Philosophical Concepts in Physics

Author: James T. Cushing
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 052157823X
Release Date: 1998-01-29
Genre: Science

This book examines a selection of philosophical issues in the context of specific episodes in the development of physical theories and presents scientific advances within their historical and philosophical contexts. Philosophical considerations have played an essential and ineliminable role in the actual practice of science. The book begins with some necessary introduction to the history of ancient and early modern science, but emphasizes the two great watersheds of twentieth-century physics: relativity and quantum mechanics. At times the term "construction" may seem more appropriate than "discovery" for the way theories have developed and, especially in later chapters, the discussion focuses on the influence of historical, philosophical and even social factors on the form and content of scientific theories.

Chemistry Education and Contributions from History and Philosophy of Science

Author: Mansoor Niaz
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319262482
Release Date: 2015-12-23
Genre: Science

This book explores the relationship between the content of chemistry education and the history and philosophy of science (HPS) framework that underlies such education. It discusses the need to present an image that reflects how chemistry developed and progresses. It proposes that chemistry should be taught the way it is practiced by chemists: as a human enterprise, at the interface of scientific practice and HPS. Finally, it sets out to convince teachers to go beyond the traditional classroom practice and explore new teaching strategies. The importance of HPS has been recognized for the science curriculum since the middle of the 20th century. The need for teaching chemistry within a historical context is not difficult to understand as HPS is not far below the surface in any science classroom. A review of the literature shows that the traditional chemistry classroom, curricula, and textbooks while dealing with concepts such as law, theory, model, explanation, hypothesis, observation, evidence and idealization, generally ignore elements of the history and philosophy of science. This book proposes that the conceptual understanding of chemistry requires knowledge and understanding of the history and philosophy of science. “Professor Niaz’s book is most welcome, coming at a time when there is an urgently felt need to upgrade the teaching of science. The book is a huge aid for adding to the usual way - presenting science as a series of mere facts - also the necessary mandate: to show how science is done, and how science, through its history and philosophy, is part of the cultural development of humanity.” Gerald Holton, Mallinckrodt Professor of Physics & Professor of History of Science, Harvard University “In this stimulating and sophisticated blend of history of chemistry, philosophy of science, and science pedagogy, Professor Mansoor Niaz has succeeded in offering a promising new approach to the teaching of fundamental ideas in chemistry. Historians and philosophers of chemistry --- and above all, chemistry teachers --- will find this book full of valuable and highly usable new ideas” Alan Rocke, Case Western Reserve University “This book artfully connects chemistry and chemistry education to the human context in which chemical science is practiced and the historical and philosophical background that illuminates that practice. Mansoor Niaz deftly weaves together historical episodes in the quest for scientific knowledge with the psychology of learning and philosophical reflections on the nature of scientific knowledge and method. The result is a compelling case for historically and philosophically informed science education. Highly recommended!” Harvey Siegel, University of Miami “Books that analyze the philosophy and history of science in Chemistry are quite rare. ‘Chemistry Education and Contributions from History and Philosophy of Science’ by Mansoor Niaz is one of the rare books on the history and philosophy of chemistry and their importance in teaching this science. The book goes through all the main concepts of chemistry, and analyzes the historical and philosophical developments as well as their reflections in textbooks. Closest to my heart is Chapter 6, which is devoted to the chemical bond, the glue that holds together all matter in our earth. The chapter emphasizes the revolutionary impact of the concept of the ‘covalent bond’ on the chemical community and the great novelty of the idea that was conceived 11 years before quantum mechanics was able to offer the mechanism of electron pairing and covalent bonding. The author goes then to describe the emergence of two rival theories that explained the nature of the chemical bond in terms of quantum mechanics; these are valence bond (VB) and molecular orbital (MO) theories. He emphasizes the importance of having rival theories and interpretations in science and its advancement. He further argues that this VB-MO rivalry is still alive and together the two conceptual frames serve as the tool kit for thinking and doing chemistry in creative manners. The author surveys chemistry textbooks in the light of the how the books preserve or not the balance between the two theories in describing various chemical phenomena. This Talmudic approach of conceptual tension is a universal characteristic of any branch of evolving wisdom. As such, Mansoor’s book would be of great utility for chemistry teachers to examine how can they become more effective teachers by recognizing the importance of conceptual tension”. Sason Shaik Saeree K. and Louis P. Fiedler Chair in Chemistry Director, The Lise Meitner-Minerva Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, ISRAEL

Philosophies of the Sciences

Author: Fritz Allhoff
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781119144816
Release Date: 2015-12-02
Genre: Science

A collection of essays discussing a wide range of sciences and the central philosophical issues associated with them, presenting the sciences collectively to encourage a greater understanding of their associative theoretical foundations, as well as their relationships to each other. Offers a new and unique approach to studying and comparing the philosophies of a variety of scientific disciplines Explores a wide variety of individual sciences, including mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, psychology, sociology and economics The essays are written by leading scholars in a highly accessible style for the student audience Complements more traditional studies of philosophy of science

The Ashgate Companion to Contemporary Philosophy of Physics

Author: Dean Rickles
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781317044314
Release Date: 2016-11-25
Genre: Philosophy

Introducing the reader to the very latest developments in the philosophical foundations of physics, this book covers advanced material at a level suitable for beginner and intermediate students. A detailed overview is provided of the central debates in the philosophy of quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, quantum computation, and quantum gravity. Each chapter consists of a 'state of the art' review written by a specialist in the field and introduces the reader to the relevant formal aspects along with the philosophical implications. These, and the various interpretive options, are developed in a self-contained, clear, and concise manner. Special care is given to situating the reader within the contemporary debates by providing numerous references and readings. This book thus enables both philosophers and physicists to engage with the most pressing problems in contemporary philosophy of physics in a fruitful way.

The Quantum Vacuum

Author: Luciano Boi
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 9781421402475
Release Date: 2011-10-28
Genre: Science

A vacuum, classically understood, contains nothing. The quantum vacuum, on the other hand, is a seething cauldron of nothingness: particle pairs going in and out of existence continuously and rapidly while exerting influence over an enormous range of scales. Acclaimed mathematical physicist and natural philosopher Luciano Boi expounds the quantum vacuum, exploring the meaning of nothingness and its relationship with physical reality. Boi first provides a deep analysis of the interaction between geometry and physics at the quantum level. He next describes the relationship between the microscopic and macroscopic structures of the world. In so doing, Boi sheds light on the very nature of the universe, stressing in an original and profound way the relationship between quantum geometry and the internal symmetries underlying the behavior of matter and the interactions of forces. Beyond the physics and mathematics of the quantum vacuum, Boi offers a profoundly philosophical interpretation of the concept. Plato and Aristotle did not believe a vacuum was possible. How could nothing be something, they asked? Boi traces the evolution of the quantum vacuum from an abstract concept in ancient Greece to its fundamental role in quantum field theory and string theory in modern times. The quantum vacuum is a complex entity, one essential to understanding some of the most intriguing issues in twentieth-century physics, including cosmic singularity, dark matter and energy, and the existence of the Higgs boson particle. Boi explains with simple clarity the relevant theories and fundamental concepts of the quantum vacuum. Theoretical, mathematical, and particle physicists, as well as researchers and students of the history and philosophy of physics, will find The Quantum Vacuum to be a stimulating and engaging primer on the topic.

Einstein

Author: Philipp Frank
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 9783322990112
Release Date: 2013-07-02
Genre: Juvenile Nonfiction

Das Manuskript zu diesem Buch ist unter merkwürdigen Um ständen entstanden. Ich begann die Niederschrift 1939 in New York, setzte sie 1940 in Chicago fort und beendete den größten Teil 1941 in Boston. Das Manuskript war in deutscher Sprache geschrieben, aber begreiflicherweise unter der damaligen Reichs regierung nicht für eine Veröffentlichung in deutscher Sprache bestimmt; 'es sollte ins Englische übersetzt und in Amerika ver öffentlicht werden. Bevor die übersetzung beendet war, wurde die Einsteinsche Relativitätstheorie, die oft als eine spekulative Hypothese an gesehen und unterschätzt wurde, die Grundlage einer ganz neuen Wendung in der technischen Entwicklung der Menschheit: Die Kernenergie des Atoms wurde die Energiequelle der Zukunft, und all die trüben Prophezeiungen über ein Versagen der Energie quellen konnten zum alten Gerümpel geworfen werden. Jm Jahre 1945 fügte ich eine Darstellung dieser Wendung in englischer Sprache hinzu, und dieser Teil ist der einzige im Buch, der aus dem Englischen übersetzt ist. Die amerikanische Ausgabe erschien 1947; große Teile der deutschen Fassung wurden nicht aufgenom men. Daher ist das vorliegende Buch die erste vollständige Wieder gabe meines Manuskriptes.

Shakespeare s Possible Worlds

Author: Simon Palfrey
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781107058279
Release Date: 2014-05-22
Genre: Juvenile Nonfiction

Simon Palfrey offers a new way of understanding Shakespeare's playworlds, with piercingly original readings of language, scenes, and characters.

Ein Universum aus Nichts

Author: Lawrence M. Krauss
Publisher: Albrecht Knaus Verlag
ISBN: 9783641091149
Release Date: 2013-03-18
Genre: Science

Eine Reise zu den Ursprüngen unseres Universums Warum gibt es alles und nicht nichts? Worüber sich Philosophen seit Jahrhunderten den Kopf zerbrechen, darauf weiß die Physik Antwort: Nach den neuesten Erkenntnissen kann durchaus alles aus dem Nichts entstanden sein. Und mit Lawrence Krauss ist das gar nicht so schwer zu verstehen. Ironisch, böse und zugleich mit einem Augenzwinkern weiß Krauss selbst die Erkenntnis, dass wir aller Wahrscheinlichkeit nach auch im Nichts verschwinden werden, höchst amüsant zu präsentieren, und schont dabei niemanden: weder Philosophen noch Theologen noch sich selbst. Die Frage nach der Entstehung unseres Universums ist eine der bemerkenswertesten Erkundungsreisen, die die Menschheit je unternommen hat. Einstein, Hubble, Relativitätstheorie, Inflation und Quantenmechanik – kein Bereich der Kosmologie, über den Lawrence Krauss nicht verständlich und vor allem spannend zu erzählen weiß. Dabei fragt er immer auch nach den Quellen unseres Wissens: Wie hat sich unsere Vorstellung vom Ursprung aller Dinge entwickelt? Weshalb wissen wir, was wir heute wissen? Und warum können wir davon ausgehen, dass das auch stimmt? Mit Ein Universum aus Nichts hat er ein Buch geschrieben, das schlau macht – voller Seitenhiebe gegen die theologische Zunft und alle anderen esoterischen Welterklärungen. Ganz ohne Berechnungen.

Sieben kurze Lektionen ber Physik

Author: Carlo Rovelli
Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH
ISBN: 9783644052215
Release Date: 2015-08-28
Genre: Science

Hundert schmale Seiten reichen, um die Physik der Moderne zu erklären Wo kommen wir her? Was können wir wissen? Seit ihren umwälzenden Entdeckungen im zwanzigsten Jahrhundert spüren Physiker den Kräften und Teilchen nach, die die Welt im Innersten und Äußersten zusammenhalten. Für jedermann verständlich, hat Carlo Rovelli dieses zauberhafte Buch darüber geschrieben. Es stürmte in wenigen Wochen an die Spitze der italienischen Bestsellerliste und wird derzeit in fast zwanzig Sprachen übersetzt. In eleganten, klaren Sätzen erklärt Rovelli die Physik der Moderne: Einstein und die Relativitätstheorie, Max Planck und die Quantenmechanik, die Entstehung des Universums, Schwarze Löcher, die Elementarteilchen, die Beschaffenheit von Raum und Zeit – und die Loop-Theorie, sein ureigenstes Arbeitsfeld. Ein Buch, das jeder verstehen kann – ein Lesevergnügen zum Staunen, Genießen und Mitreden können. «Von Natur aus wollen wir immer mehr wissen und immer weiter lernen. Unser Wissen über die Welt wächst. Uns treibt der Drang nach Erkenntnis und lernend stoßen wir an Grenzen. In den tiefsten Tiefen des Raumgewebes, im Ursprung des Kosmos, im Wesen der Zeit, im Schicksal der Schwarzen Löcher und im Funktionieren unseres eigenen Denkens. Hier, an den Grenzen unseres Wissens, wo sich das Meer unseres Nichtwissens vor uns auftut, leuchten das Geheimnis der Welt, die Schönheit der Welt, und es verschlägt uns den Atem.», schreibt Carlo Rovelli.

Historical and Philosophical Perspectives of Science

Author: Roger H. Stuewer
Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
ISBN: 081665879X
Release Date: 1970-12-23
Genre: Science

Historical and Philosophical Perspectives of Science was first published in 1970. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions. The series of essays published in this book, which is Volume V of the Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, are (with the exception of two essays) based on papers presented or discussed at a conference devoted to exploring the relationships between the history and the philosophy of science, held at the University of Minnesota in the fall of 1969. In a forward Peter Caws notes that the conference grew out of the deliberations of subcommittee of the U.S. National Committee for the International Union of History and Philosophy of Science. The contributors are Herbert Feigl, Ernan McMullin, Wesley C. Salmon, Peter Archinstein, Arnold Thackray, Mary Hesse, Edward Rosen, Paul K. Feyerabend, Erwin N. Hiebert, Gerd Buchdahl, Roger H. Stuewer, Howard Stein, and Kenneth F. Schaffner. Some of the papers draw philosophical conclusions from examples in the history of science; others point out the significance of philosophical insights for a study of the history of science; still others explore special aspects of the history or philosophy of science.

Frontiers of Science and Philosophy

Author: Robert G. Colodny
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Pre
ISBN: 9780822975601
Release Date: 1963-01-15
Genre: Philosophy

Six essays by noted philosophers of science include the following topics: explanation in science and in history; philosophy and the scientific image of man; psychoanalysis and parapsychology; the conceptual basis of the biological sciences; the nature of time; and problems of microphysics.

Die Ordnung der Zeit

Author: Carlo Rovelli
Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH
ISBN: 9783644000759
Release Date: 2018-08-21
Genre: Science

Leben wir in der Zeit oder lebt die Zeit vielleicht nur in uns? Alle theoretischen Physiker von Weltrang, die den großen und kleinen Kräften des Universums nachspüren, beschäftigen sich immer wieder mit der entscheidenden Frage, was Zeit ist. Wenn ihre großen Modelle die Zeit zur Erklärung des Elementaren nicht mehr brauchen, wie kommt es dann, dass sie für unser Leben so wichtig ist? Geht es wirklich ohne sie? Carlo Rovelli gibt in diesem Buch überraschende Antworten. Er nimmt uns mit auf eine Reise durch unsere Vorstellungen der von der Zeit und spürt ihren Regeln und Rätseln nach. Ein großes, packend geschriebenes Lese-Abenteuer, ein würdiger Nachfolger des Welt-Bestsellers "Sieben kurze Lektionen über Physik".

Paradigms and Paradoxes

Author: Robert G. Colodny
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Pre
ISBN: 9780822975984
Release Date: 1972-01-15
Genre: Philosophy

The revolution involving the foundations of the physical sciences heralded by relativity and quantum theories has been stimulating philosophers for many years. Both of these comprehensive sets of concepts have involved profound challenges to traditional theories of epistemology, ontology, and language. This volume gathers six experts in physics, logic and philosophy to discuss developments in space exploration and nuclear science and their impact on the philosophy of science.