Paleoecology

Author: David J. Bottjer
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118455814
Release Date: 2016-02-09
Genre: Science

Paleoecology is a discipline that uses evidence from fossils to provide an understanding of ancient environments and the ecological history of life through geological time. This text covers the fundamental approaches that have provided the foundation for present paleoecological understanding, and outlines new research areas in paleoecology for managing future environmental and ecological change. Topics include the use of actualism in paleoecology, development of paleoecological models for paleoenvironmental reconstruction, taphonomy and exceptional fossil preservation, evolutionary paleoecology and ecological change through time, and conservation paleoecology. Data from studies of invertebrates, vertebrates, plants and microfossils, with added emphasis on bioturbation and microbial sedimentary structures, are discussed. Examples from marine and terrestrial environments are covered, with a particular focus on periods of great ecological change, such as the Precambrian-Cambrian transition and intervals of mass extinction. Readership: This book is designed for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students in the earth and biological sciences, as well as researchers and applied scientists in a range of related disciplines.

Tropical Rainforests

Author: Eldredge Bermingham
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226044682
Release Date: 2005-08-01
Genre: Nature

Synthesizing theoretical and empirical analyses of the processes that help shape these unique ecosystems, Tropical Rainforests looks at the effects of evolutionary histories, past climate change, and ecological dynamics on the origin and maintenance of tropical rainforest communities. Featuring recent advances in paleoecology, climatology, geology, molecular systematics, biogeography, and community ecology, the volume also offers insights from those fields into how rainforests will endure the impact of anthropogenic change. With more than sixty contributors, Tropical Rainforests will be of great interest to students and professionals in tropical ecology and conservation.

Terrestrial Ecosystems Through Time

Author: Anna K. Behrensmeyer
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226041557
Release Date: 1992-08-15
Genre: Science

Breathtaking in scope, this is the first survey of the entire ecological history of life on land—from the earliest traces of terrestrial organisms over 400 million years ago to the beginning of human agriculture. By providing myriad insights into the unique ecological information contained in the fossil record, it establishes a new and ambitious basis for the study of evolutionary paleoecology of land ecosystems. A joint undertaking of the Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems Consortium at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, and twenty-six additional researchers, this book begins with four chapters that lay out the theoretical background and methodology of the science of evolutionary paleoecology. Included are a comprehensive review of the taphonomy and paleoenvironmental settings of fossil deposits as well as guidelines for developing ecological characterizations of extinct organisms and the communities in which they lived. The remaining three chapters treat the history of terrestrial ecosystems through geological time, emphasizing how ecological interactions have changed, the rate and tempo of ecosystem change, the role of exogenous "forcing factors" in generating ecological change, and the effect of ecological factors on the evolution of biological diversity. The six principal authors of this volume are all associated with the Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems program at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.

Palaeoecology

Author: Dr P J Brenchley
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0412434504
Release Date: 1998-12-18
Genre: Science

The first palaeoecology book to focus on evolutionary palaeoecology, in both marine and terrestrial environments. Discusses reconstruction of the past ecological world at population, community and biogeographic levels. A well-illustrated and substantial volume giving accessible coverage of the full range of subjects within palaeoecology. Reviews and summarises all the major mass extinctions.

Biodiversity Conservation and Environmental Change

Author: Lindsey Gillson
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780191022104
Release Date: 2015-04-09
Genre: Science

Ecosystems today are dynamic and complex, leaving conservationists faced with the paradox of conserving moving targets. New approaches to conservation are now required that aim to conserve ecological function and process, rather than attempt to protect static snapshots of biodiversity. To do this effectively, long-term information on ecosystem variability and resilience is needed. While there is a wealth of such information in palaeoecology, archaeology, and historical ecology, it remains an underused resource by conservation ecologists. In bringing together the disciplines of neo- and palaeoecology and integrating them with conservation biology, this novel text illustrates how an understanding of long-term change in ecosystems can in turn inform and influence their conservation and management in the Anthropocene. By looking at the history of traditional management, climate change, disturbance, and land-use, the book describes how a long-term perspective on landscape change can inform current and pressing conservation questions such as whether elephants should be culled, how best to manage fire, and whether ecosystems can or should be "re-wilded" Biodiversity Conservation and Environmental Change is suitable for senior undergraduate and post-graduate students in conservation ecology, palaeoecology, biodiversity conservation, landscape ecology, environmental change and natural resource management. It will also be of relevance and use to a global market of conservation practitioners, researchers, educators and policy-makers.

Mediterranean Cold Water Corals Past Present and Future

Author: Covadonga Orejas
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319916076
Release Date: 2018-08-19
Genre: Nature

What do we know about Mediterranean Cold (Deep)-Water coral ecosystems? In this book, specialists offer answers and insights with a series of chapters and short papers about the paleoecology, biology, physiology and ecology of the corals and other organisms that comprise these ecosystems. Structured on a temporal axis—Past, Present and Future—the reviews and selected study cases cover the cold and deep coral habitats known to date in the Mediterranean Basin. This book illustrates and explains the deep Mediterranean coral habitats that might have originated similar thriving ecosystems in today’s Atlantic Ocean.

Earth Environments

Author: David Huddart
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118688120
Release Date: 2013-04-16
Genre: Science

This book provides a comprehensive coverage of the major topics within undergraduate study programmes in geosciences, environmental science, physical geography, natural hazards and ecology. This text introduces students to the Earth's four key interdependent systems: the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere, focussing on their key components, interactions between them and environmental change. Topics covered include: An earth systems model; components systems and processes: atmospheric systems; oceanography, endogenic geological systems and exogenic geological systems, biogeography and, aspects of the Earth's Record. The impact of climate and environmental change is discussed in a final chapter which draws together Earth's systems and their evolution and looks ahead to future earth changes and environments and various time periods in the geological record. Throughout the book geological case studies are used in addition to the modern processes.

Stratigraphic Paleobiology

Author: Mark E. Patzkowsky
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226649375
Release Date: 2012-04-16
Genre: Science

Whether the fossil record should be read at face value or whether it presents a distorted view of the history of life is an argument seemingly as old as many fossils themselves. In the late 1700s, Georges Cuvier argued for a literal interpretation, but in the early 1800s, Charles Lyell’s gradualist view of the earth’s history required a more nuanced interpretation of that same record. To this day, the tension between literal and interpretive readings lies at the heart of paleontological research, influencing the way scientists view extinction patterns and their causes, ecosystem persistence and turnover, and the pattern of morphologic change and mode of speciation. With Stratigraphic Paleobiology, Mark E. Patzkowsky and Steven M. Holland present a critical framework for assessing the fossil record, one based on a modern understanding of the principles of sediment accumulation. Patzkowsky and Holland argue that the distribution of fossil taxa in time and space is controlled not only by processes of ecology, evolution, and environmental change, but also by the stratigraphic processes that govern where and when sediment that might contain fossils is deposited and preserved. The authors explore the exciting possibilities of stratigraphic paleobiology, and along the way demonstrate its great potential to answer some of the most critical questions about the history of life: How and why do environmental niches change over time? What is the tempo and mode of evolutionary change and what processes drive this change? How has the diversity of life changed through time, and what processes control this change? And, finally, what is the tempo and mode of change in ecosystems over time?

Issues and Concepts in Historical Ecology

Author: Carole L. Crumley
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781108420983
Release Date: 2017-10-31
Genre: Nature

This book presents a practical, holistic research framework to help us both understand our past and build an appealing human future.

Ecosystem Dynamics

Author: Richard H. W. Bradshaw
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118525197
Release Date: 2014-03-21
Genre: Nature

Ecosystem Dynamics focuses on long-term terrestrial ecosystems and their changing relationships with human societies. The unique aspect of this text is the long-time scale under consideration as data and insights from the last 10,000 years are used to place present-day ecosystem status into a temporal perspective and to test models that generate forecasts of future conditions. Descriptions and assessments of some of the current modelling tools that are used, along with their uncertainties and assumptions, are an important feature of this book. An overarching theme explores the dynamic interactions between human societies and ecosystem functioning and services. This book is authoritative but accessible and provides a useful background for all students, practitioners, and researchers interested in the subject.

Paleoecology

Author: J. Robert Dodd
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0471857114
Release Date: 1990-03-21
Genre: Science

Revised and updated, it reflects the recent developments and changing emphasis in the field of paleoecology. While the basic organization remains the same as the original edition, there are several major changes, including an extensive reorganization and shortening of Chapter 2, focusing now on environmental parameters rather than individual taxonomic groups; greater use of tables with references to pertinent literature; inclusion of a new chapter on taphonomy; elimination of the chapter on skeletons as sedimentary particles; removal of many of the recurring examples from the Neogene of the Kettlemen Hills; and inclusion of new references on all topics. Older references have been kept and will serve to blend the historical and important milestones in the development of paleoecology with the most current research.

Whooping Cranes Biology and Conservation

Author:
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780128035856
Release Date: 2018-09-04
Genre: Science

Whooping Cranes: Biology and Conservation covers one of the most endangered birds in North America, and the subject of intense research and highly visible conservation activity. The volume summarizes current biological information on Whooping Cranes and provides the basis for future research necessary for conservation of this species. This edited volume concentrates on work completed in the past 20 years in the areas of population biology, behavior and social structure, habitat use, disease and health, captive breeding, and Whooping Crane conservation. Much of the information presented comes from the study and management of remnant and reintroduced populations of Whooping Cranes in the field; some information is from experimentation and breeding of captive Whooping Cranes. Whooping Cranes: Biology and Conservation seeks to inform and galvanize action dedicated to meeting the challenges faced by Whooping Crane managers and conservationists. Thus, it describes one model of endangered species conservation and restoration that will interest a wide audience: professionals that work on cranes; researchers in the fields of small population biology, endangered species, and avian ecology; wildlife veterinarians and those involved in avian husbandry; administrators of management agencies or conservation organizations; conservationists in other fields; teachers of conservation biology or ornithology and their students; and the educated general public. Presents a comprehensive treatment of the biology and ecology of Whooping Cranes, including biology of both remnant and reintroduced populations of Whooping Cranes Describes efforts over the past 45 years on conservation and the challenges of reintroducing an endangered species Includes chapters from a variety of disciplinary and scale perspectives, ranging from evolution, to population ecology, behavior, habitat use, large landscape conservation, conflict, and conservation efforts Features contributions that are readable, yet technically complete and fully referenced Provides an example of partnership and collegial action that integrates information produced by scientific research and operational wildlife management Edited and written by the leading Whooping Crane scholars and practitioners focused on this high-profile species of conservation concern

Paleontology in Ecology and Conservation

Author: Julien Louys
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642250385
Release Date: 2012-04-25
Genre: Science

The fossil record contains unique long-term insights into how ecosystems form and function which cannot be determined simply by examining modern systems. It also provides a record of endangered species through time, which allow us to make conservation decisions based on thousands to millions of years of information. The aim of this book is to demonstrate how palaeontological data has been or could be incorporated into ecological or conservation scientific studies. This book will be written by palaeontologists for modern ecologists and conservation scientists. Manuscripts will fall into one (or a combination) of four broad categories: case studies, review articles, practical considerations and future directions. This book will serve as both a ‘how to guide’ and provide the current state of knowledge for this type of research. It will highlight the unique and critical insights that can be gained by the inclusion of palaeontological data into modern ecological or conservation studies.

Climate Variability and Change in High Elevation Regions Past Present Future

Author: Henry F. Diaz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401512527
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

Glaciers in the Andes are particularly important natural archives of present and past climatic and environmental changes, in significant part because of the N-S trend of this topographic barrier and its influence on the atmospheric circulation of the southern hemisphere. Strong gradients in the seasonality and amount of precipitation exist between the equator and 30° S. Large differences in amount east and west of the Andean divide also occur, as well as a change from tropical summer precipitation (additionally modified by the seasonal shift of the circulation belts) to winter precipitation in the west wind belt (e. g. , Yuille, 1999; Garraud and Aceituno, 2001). The so-called 'dry axis' lies between the tropical and extra tropical precipitation regimes (Figure 1). The high mountain desert within this axis responds most sensitively to the smallest changes in effective moisture. An important hydro-meteorological feature on a seasonal to inter-annual time-scale is the occurrence of EN SO events, which strongly control the mass balance of glaciers in this area (e. g. , Wagnon et ai. , 2001; Francou et ai. , in press). The precipitation pattern is an important factor for the interpretation of climatic and environmental records extracted from ice cores, because much of this information is related to conditions at the actual time of precipitation, and this is especially so for stable isotope records. Several ice cores have recently been drilled to bedrock in this area. From Huascanin (Thompson et ai. , 1995), Sajama (Thompson et ai.

Biodiversity Conservation and Environmental Change

Author: Lindsey Gillson
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780191022104
Release Date: 2015-04-09
Genre: Science

Ecosystems today are dynamic and complex, leaving conservationists faced with the paradox of conserving moving targets. New approaches to conservation are now required that aim to conserve ecological function and process, rather than attempt to protect static snapshots of biodiversity. To do this effectively, long-term information on ecosystem variability and resilience is needed. While there is a wealth of such information in palaeoecology, archaeology, and historical ecology, it remains an underused resource by conservation ecologists. In bringing together the disciplines of neo- and palaeoecology and integrating them with conservation biology, this novel text illustrates how an understanding of long-term change in ecosystems can in turn inform and influence their conservation and management in the Anthropocene. By looking at the history of traditional management, climate change, disturbance, and land-use, the book describes how a long-term perspective on landscape change can inform current and pressing conservation questions such as whether elephants should be culled, how best to manage fire, and whether ecosystems can or should be "re-wilded" Biodiversity Conservation and Environmental Change is suitable for senior undergraduate and post-graduate students in conservation ecology, palaeoecology, biodiversity conservation, landscape ecology, environmental change and natural resource management. It will also be of relevance and use to a global market of conservation practitioners, researchers, educators and policy-makers.