Sextus Empiricus Outlines of Scepticism

Author: Sextus Empiricus
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521778093
Release Date: 2000-07-20
Genre: Philosophy

Outlines of Scepticism, by the Greek philosopher Sextus Empiricus, is a work of major importance for the history of Greek philosophy. It is the fullest extant account of ancient scepticism, and it is also one of our most copious sources of information about the other Hellenistic philosophies. Its first part contains an elaborate exposition of the Pyrrhonian variety of scepticism; its second and third parts are critical and destructive, arguing against 'dogmatism' in logic, epistemology, science and ethics - an approach that revolutionized the study of philosophy when Sextus' works were rediscovered and published in the sixteenth century. This volume presents the accurate and readable translation which was first published in 1994, together with a substantial new historical and philosophical introduction by Jonathan Barnes.

The Skeptic Way

Author: Sextus (Empiricus.)
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0195092139
Release Date: 1996
Genre: Philosophy

The Outlines of Pyrrhonism by the 2nd century A.D. Greek physician Sextus Empiricus was immensely influential in the history of Western philosophy. The rediscovery and publication of this work in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries led directly to the skepticism of Montaigne, Gassendi, Bayle, Descartes, Berkeley, Hume, and others, and eventually to the preoccupation of modern philosophy with attempts to refute or otherwise combat philosophical skepticism. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that Pyrrhonism--the form of skepticism professed by Sextus--is in several important respects quite different from the modern forms of skepticism to which the writings of Sextus have given rise. Some of these differences are of particular philosophic interest because they seem to render the ancient form immune to many of the standard responses to skepticism that are made today. In this book, which incorporates a new translation of the Outlines in their entirety, Benson Mates presents Pyrrhonism not as a mere historical curiosity, as has often been done, but as a philosophical position eminently worthy of serious philosophical consideration here and now. His thorough introduction sets the stage by explaining what Pyrrhonism is and what it is not, and by contrasting it in the relevant respects with modern skepticism. He gives particular attention to explicating a number of quasi-technical terms that occur frequently in the Outlines and have decisive bearing on the philosophical content. By rendering these terms more accurately and uniformly in his translation, he seeks to make the essential feautres of Sextus's Pyrrhonism more evident to the reader. The latter part of the book consists of a detailed Commentary, which endeavors to discuss and explain the work, section by section, from a philosophical (as contrasted with a philological) point of view.

The Significance of Philosophical Scepticism

Author: Barry Stroud
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198247616
Release Date: 1984-07-05
Genre: Architecture

He author argues that the sceptical thesis is motivated by a persistent philosophical problem that calls the very possibility of knowledge about the external world into question, and that the sceptical thesis is the only acceptable answer to this problem as traditionally posed.

The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Scepticism

Author: Richard Arnot Home Bett
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521874762
Release Date: 2010-01-28
Genre: History

A comprehensive survey of the main periods, schools and individual proponents of scepticism in the ancient Greek and Roman world.

Sextus Empiricus Against the Logicians

Author: Sextus (Empiricus.)
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521531950
Release Date: 2005-12-22
Genre: Philosophy

Sextus Empiricus' Against the Logicians is by far the most detailed surviving examination by any ancient Greek sceptic of the areas of epistemology and logic. It critically examines the pretensions of non-sceptical philosophers to have discovered methods for determining the truth, either through direct observation or by inference from the observed to the unobserved. It is therefore a fine example of the Pyrrhonist sceptical method at work. It also provides a mine of information about the ideas of other Greek thinkers, ideas that are in many cases poorly preserved in other sources. This volume presents Against the Logicians in a new and accurate translation, together with a detailed introduction that sets the work in its philosophical context.

Against the Ethicists

Author: Sextus (Empiricus.)
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198250975
Release Date: 2000
Genre: Philosophy

This volume contains a translation into clear modern English of an unjustly neglected work by Sextus Empiricus, together with introduction and extensive commentary. Sextus is our main source for the doctrines and arguments of ancient Scepticism; in Against the Ethicists he sets out a distinctive Sceptic position in ethics.

Scepticism and Animal Faith

Author: George Santayana
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 9780486158327
Release Date: 2013-02-20
Genre: Philosophy

Detailed presentation of American philosopher's pragmatic concept of epistemology, isolation of realms of existents and subsistents. Chapters include "There is No First Principle of Criticism," "Dogma and Doubt," and "The Discovery of Essence."

The Toils of Scepticism

Author: Jonathan Barnes
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521043875
Release Date: 2007-10-15
Genre: Philosophy

The topic of this book is the major argument-forms of the Greek sceptic, Sextus Empiricus, who lived and wrote in the second century AD. The author gives a lucid explanation and analysis of these forms, both as historically important phenomena and as philosophically significant arguments.

The Demands of Reason

Author: Casey Perin
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199557905
Release Date: 2010-04-22
Genre: Philosophy

Casey Perin presents a new interpretation of key ideas and arguments in Sextus Empiricus' Outlines of Pyrrhonism, a founding text of the Sceptical tradition in philosophy. Perin examines Sextus' commitment to the search for truth and to certain principles of rationality, the scope of his scepticism, and its consequences for action and agency.


Author: Adrian Kuzminski
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 9780739131398
Release Date: 2008-06-19
Genre: Religion

Pyrrhonism is commonly confused with scepticism in Western philosophy. Unlike sceptics, who believe there are no true beliefs, Pyrrhonists suspend judgment about all beliefs, including the belief that there are no true beliefs. Pyrrhonism was developed by a line of ancient Greek philosophers, from its founder Pyrrho of Elis in the fourth century BCE through Sextus Empiricus in the second century CE. Pyrrhonists offer no view, theory, or knowledge about the world, but recommend instead a practice, a distinct way of life, designed to suspend beliefs and ease suffering. Adrian Kuzminski examines Pyrrhonism in terms of its striking similarity to some Eastern non-dogmatic soteriological traditions-particularly Madhyamaka Buddhism. He argues that its origin can plausibly be traced to the contacts between Pyrrho and the sages he encountered in India, where he traveled with Alexander the Great. Although Pyrrhonism has not been practiced in the West since ancient times, its insights have occasionally been independently recovered, most recently in the work of Ludwig Wittgenstein. Kuzminski shows that Pyrrhonism remains relevant perhaps more than ever as an antidote to today's cultures of belief.

The Sceptics

Author: R. J. Hankinson
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 0415184460
Release Date: 1998
Genre: Philosophy

The Sceptics is the first comprehensive, up-to-date treatment of Greek scepticism, from the beginnings of epistemology with Xenophanes, to the final full development of Pyrrhonism as presented in the work of Sextus Empiricus. Tracing the evolution of scepticism from 500 B.C to A.D 200, this clear and rigorous analysis presents the arguments of the Greek sceptics in their historical context and provides an in-depth study of the various strands of the sceptical tradition.

Outlines of Pyrrhonism

Author: Empiricus Sextus
Publisher: Loeb Classical Library
ISBN: 0674993012
Release Date: 1976-06
Genre: Biography & Autobiography

Sextus Empiricus (ca. 160–210 CE), exponent of scepticism and critic of the Dogmatists, was a Greek physician and philosopher, pupil and successor of the medical sceptic Herodotus (not the historian) of Tarsus. He probably lived for years in Rome and possibly also in Alexandria and Athens. His three surviving works are 'Outlines of Pyrrhonism' (three books on the practical and ethical scepticism of Pyrrho of Elis, ca. 360–275 BCE, as developed later, presenting also a case against the Dogmatists); 'Against the Dogmatists' (five books dealing with the Logicians, the Physicists, and the Ethicists); and 'Against the Professors' (six books: Grammarians, Rhetors, Geometers, Arithmeticians, Astrologers, and Musicians). These two latter works might be called a general criticism of professors of all arts and sciences. Sextus's work is a valuable source for the history of thought especially because of his development and formulation of former sceptic doctrines. The Loeb Classical Library edition of Sextus Empiricus is in four volumes.

Pyrrhonism in Ancient Modern and Contemporary Philosophy

Author: Diego E. Machuca
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400719914
Release Date: 2011-07-17
Genre: Philosophy

This is the first collection of original essays entirely devoted to a detailed study of the Pyrrhonian tradition. The twelve contributions collected in the present volume combine to offer a historical and systematic analysis of the form of skepticism known as “Pyrrhonism”. They discuss whether the Pyrrhonist is an ethically engaged agent, whether he can claim to search for truth, and other thorny questions concerning ancient Pyrrhonism; explore its influence on certain modern thinkers such as Pierre Bayle and David Hume; and examine Pyrrhonian skepticism in relation to contemporary analytic philosophy.

Pyrrhonian Reflections on Knowledge and Justification

Author: Robert J. Fogelin
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780195089875
Release Date: 1994
Genre: Philosophy

This work examines contemporary theories in knowledge and justification. It presents an analysis of ordinary knowledge claims, showing that they are philosophically unproblematical. It then asks whether theories of justification meet the challenges raised by Empiricus' "Outlines of Pyrrhonism."