Particles and Fundamental Interactions

Author: Sylvie Braibant
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400724648
Release Date: 2011-11-16
Genre: Science

The book provides theoretical and phenomenological insights on the structure of matter, presenting concepts and features of elementary particle physics and fundamental aspects of nuclear physics. Starting with the basics (nomenclature, classification, acceleration techniques, detection of elementary particles), the properties of fundamental interactions (electromagnetic, weak and strong) are introduced with a mathematical formalism suited to undergraduate students. Some experimental results (the discovery of neutral currents and of the W± and Z0 bosons; the quark structure observed using deep inelastic scattering experiments) show the necessity of an evolution of the formalism. This motivates a more detailed description of the weak and strong interactions, of the Standard Model of the microcosm with its experimental tests, and of the Higgs mechanism. The open problems in the Standard Model of the microcosm and macrocosm are presented at the end of the book.

Introduction to Particle and Astroparticle Physics

Author: Alessandro De Angelis
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9788847026889
Release Date: 2015-09-05
Genre: Science

This book, written by researchers who had been professionals in accelerator physics before becoming leaders of groups in astroparticle physics, introduces both fields in a balanced and elementary way, requiring only a basic knowledge of quantum mechanics on the part of the reader. The new profile of scientists in fundamental physics ideally involves the merging of knowledge in astroparticle and particle physics, but the duration of modern experiments is such that people cannot simultaneously be practitioners in both. Introduction to Particle and Astroparticle Physics is designed to bridge the gap between the fields. It can be used as a self-training book, a consultation book, or a textbook providing a “modern” approach to particles and fundamental interactions.

From Atoms to Higgs Bosons

Author: Chary Rangacharyulu
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780429648397
Release Date: 2019-06-18
Genre: Science

The announcement in 2012 that the Higgs boson had been discovered was understood as a watershed moment for the Standard Model of particle physics. It was deemed a triumphant event in the reductionist quest that had begun centuries ago with the ancient Greek natural philosophers. Physicists basked in the satisfaction of explaining to the world that the ultimate cause of mass in our universe had been unveiled at CERN, Switzerland. The Standard Model of particle physics is now understood by many to have arrived at a satisfactory description of entities and interactions on the smallest physical scales: elementary quarks, leptons, and intermediary gauge bosons residing within a four-dimensional spacetime continuum. Throughout the historical journey of reductionist physics, mathematics has played an increasingly dominant role. Indeed, abstract mathematics has now become indispensable in guiding our discovery of the physical world. Elementary particles are endowed with abstract existence in accordance with their appearance in complicated equations. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, originally intended to estimate practical measurement uncertainties, now bequeaths a numerical fuzziness to the structure of reality. Particle physicists have borrowed effective mathematical tools originally invented and employed by condensed matter physicists to approximate the complex structures and dynamics of solids and liquids and bestowed on them the authority to define basic physical reality. The discovery of the Higgs boson was a result of these kinds of strategies, used by particle physicists to take the latest steps on the reductionist quest. This book offers a constructive critique of the modern orthodoxy into which all aspiring young physicists are now trained, that the ever-evolving mathematical models of modern physics are leading us toward a truer understanding of the real physical world. The authors propose that among modern physicists, physical realism has been largely replaced—in actual practice—by quasirealism, a problematic philosophical approach that interprets the statements of abstract, effective mathematical models as providing direct information about reality. History may judge that physics in the twentieth century, despite its seeming successes, involved a profound deviation from the historical reductionist voyage to fathom the mysteries of the physical universe.

Particles and Fundamental Interactions Supplements Problems and Solutions

Author: Sylvie Braibant
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400741355
Release Date: 2012-04-17
Genre: Science

This volume is an exercises and solutions manual that complements the book "Particles and Fundamental Interactions" by Sylvie Braibant, Giorgio Giacomelli, and Maurizio Spurio. It aims to give additional intellectual stimulation for students in experimental particle physics. It will be a helpful companion in the preparation of a written examination, but also it provides a means to gaining a deeper understanding of high energy physics. The problems proposed are sometimes true and important research questions, which are described and solved in a step-by-step manner. In addition to the problems and solutions, this book offers fifteen Supplements that give further insight into topical subjects related to particle accelerators, signal and data acquisition systems and computational methods to treat them.

From the Universe to the Elementary Particles

Author: Ulrich Ellwanger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642243752
Release Date: 2012-01-05
Genre: Science

In this book, the author leads the reader, step by step and without any advanced mathematics, to a clear understanding of the foundations of modern elementary particle physics and cosmology. He also addresses current and controversial questions on topics such as string theory. The book contains gentle introductions to the theories of special and general relativity, and also classical and quantum field theory. The essential aspects of these concepts are understood with the help of simple calculations; for example, the force of gravity as a consequence of the curvature of the space-time. Also treated are the Big Bang, dark matter and dark energy, as well as the presently known interactions of elementary particles: electrodynamics, the strong and the weak interactions including the Higgs boson. Finally, the book sketches as yet speculative theories: Grand Unification theories, supersymmetry, string theory and the idea of additional dimensions of space-time. Since no higher mathematical or physics expertise is required, the book is also suitable for college and university students at the beginning of their studies. Hobby astronomers and other science enthusiasts seeking a deeper insight than can be found in popular treatments will also appreciate this unique book.

An Introduction to Relativistic Processes and the Standard Model of Electroweak Interactions

Author: Carlo M. Becchi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319061306
Release Date: 2014-05-19
Genre: Science

This book offers a self-contained introduction to the theory of electroweak interactions based on the semi-classical approach to relativistic quantum field theory, with thorough discussion of key aspects of the field. The basic tools for the calculation of cross sections and decay rates in the context of relativistic quantum field theory are reviewed in a short, but complete and rigorous, presentation. Special attention is focused on relativistic scattering theory and on calculation of amplitude in the semi-classical approximation. The central part of the book is devoted to an illustration of the unified field theory of electromagnetic and weak interactions as a quantum field theory with spontaneously broken gauge invariance; particular emphasis is placed on experimental confirmations of the theory. The closing chapters address the most recent developments in electroweak phenomenology and provide an introduction to the theory and phenomenology of neutrino oscillations. In this 2nd edition the discussion of relativistic scattering processes in the semi-classical approximation has been revised and as a result intermediate results are now explicitly proven. Furthermore, the recent discovery of the Higgs boson is now taken into account throughout the book. In particular, the Higgs decay channel into a pair of photons, which has played a crucial role in the discovery, is discussed. As in the first edition, the accent is still on the semi-classical approximation. However, in view of the necessity of a discussion of H !, the authors give several indications about corrections to the semiclassical approximation. Violation of unitarity is discussed in more detail, including the dispersion relations as a tool for computing loop corrections; the above-mentioned Higgs decay channel is illustrated by means of a full one-loop calculation; and finally, loop effects on the production of unstable particles (such as the Z0 boson) are now discussed. Finally, the neutrino mass and oscillation analysis is updated taking into account the major achievements of the last years.

Quarks and leptons

Author: Francis Halzen
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Inc
ISBN: UOM:39015026893043
Release Date: 1984-01-06
Genre: Science

This self-contained text describes breakthroughs in our understanding of the structure and interactions of elementary particles. It provides students of theoretical or experimental physics with the background material to grasp the significance of these developments.

An Introduction to Nuclear Physics

Author: W. N. Cottingham
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521657334
Release Date: 2001-02-22
Genre: Science

A clear and concise introduction to nuclear physics suitable for a core undergraduate physics course.

Particles and Nuclei

Author: Bogdan Povh
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783662463215
Release Date: 2015-06-15
Genre: Science

This well-known introductory textbook gives a uniform presentation of nuclear and particle physics from an experimental point of view. The first part, Analysis, is devoted to disentangling the substructure of matter. This part shows that experiments designed to uncover the substructures of nuclei and nucleons have a similar conceptual basis, and lead to the present picture of all matter being constructed from a small number of elementary building blocks and a small number of fundamental interactions. The second part, Synthesis, shows how the elementary particles may be combined to build hadrons and nuclei. The fundamental interactions, which are responsible for the forces in all systems, become less and less evident in increasingly complex systems. Such systems are in fact dominated by many-body phenomena. A section on neutrino oscillations and one on nuclear matter at high temperatures bridge the field of "nuclear and particle physics" and "modem astrophysics and cosmology. The seventh revised and extended edition includes new material, in particular the experimental verification of the Higgs particle at the LHC, recent results in neutrino physics, the violation of CP-symmetry in the decay of neutral B-mesons, the experimental investigations of the nucleon's spin structure and outstanding results of the HERA experiments in deep-inelastic electron- and positron-proton scattering. The concise text is based on lectures held at the University of Heidelberg and includes numerous exercises with worked answers. It has been translated into several languages and has become a standard reference for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses.

Unification of Fundamental Forces

Author: Abdus Salam
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521020786
Release Date: 2005-10-06
Genre: Science

Paul Adrian Maurice Dirac, one of the greatest physicists of the twentieth century, died in 1984. His college, St John's College, Cambridge, generously endowed annual lectures to be held at Cambridge University in his memory. This 1990 volume includes an expanded version of the third Dirac Memorial Lecture presented by Abdus Salam.

Fundamentals of Quantum Physics

Author: Pedro Pereyra
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642293788
Release Date: 2012-11-28
Genre: Science

This book presents a comprehensive course of quantum mechanics for undergraduate and graduate students. After a brief outline of the innovative ideas that lead up to the quantum theory, the book reviews properties of the Schrödinger equation, the quantization phenomena and the physical meaning of wave functions. The book discusses, in a direct and intelligible style, topics of the standard quantum formalism like the dynamical operators and their expected values, the Heisenberg and matrix representation, the approximate methods, the Dirac notation, harmonic oscillator, angular momentum and hydrogen atom, the spin-field and spin-orbit interactions, identical particles and Bose-Einstein condensation etc. Special emphasis is devoted to study the tunneling phenomena, transmission coefficients, phase coherence, energy levels splitting and related phenomena, of interest for quantum devices and heterostructures. The discussion of these problems and the WKB approximation is done using the transfer matrix method, introduced at a tutorial level. This book is a textbook for upper undergraduate physics and electronic engineering students.

Introduction to the Physics of Matter

Author: Nicola Manini
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319143828
Release Date: 2015-01-14
Genre: Science

This book offers an up-to-date, compact presentation of basic topics in the physics of matter, from atoms to molecules to solids, including elements of statistical mechanics. The adiabatic separation of the motion of electrons and nuclei in matter and its spectroscopic implications are outlined for molecules and recalled regularly in the study of the dynamics of gases and solids. Numerous experiments are described and more than 160 figures give a clear visual impression of the main concepts. Sufficient detail of mathematical derivations is provided to enable students to follow easily. The focus is on present-day understanding and especially on phenomena fitting various independent-particle models. The historical development of this understanding, and phenomena such as magnetism and superconductivity, where interparticle interactions and nonadiabatic effects play a crucial role, are mostly omitted. A final outlook section stimulates the curiosity of the reader to pursue the study of such advanced topics in graduate courses.

Theoretical Physics to Face the Challenge of LHC

Author: Laurent Baulieu
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780198727965
Release Date: 2015-01-22
Genre: Science

The book gathers the lecture notes of the Les Houches Summer School that was held in August 2011 for an audience of advanced graduate students and post-doctoral fellows in particle physics, theoretical physics, and cosmology, areas where new experimental results were on the verge of being discovered at CERN. The lectures by theoreticians covered many directions in the theory of elementary particles, from classics such as the Supersymmetric Standard Model to veryrecent ideas such as the relation between black holes, hydrodynamics, and gauge-gravity duality. The lectures by experimentalists explained in detail how intensively and how precisely the LHC colliderhas verified the theoretical predictions of the Standard Model, predictions that were at the front lines of experimental discovery during the 70's, 80's and 90's, and how the LHC is ready to make new discoveries. They described many of the ingenious and pioneering techniques developed at CERN for the detection and the data analysis of billions of billions of proton-proton collisions.