OSHA and the Politics of Health Regulation

Author: David P. McCaffrey
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461592877
Release Date: 2013-03-13
Genre: Law

By way of introduction to this fascinating book, let me highlight two of its many contributions. First, it is a good example of something all too rare in sociology: testing competing general theories. Most of us either try to develop or refine theories about how the social world works, and cite convenient data as support, or we select and collect data that will fit some general theoretical position. In the first case, the data playa subor dinate role-bits of evidence for our view of life. In the second, the theory plays a subordinate role-a way to make sense of the social behavior we have observed. McCaffrey's position subsumes these two. He has gathered data on an important social agency, but with an im plicit problem in mind: which of the several theories about the social world he was exposed to in graduate school would do the best job of interpreting the data? Or, we might just as well turn it around. In a graduate department such as Sociology at the State University of New York at Stony Brook, there is a lively, never ending debate about the "truth" of competing perspectives on the political and social world. By selecting a data base and remaining alert to the kind of evidence each theory required, McCaffrey circumvented the usual" data for a theory" vs. "a theory for the data" dilemma that most of us live with.

Racial and Cultural Minorities

Author: George Eaton Simpson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781489905512
Release Date: 2013-06-29
Genre: Psychology

We need scarcely note that the topic of this book is the stuff of headlines. Around the world, political, economic, educational, military, religious, and social relations of every variety have a racial or ethnic component. One cannot begin to understand the history or contemporary situation of the United States, the Soviet Union, China, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Great Britain, Lebanon, Mexico, Canada-indeed, almost any land-without careful attention to the influence of cultural and racial divisions. Preparation of this new edition has brought a strong sense of deja vu, with regard both to the persistence of old patterns of discrimination, even if in new guises, and also to the persistence of limited and constraining explanations. We have also found, however, rich new empirical studies, new theoretical perspectives, and greatly expanded activity and analyses from members of minority groups. Although this edition is an extensive revision, with reference both to the data used and the theoretical approaches examined, we have not shifted from our basically analytical perspective. We strongly support efforts to reduce discrimination and prejudice; but these can be successful only if we try to understand where we are and what forces are creating the existing situation. We hope to reduce the tendency to use declarations and condem nations of other persons' actions as substitutes for an investigation of their causes and consequences.

Innovation up Close

Author: A. Michael Huberman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781489903907
Release Date: 2013-06-29
Genre: Psychology

School improvement, like motherhood, has many advocates. Everyone is for it, without having to campaign actively on its behalf. And just as the 100% of people who have had mothers think they know how mothering could be done better, so the (nearly) 100% of people who have been pupils in schools, or have even taught in or managed them, think they know how schools can be im proved. More precisely, they are sure that schools ought to be improved. The trouble is that they propose a staggering, conflicting range of methods of improving the schools, from ;'back to the woodshed" to teacher merit pay, a stiffer curriculum, a stronger tax base, reorganization, a more humane climate, "teacher-proof" innovations, community involvement-the list is nearly end less. Furthermore, the issues are not merely technical, but normative and po litical. The term improvement is itself problematic. One person's version of improvement is another's version of wastefulness or even of worsening the schools. Furthermore, the versions that win out in any particular school are not Improvement sometimes turns out to be merely a necessarily technically "best. " code word for the directives that administrators have successfully put into place, or for the agreements that teachers have lobbied into being. How much do we really know about school improvement? The available research literature is quite substantial, but not as helpful as it might be.

Hispanics in the Labor Force

Author: Edwin Melendez
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781489906557
Release Date: 2013-11-21
Genre: Business & Economics

The bright side of the 1980s, or the "Hispanic decade," as it was dubbed early on, may ironically turn out to be the detail and sophistication with which the economic and social reversals affecting most Latinos in this period have been tracked, with a fresh cohort of Latino scholars playing an increasingly prominent role in this endeavor. As this volume conveys, these analyses are steadily probing more deeply into the fine grain of the processes bearing on the social conditions of U. S. Latinos and particularly into the diversity of the experiences of the several Latino-origin nationalities until recently generally treated in the aggre gate as "Hispanics. " Though still fragmented and tentative in perspective, as are the disciplines on which they draw and the research apparatus on which they rest, the quest among these new voices for a unifying perspective also comes across in this collection of essays. There is manifestly more under way here than a simple demand for inclusion of neglected instances on the margin of supposedly well understood larger or "mainstream" dynamics. The 1990s open with a more confident assertion of the centrality of the Latino presence and Latino actors in the overarching transformations reshaping U. S. society, and especially in the playing out of these restructurings in the regions and cities of Latino concentra tion.

BPR

Author: Bowker Staff
Publisher: R. R. Bowker
ISBN: 0835216160
Release Date: 1982
Genre: American literature


Evidence Argument and Persuasion in the Policy Process

Author: Giandomenico Majone
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300052596
Release Date: 1992-01-01
Genre: Political Science

This book challenges the common assumption that policy analysts engage in purely objective technical assessment of policy alternatives. It argues instead that what analysts really do is produce policy arguments that are based on value judgments and are used by policymakers in the course of public debate. Giandomenico Majone shows that the essential need today is not to develop 'objective' measures of outcomes but rather to improve the methods and conditions of public discourse at all levels and stages of policy making.

Public Value

Author: John Benington
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
ISBN: 9780230364295
Release Date: 2010-11-30
Genre: Political Science

This text provides a concise and internationalized restatement of the public value approach, an assessment of its impact to date - in theory and practice - and of its particular relevance to the challenges of public management in a time of crisis and austerity.

Americans Abroad

Author: Syracuse University
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0306439417
Release Date: 1992-01-31
Genre: Psychology

An American college student traveling around Europe on a bicycle with two friends arrived at a recent July 4th celebration in Moscow and remarked, "We've been traveling around Europe and Russia for almost a month now. I never thought I'd be saying this, but I never wanted to see and hear Americans so much in my life. That would be so corny back home. But here it just seems right" (Hartford Courant, July 5, 1989, p. A2). Apparently you can take an American out of America, but you cannot take America out of an American-and perhaps this notion applies to other migrants as well. This is a book that explores the experience of Americans abroad, specifi cally those who are living in other countries of the developed world with a lower standard of living than that of the United States. This study compares the travels and travails of emigrants to Australia and Israel and seeks to apply a social psychological perspective to address three questions: (1) What accounts for the motivation of migrants to move? (2) What are the sources of the adjustment problems the migrants experience? (3) What explains whether the migrants re main or return to the United States? Ideally, it would be best to devise one instrument to gather data on repre sentative samples of Americans living in a variety of countries abroad, but such an effort is beyond the resources of most researchers-including us.

Sustainable Development Science Ethics and Public Policy

Author: J. Lemons
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401584920
Release Date: 2013-06-29
Genre: Science

Of all the books written about the problems of sustainable development and environmental protection, Sustainable Development: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy is one of the first to examine the role of science, economics and law, and ethics as generally applied to decision making on sustainable development, particularly in respect to the recommendations contained in Agenda 21. Specifically, the book examines the role, capabilities, and certain strengths and weaknesses of these disciplines and their ethical implications in the context of sustainable development problems. Such an analysis is necessary to determine whether sustainable development problems create important new challenges and problems for government so that, where appropriate, new tools or approaches may be designed to overcome limitations or take advantage of the strengths of current scientific, economic and legal capabilities. Audience: Environmental professionals, whether academic, governmental or industrial, or in the private consultancy sector. Also suitable as an upper level text or reference.