uncompetitive when prices fell below forecast levels. However, Auty argues, given its long gestation period and link to volatile energy markets, RBI does have considerable long-term potential provided conditions of financial restructuring and macro- and micro-economic efficiency are met. Scholars and students in development economics, and advisers and consultants in and to developing-country governments will find this important analysis covers a variety of country sizes and efficiency constraints, offering a broad range of examples of RBI.
After almost forty years of development aid most commentators agree that aid as we know it has not worked. Aid fatigue is suffered on both the donor and recipient sides, with a wide divergence between those who call for a radical overhaul of aid delivery methods, those who advocate a complete end to development aid and those who continually demand significant increases in aid flows. David Fee provides a refreshing, insightful and comprehensive analysis of how an exit may actually be possible - drawing on real experience and as such supplying a simple summary of recommended policy steps. The author thoroughly reviews aid for trade, regional integration and microfinance and a host of other solutions that have been proposed - arguing that an exit strategy for both donors and the least developed countries will have to consider the optimal combination of these specific initiatives to best satisfy the necessity of development and at the same time solve the problems of conventional aid.
Author: Meine Pieter van Dijk
Publisher: Amsterdam University Press
Release Date: 2009
Genre: Business & Economics
"This book describes China's growing range of activities in Africa, especially in the sub-Saharan region. The three most important instruments China has at its disposal in Africa are development aid, investments and trade policy. The Chinese government, which believes the Western development aid model has failed, is looking for new forms of aid and development in Africa. China's economic success can partly be ascribed to the huge availability of cheap labour, which is primarily employed in export-oriented industries. China is looking for the required raw materials in Africa, and for new marketplaces. Investments are being made on a large scale in Africa by Chinese state-controlled firms and private companies, particularly in the oil-producing countries (Angola, Nigeria and Sudan) and countries rich in minerals (Zambia). Third, the trade policy China is conducting is analysed in China and compared with that of Europe and the United States. In case studies the specific situation in several African countries is examined. In Zambia the mining industry, construction and agriculture are described. One case study of Sudan deals with the political presence of China in Sudan and the extent to which Chinese arms suppliers contributed to the current crisis in Darfur. The possibility of Chinese diplomacy offering a solution in that conflict is discussed. The conclusion considers whether social responsibility can be expected of the Chinese government and companies and if this is desirable, and to what extent the Chinese model in Africa can act as an example - or not - for the West"--Publisher's description.
Biomass Gasification, Pyrolysis and Torrefaction, Third Edition, is enhanced with a new topic on processing and cleaning of product gas of gasification and a brief introduction to biomaterials, making it a versatile resource that not only explains the basic principles of energy conversion systems, but also provides valuable insight into the design of a complete biomass conversion systems. With a dedicated focus on the design, analysis and operational aspects of biomass gasification, pyrolysis and torrefaction, this edition offers comprehensive coverage of biomass in its gas, liquid or solid states in a single accessible source. The author provides many worked design problems, step-by-step design procedures and real data on commercially operating systems. Although the book carries the name ‘biomass’, the bulk of its content is also applicable to non-biomass fuels like coal, petcoke, municipal solid waste and others. This book will help engineers, scientists and operating personnel of biomass gasification, pyrolysis or torrefaction plants, gain better comprehension of the basics of biomass conversion. Biomass Gasification, Pyrolysis and Torrefaction, Third Edition, is enhanced with a new topic on processing and cleaning of product gas of gasification and brief introduction to biomaterials making it a versatile resource that not only explains the basic principles of energy conversion systems, but also provides valuable insight into the design of a complete biomass conversion systems. With a dedicated focus on the design, analysis, and operational aspects of biomass gasification, pyrolysis, and torrefaction, this edition of the book offers comprehensive coverage of biomass in its gas, liquid, or solid states in a single easy-to-access source. The author provides many worked out design problems, step-by-step design procedures and real data on commercially operating systems. Although the book carries the name ‘biomass’, the bulk of its content is also applicable to non-biomass fuels like, coal, petcoke, municipal solid waste and others. This book will allow professionals, such as engineers, scientists, and operating personnel of biomass gasification, pyrolysis or torrefaction plants, to gain a better comprehension of the basics of biomass conversion. Features updates with the most recent research and technology Expanded to include a new chapter on syngas purification Contains step-by-step process flow diagrams, design data, conversion charts and numerical examples with solutions Provides available research results in an easy-to-use design methodology Examines the economic aspects of biomass conversion
The Anarchist Cookbook will shock, it will disturb, it will provoke. It places in historical perspective an era when "Turn on, Burn down, Blow up" are revolutionary slogans of the day. Says the author" "This book... is not written for the members of fringe political groups, such as the Weatherman, or The Minutemen. Those radical groups don't need this book. They already know everything that's in here. If the real people of America, the silent majority, are going to survive, they must educate themselves. That is the purpose of this book." In what the author considers a survival guide, there is explicit information on the uses and effects of drugs, ranging from pot to heroin to peanuts. There i detailed advice concerning electronics, sabotage, and surveillance, with data on everything from bugs to scramblers. There is a comprehensive chapter on natural, non-lethal, and lethal weapons, running the gamut from cattle prods to sub-machine guns to bows and arrows.
Author: Roger Cliff
Publisher: Rand Corporation
Release Date: 2011
Genre: POLITICAL SCIENCE
and other foreign aerospace firms are dependent on supplies from China, and the implications of all of these issues for U.S. security interests. The study should be of interest to business analysts, policymakers, lawmakers, and anyone who wishes to learn about China's market for commercial aviation, the capabilities of China's aerospace manufacturing industry, the role foreign aerospace firms are playing in the development of China's aerospace capabilities, and security implications for the United States. This research was sponsored by the U.S-China Economic and Security Review Commission, which was established by Congress in 2000 to monitor and report on the economic and national security dimensions of U.S. trade and economic ties with the People's Republic of China. This research was conducted within the International Security and Defense Policy Center of the RAND Corporation's National Security Research Division (NSRD).
Author: The World Bank
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Release Date: 2012-06-06
Genre: Business & Economics
This report builds on the conclusions of the Green Infrastructure Finance: Leading Initiatives and Research report and lays out a simple and elegant way in which scarce public financing can leverage market interest in greening infrastructure, particularly in the East Asia and Pacific Region.
Crop wild relatives (CWR) are plant species which are more or less closely related to crops. They are a vital resource by providing a pool of genetic variation that can be used in breeding new and better adapted varieties of crops that are resistant to stress, disease, drought and other factors. They will be increasingly important in allowing crops to adapt to the impacts of climate, thus safeguarding future agricultural production. Until recently, the main conservation strategy adopted for CWR has been ex situ - through the maintenance of samples as seed or vegetative material in various kinds of genebank or other facilities. Now the need to conserve CWR in their natural surroundings (in situ) is increasingly recognized. Recent research co-ordinated by Bioversity International has produced a wealth of information on good practices and lessons learned for their effective conservation. This book captures the important practical experiences of countries participating in this work and describes them for the wider conservation community. It includes case studies and examples from Armenia, Bolivia, Madagascar, Sri Lanka and Uzbekistan, which are important centres of diversity for crop wild relatives, and covers four geographical regions - the Caucasus, South America, Africa and the Asia-Pacific Region. It provides practical, relevant information and guidance for the scaling-up of actions targeting CWR conservation around the world.
Author: Aldo Baietti
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Release Date: 2012-04-18
Genre: Business & Economics
This report is a structured compendium of leading initiatives and activities put forward to accelerate private investment flows in green growth. It summarizes current investment challenges of green projects as well as proposed solutions, financing schemes and initiatives that have set the stage for scaling up green infrastructure investments.
This study analyzes the spatial-temporal pattern and processes of China’s energy-related carbon emissions. Based on extensive quantitative analysis, it outlines the character and trajectory of China’s energy-related carbon emissions during the period 1995-2010, examining the distribution pattern of China’s carbon emissions from regional and sectoral perspectives and revealing the driving factors of China’s soaring emission increase. Further, the book investigates the supply chain carbon emissions (the carbon footprints) of China’s industrial sectors. Anthropogenic climate change is one of the most serious challenges currently facing humankind. China is the world’s largest developing country, top primary energy consumer and carbon emitter. Achieving both economic growth and environmental conservation is the country’s twofold challenge. Understanding the status, features and driving forces of China’s energy-related carbon emissions is a critical aspect of attaining global sustainability. This work, for the first time, presents both key findings on and a systematic evaluation of China’s carbon emissions from energy consumption. The results have important implications for global carbon budgets and burden-sharing with regard to climate change mitigation. The book will be of great interest to readers around the world, as it addresses a topic of truly global significance.
Author: Daniel Sheldon Hamilton
Publisher: Center for Transatlantic Relations
Release Date: 2009
Genre: Political Science
The contributions to this book were created as part of the project "Raising the Bar: Enhancing Transatlantic Governance of Disaster Relief and Preparedness...The findings of the project are based on the insights of 16 field-level case studies that were commissioned for the project" -- P. vii.