Particles and Fundamental Interactions

Author: Sylvie Braibant
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400724648
Release Date: 2011-11-16
Genre: Science

The book provides theoretical and phenomenological insights on the structure of matter, presenting concepts and features of elementary particle physics and fundamental aspects of nuclear physics. Starting with the basics (nomenclature, classification, acceleration techniques, detection of elementary particles), the properties of fundamental interactions (electromagnetic, weak and strong) are introduced with a mathematical formalism suited to undergraduate students. Some experimental results (the discovery of neutral currents and of the W± and Z0 bosons; the quark structure observed using deep inelastic scattering experiments) show the necessity of an evolution of the formalism. This motivates a more detailed description of the weak and strong interactions, of the Standard Model of the microcosm with its experimental tests, and of the Higgs mechanism. The open problems in the Standard Model of the microcosm and macrocosm are presented at the end of the book.

From the Universe to the Elementary Particles

Author: Ulrich Ellwanger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642243752
Release Date: 2012-01-05
Genre: Science

In this book, the author leads the reader, step by step and without any advanced mathematics, to a clear understanding of the foundations of modern elementary particle physics and cosmology. He also addresses current and controversial questions on topics such as string theory. The book contains gentle introductions to the theories of special and general relativity, and also classical and quantum field theory. The essential aspects of these concepts are understood with the help of simple calculations; for example, the force of gravity as a consequence of the curvature of the space-time. Also treated are the Big Bang, dark matter and dark energy, as well as the presently known interactions of elementary particles: electrodynamics, the strong and the weak interactions including the Higgs boson. Finally, the book sketches as yet speculative theories: Grand Unification theories, supersymmetry, string theory and the idea of additional dimensions of space-time. Since no higher mathematical or physics expertise is required, the book is also suitable for college and university students at the beginning of their studies. Hobby astronomers and other science enthusiasts seeking a deeper insight than can be found in popular treatments will also appreciate this unique book.

Particles and Fundamental Interactions Supplements Problems and Solutions

Author: Sylvie Braibant
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400741355
Release Date: 2012-04-17
Genre: Science

This volume is an exercises and solutions manual that complements the book "Particles and Fundamental Interactions" by Sylvie Braibant, Giorgio Giacomelli, and Maurizio Spurio. It aims to give additional intellectual stimulation for students in experimental particle physics. It will be a helpful companion in the preparation of a written examination, but also it provides a means to gaining a deeper understanding of high energy physics. The problems proposed are sometimes true and important research questions, which are described and solved in a step-by-step manner. In addition to the problems and solutions, this book offers fifteen Supplements that give further insight into topical subjects related to particle accelerators, signal and data acquisition systems and computational methods to treat them.

Elementare Teilchen

Author: Jörn Bleck-Neuhaus
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 9783642325793
Release Date: 2012-11-15
Genre: Science

Der aktuelle Wissensstand der Kern- und Elementarteilchenphysik hat eine wechselvolle Entstehungsgeschichte, oft gekennzeichnet durch schockierend neue Begriffsbildungen, die sich bis heute auch den Physik-Studierenden nur unter Mühen erschließen. Dieses Buch nutzt die kontroversen und zugleich lehrreichen Entwicklungsprozesse selber für den Zugang zu den schwierigen neuen Konzepten. Es macht verständlich, wie das physikalische Bild von den kleinsten Teilchen heute aussieht und warum es so und nicht anders entstanden ist: vom Nachweis der Existenz der Atome bis zum derzeitigen Standard-Modell der Elementarteilchenphysik, in einem ständigen Wechselspiel zwischen etablierten theoretischen Modellen, bestätigenden oder widersprechenden experimentellen Befunden, zuweilen umstrittenen neuen Begriffsbildungen, verbesserten Experimenten usw. - ein Prozess, der sicher auch künftig weiter geht. Leitschnur der Darstellung ist eine auch im Detail möglichst nachvollziehbare Argumentation. Physik-Studierende vor ihrem B.Sc.-Abschluss werden sich Kenntnisse über die subatomare Physik aneignen können, die zum Allgemeinwissen ihres Fachs zählen. Auch für Physik-Lehrende an Schulen oder Hochschulen dürfte diese neue Darstellung interessant sein. Die neue Auflage wurde auf den neuesten Wissenstand gebracht, insbesondere erste Ergebnisse vom LHC sind eingeflossen.

Introduction to Particle and Astroparticle Physics

Author: Alessandro De Angelis
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9788847026889
Release Date: 2015-09-05
Genre: Science

This book, written by researchers who had been professionals in accelerator physics before becoming leaders of groups in astroparticle physics, introduces both fields in a balanced and elementary way, requiring only a basic knowledge of quantum mechanics on the part of the reader. The new profile of scientists in fundamental physics ideally involves the merging of knowledge in astroparticle and particle physics, but the duration of modern experiments is such that people cannot simultaneously be practitioners in both. Introduction to Particle and Astroparticle Physics is designed to bridge the gap between the fields. It can be used as a self-training book, a consultation book, or a textbook providing a “modern” approach to particles and fundamental interactions.

Vom Universum zu den Elementarteilchen

Author: Ulrich Ellwanger
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 9783642157998
Release Date: 2010-12-01
Genre: Science

In dem Buch werden die größten Rätsel der Physik verständlich dargestellt – von den Grundlagen der modernen Elementarteilchenphysik und Kosmologie bis zur Stringtheorie und aktuellen Forschungsfragen. Enthalten sind Einführungen in die spezielle und allgemeine Relativitätstheorie, die klassische und Quanten-Feldtheorie, wesentliche Aspekte werden anhand einfacher Berechnungen verständlich gemacht. Dafür werden keine höheren Mathematik- oder Physik-Kenntnisse vorausgesetzt. Das Buch ist auch für Abiturienten und Studienanfänger geeignet.

Einf hrung in die Elementarteilchenphysik

Author: David Griffiths
Publisher: VCH
ISBN: 3055016270
Release Date: 1996
Genre:

The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and globalization have forced national history to yield place to European and global history. In medieval studies, Michael Borgolte has taken up the new challenge as no other German historian, encouraging the development of transcultural research on the Middle Ages. This volume includes several of his essays, but is intended to serve more as the basis for further research rather than to take stock of his work.

An Introduction to Relativistic Processes and the Standard Model of Electroweak Interactions

Author: Carlo M. Becchi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319061306
Release Date: 2014-05-19
Genre: Science

This book offers a self-contained introduction to the theory of electroweak interactions based on the semi-classical approach to relativistic quantum field theory, with thorough discussion of key aspects of the field. The basic tools for the calculation of cross sections and decay rates in the context of relativistic quantum field theory are reviewed in a short, but complete and rigorous, presentation. Special attention is focused on relativistic scattering theory and on calculation of amplitude in the semi-classical approximation. The central part of the book is devoted to an illustration of the unified field theory of electromagnetic and weak interactions as a quantum field theory with spontaneously broken gauge invariance; particular emphasis is placed on experimental confirmations of the theory. The closing chapters address the most recent developments in electroweak phenomenology and provide an introduction to the theory and phenomenology of neutrino oscillations. In this 2nd edition the discussion of relativistic scattering processes in the semi-classical approximation has been revised and as a result intermediate results are now explicitly proven. Furthermore, the recent discovery of the Higgs boson is now taken into account throughout the book. In particular, the Higgs decay channel into a pair of photons, which has played a crucial role in the discovery, is discussed. As in the first edition, the accent is still on the semi-classical approximation. However, in view of the necessity of a discussion of H !, the authors give several indications about corrections to the semiclassical approximation. Violation of unitarity is discussed in more detail, including the dispersion relations as a tool for computing loop corrections; the above-mentioned Higgs decay channel is illustrated by means of a full one-loop calculation; and finally, loop effects on the production of unstable particles (such as the Z0 boson) are now discussed. Finally, the neutrino mass and oscillation analysis is updated taking into account the major achievements of the last years.

Teilchen und Kerne

Author: Bogdan Povh
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 9783540350873
Release Date: 2006-07-21
Genre: Science

Die Grundidee dieses einführenden Lehrbuchs besteht darin, eine einheitliche Darstellung von Kern- und Teilchenphysik aus experimenteller Sicht zu geben. Die Reduktion der komplex aufgebauten Materie der Atomkerne und Nukleonen auf wenige Grundbausteine und Wechselwirkungen ist die erste Botschaft dieses Buchs. Der zweite Teil, der den Aufbau von Nukleonen und Kernen aus diesen Grundbausteinen beschreibt, macht deutlich, dass Komplexität, die aus der Vielkörperwechselwirkung entsteht, in immer größerem Maß die Gesetzmäßigkeiten der zusammengesetzten Systeme bestimmt. Behandelt wird die Kernmaterie bei hohen Temperaturen und die Rolle von Kern- und Teilchenphysik bei astrophysikalischen Vorgängen. Die neue Auflage bietet stark überarbeitete Übungsaufgaben und eine ganze Reihe von Ergänzungen und Verbesserungen, besonders in der Neutrinophysik und beim doppelten Betazerfall. Das in straffem und klarem Stil abgefasste Lehrbuch eignet sich gut als Begleittext zu den einführenden Vorlesungen an Hochschulen.

Introduction to the Physics of Matter

Author: Nicola Manini
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319143828
Release Date: 2015-01-14
Genre: Science

This book offers an up-to-date, compact presentation of basic topics in the physics of matter, from atoms to molecules to solids, including elements of statistical mechanics. The adiabatic separation of the motion of electrons and nuclei in matter and its spectroscopic implications are outlined for molecules and recalled regularly in the study of the dynamics of gases and solids. Numerous experiments are described and more than 160 figures give a clear visual impression of the main concepts. Sufficient detail of mathematical derivations is provided to enable students to follow easily. The focus is on present-day understanding and especially on phenomena fitting various independent-particle models. The historical development of this understanding, and phenomena such as magnetism and superconductivity, where interparticle interactions and nonadiabatic effects play a crucial role, are mostly omitted. A final outlook section stimulates the curiosity of the reader to pursue the study of such advanced topics in graduate courses.

Fundamentals of Quantum Physics

Author: Pedro Pereyra
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642293788
Release Date: 2012-11-28
Genre: Science

This book presents a comprehensive course of quantum mechanics for undergraduate and graduate students. After a brief outline of the innovative ideas that lead up to the quantum theory, the book reviews properties of the Schrödinger equation, the quantization phenomena and the physical meaning of wave functions. The book discusses, in a direct and intelligible style, topics of the standard quantum formalism like the dynamical operators and their expected values, the Heisenberg and matrix representation, the approximate methods, the Dirac notation, harmonic oscillator, angular momentum and hydrogen atom, the spin-field and spin-orbit interactions, identical particles and Bose-Einstein condensation etc. Special emphasis is devoted to study the tunneling phenomena, transmission coefficients, phase coherence, energy levels splitting and related phenomena, of interest for quantum devices and heterostructures. The discussion of these problems and the WKB approximation is done using the transfer matrix method, introduced at a tutorial level. This book is a textbook for upper undergraduate physics and electronic engineering students.

Jenseits der Nanowelt

Author: Hans Günter Dosch
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 9783540266730
Release Date: 2005-12-05
Genre: Science

Dies ist eine hervorragende Einführung in die Teilchenphysik und ebenso ein Repetitorium für Studenten im Prüfungssemester und für Lehrer an Gymnasien. Der Autor, der als Forscher wesentliche Entwicklungen der Teilchenphysik begleitet hat und der als herausragender Lehrer gilt, wählt die Geschichte der Teilchenphysik als roten Faden. Die Begriffe und die Theorien werden in großer Klarheit präsentiert, und die Experimente werden herangezogen, um Erfolg und Misserfolg auf dem Weg zum Standardmodell zu illustrieren. Der mathematische Apparat wird klein gehalten, so dass das Buch auch den interessierten Laien in seinen Bann ziehen wird.

Dunkle Materie und Dinosaurier

Author: Lisa Randall
Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag
ISBN: 9783104030258
Release Date: 2016-06-23
Genre: Science

Die Natur der Dunklen Materie gehört zu den spannendsten Fragen der Kosmologie. Die Bestseller-Autorin und Harvard-Professorin Lisa Randall nimmt uns in ihrem neuen Buch ›Dunkle Materie und Dinosaurier. Die erstaunlichen Zusammenhänge des Universums‹ mit auf eine Reise in die Welt der Physik und hilft uns zu verstehen, welche Rolle die Dunkle Materie bei der Entstehung unserer Galaxie, unseres Sonnensystems und sogar des Lebens selbst gespielt hat. Eindrucksvoll zeigt sie, wie die Wissenschaft neue Konzepte und Erklärungen für dieses weithin unbekannte Phänomen entwickelt und verwebt geschickt die Geschichte des Kosmos mit unserer eigenen. Ein Buch, das ein völlig neues Licht auf die tiefen Verbindungen wirft, die unsere Welt so maßgeblich mitgeprägt haben, und uns die außerordentliche Schönheit zeigt, die selbst den alltäglichsten Dingen innewohnt.

Quantum Mechanics for Pedestrians 1 Fundamentals

Author: Jochen Pade
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783319007984
Release Date: 2013-11-08
Genre: Science

This book provides an introduction into the fundamentals of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. In Part 1, the essential principles are developed. Applications and extensions of the formalism can be found in Part 2. The book includes not only material that is presented in traditional textbooks on quantum mechanics, but also discusses in detail current issues such as interaction-free quantum measurements, neutrino oscillations, various topics in the field of quantum information as well as fundamental problems and epistemological questions, such as the measurement problem, entanglement, Bell's inequality, decoherence, and the realism debate. A chapter on current interpretations of quantum mechanics concludes the book. To develop quickly and clearly the main principles of quantum mechanics and its mathematical formulation, there is a systematic change between wave mechanics and algebraic representation in the first chapters. The required mathematical tools are introduced step by step. Moreover, the appendix collects compactly the most important mathematical tools that supplementary literature can be largely dispensed. In addition, the appendix contains advanced topics, such as Quantum- Zeno effect, time-delay experiments, Lenz vector and the Shor algorithm. About 250 exercises, most of them with solutions, help to deepen the understanding of the topics.