Physical Oceanography of the Baltic Sea

Author: Matti Leppäranta
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540797036
Release Date: 2009-03-20
Genre: Science

The Baltic Sea oceanographic research community is wide and the research history is over 100 years old. Nevertheless, there is still no single, coherent book on the physical oceanography of the Baltic Sea as a whole. There is a strong need for such a book, coming from working oceanographers as well as the university teaching programmes in advanced undergraduate to graduate levels. In the regional conference series in physical oceanography (Baltic Sea Science Conference, Baltic Sea Oceanographers' conference, Baltex-conferences) about 500 scientists take part regularly. Even more scientists work in the fields of marine biology, chemistry and the environment, and they need information on the physics of the Baltic Sea as well. There are nine countries bordering on the Baltic Sea and five more in the runoff area. The Baltic Sea as a source of fish, means of transportation and leisure activities is highly important to the regional society. In the runoff area there are a total of 85 million people. Research and protection strategies need to be developed, as the Baltic Sea is probably the most polluted sea in the world. Since the Baltic Sea has become an inner sea of the EU (apart from small shore parts of Russia in Petersburg and Kaliningrad), it is anticipated that the importance of the region will consequently rise. The book will arouse interest among students, scientists and decision makers involved with the Baltic problems. It will also give important background information for those working with biogeochemical processes in the Baltic Sea, because the physical forcing for those processes is of vital importance.

The Baltic Sea

Author: A. Voipio
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080870686
Release Date: 1981-01-01
Genre: Science

The Baltic Sea

A Systems Analysis of the Baltic Sea

Author: F.V. Wulff
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540677690
Release Date: 2001-03-20
Genre: Nature

During recent decades, large-scale effects of pollution on marine estuaries and even entire enclosed coastal seas have become apparent. One of the first regions where this was observed is the Baltic Sea, whereby the appearance of anoxic deep basins, extensive algal blooms and elimination of top predators like eagles and seals indicated effects of both increased nutrient inputs and toxic substances. This book describes the physical, biochemical and ecological processes that govern inputs, distribution and ecological effects of nutrients and toxic substances in the Baltic Sea. Extensive reviews are supplemented by budgets and dynamic simulation models. This book is highly interdisciplinary and uses a systems approach for analyzing and describing a marine ecosystem. It gives an overview of the Baltic Sea, but is useful for any marine scientist studying large marine ecosystems.

Biological Oceanography of the Baltic Sea

Author: Pauline Snoeijs-Leijonmalm
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400706682
Release Date: 2017-04-18
Genre: Science

This is the first comprehensive science-based textbook on the biology and ecology of the Baltic Sea, one of the world’s largest brackish water bodies. The aim of this book is to provide students and other readers with knowledge about the conditions for life in brackish water, the functioning of the Baltic Sea ecosystem and its environmental problems and management. It highlights biological variation along the unique environmental gradients of the brackish Baltic Sea Area (the Baltic Sea, Belt Sea and Kattegat), especially those in salinity and climate. pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:#262626">The first part of the book presents the challenges for life processes and ecosystem dynamics that result from the Baltic Sea’s highly variable recent geological history and geographical isolation. The second part explains interactions between organisms and their environment, including biogeochemical cycles, patterns of biodiversity, genetic diversity and evolution, biological invasions and physiological adaptations. In the third part, the subsystems of the Baltic Sea ecosystem – the pelagic zone, the sea ice, the deep soft sea beds, the phytobenthic zone, the sandy coasts, and estuaries and coastal lagoons – are treated in detail with respect to the structure and function of communities and habitats and consequences of natural and anthropogenic constraints, such as climate change, discharges of nutrients and hazardous substances. Finally, the fourth part of the book discusses monitoring and ecosystem-based management to deal with contemporary and emerging threats to the ecosystem’s health.

Descriptive Physical Oceanography

Author: George L. Pickard
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9781483287263
Release Date: 2016-10-27
Genre: Science

The rapidly developing field of oceanography has necessitated the publication of a fifth edition of this classic textbook. The revised version provides an introduction to descriptive (synoptic) oceanography and contains updated information on topics such as the heat budget, instruments and in particular, the use of satellites. The sections on equatorial oceanography, sea-ice physics, distribution and El Nino have been completely rewritten. The book is further supplemented by text on thermohaline circulation, mixing and also coral reef oceanography.

Introduction to the Modelling of Marine Ecosystems

Author: W. Fennel
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780444634153
Release Date: 2014-09-18
Genre: Science

Introduction to the Modelling of Marine Ecosystems, Second Edition provides foundational information on the construction of chemical and biological models – from simple cases to more complex biogeochemical models and life cycle resolving model components. This step-by-step approach to increasing the complexity of the models allows readers to explore the theoretical framework and become familiar with the models even when they have limited experience in mathematical modeling. Introduction to the Modelling of Marine Ecosystems shows how biological model components can be integrated into three dimensional circulation models and how such models can be used for numerical experiments. Covers the marine food web from nutrients, phytoplankton to higher trophic levels Presents information on the response of marine systems to external pressures as seen in physical biological models Provides an extended discussion of unifying theoretical concepts and of physical biological interaction Covers higher trophic levels, in particular multi-species fish models and their interaction with the biogeochemical models Offers MATLAB scripts on a companion website for many of the described example models to facilitate reproduction of the findings in the book and guide reader to writing own code

Sensitivity to Change

Author: Emin Özsoy
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401157582
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

Recent decades have seen a degradation of the environmental quality in semi-enclosed seas, which are particularly sensitive to population pressures due to their naturally low flushing rates related to their geometry. The North Sea, Baltic Sea and the Black Sea are amongst the most seriously threatened seas in the Euro-Asian region. Each semi-enclosed sea has a distinct pattern of circulation, transport, mixing, associated with the particular geometry, topography, boundary processes, interior stratification, atmospheric forcing, ice fonnation, straits / sill controls, and the specific inputs of freshwater, nutrients and pollutants. The workshop investigated the distinctive physical and ecological characteristics of the three seas in a comparative manner, in order to identify the types of driving forces and dynamic controls operating on productivity, nutrient cycling, physical transport and mixing mechanisms. A comparative study of these controlling mechanisms would allow us to better understand ecosystem sensitivity in these different environments. The workshop presentations highlighted the complexity of the semi-enclosed seas related to the interaction amongst the physical, chemical and biological fields, and differences in time and space scales in each of the systems. Further, a strong climate signal exists in these systems, manifest in the interannual, interdecadal and longer term variability. Part of the variability appears connected with background climatic variability.

A Systems Analysis of the Baltic Sea

Author: F.V. Wulff
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540677690
Release Date: 2001-03-20
Genre: Nature

During recent decades, large-scale effects of pollution on marine estuaries and even entire enclosed coastal seas have become apparent. One of the first regions where this was observed is the Baltic Sea, whereby the appearance of anoxic deep basins, extensive algal blooms and elimination of top predators like eagles and seals indicated effects of both increased nutrient inputs and toxic substances. This book describes the physical, biochemical and ecological processes that govern inputs, distribution and ecological effects of nutrients and toxic substances in the Baltic Sea. Extensive reviews are supplemented by budgets and dynamic simulation models. This book is highly interdisciplinary and uses a systems approach for analyzing and describing a marine ecosystem. It gives an overview of the Baltic Sea, but is useful for any marine scientist studying large marine ecosystems.

The Drift of Sea Ice

Author: Matti Leppäranta
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642046835
Release Date: 2011-03-22
Genre: Science

The Second Edition of The Drift of Sea Ice presents the fundamental laws of sea ice drift which come from the material properties of sea ice and the basic laws of mechanics. The resulting system of equations is analysed for the general properties of sea ice drift, the free drift model and analytical models for ice drift in the presence of internal friction, and the construction of numerical ice drift models is detailed. This second edition of a much lauded work, unique on this topic in the English language, has been revised, updated and expanded with much new information and outlines recent results, in particular in relation to the climate problem, mathematical modelling and ice engineering applications. The current book presents the theory, observations, mathematical modelling techniques, and applications of sea ice drift science. The theory is presented from the beginning on a graduate student level, so that students and researchers coming from other fields such as physical oceanography, meteorology, physics, engineering, environmental sciences or geography can use the book as a source book or self-study material. First the drift ice material is presented ending with the concept of ‘ice state’ – the relevant properties in sea ice dynamics. Ice kinematics observations are widely presented with the mathematical analysis methods, and thereafter come drift ice rheology – to close the triangle material – kinematics – stress. The momentum equation of sea ice is derived in detail and its general properties are carefully analysed. Then follow two chapters on analytical models: free drift and drift in the presence of internal friction: These are very important tools in understanding the dynamical behaviour of sea ice. The last topical chapter is numerical models, which are the modern tool to solve ice dynamics problem in short term and long term problems. The closing chapter summarises sea ice dynamics applications and the need of sea ice dynamic knowledge and gives some final remarks on the future of this branch of science.

Internal Gravity Waves in the Shallow Seas

Author: Stanisław R. Massel
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319189086
Release Date: 2015-07-07
Genre: Science

This book contains a comprehensive study of the internal ocean waves, which play a very important role in ocean physics providing mechanisms for ocean water mixing and circulation, as well as the transportation of gases, nutrients, and a very large number of marine organisms in the ocean body. In contrast to surface waves, the literature on internal waves is not so numerous, mainly due to the difficulties in experimental data collection and in the mathematical description of internal wave propagation. In this book, the basic mathematical principles, a physical description of the observed phenomena, and practical theoretical methods of determination of wave parameters as well as the original method of observation using moving sensors are presented. Special attention is paid to internal wave propagation over changing bottom topographies in shallow seas such as the Baltic Sea. The book is supplemented with an extended list of relevant and extended bibliographies, a subject index, and an author index.

Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin

Author: BACC Author Team
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540727868
Release Date: 2008-01-22
Genre: Science

This book offers an up-to-date overview of the latest scientific findings in regional climate research on the Baltic Sea basin. This includes climate changes in the recent past, climate projections up until 2100 using the most sophisticated regional climate models available, and an assessment of climate change impacts on terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. The authors demonstrate that the regional climate has already started to change, and will continue to do so.

Climate Impacts on the Baltic Sea From Science to Policy

Author: Marcus Reckermann
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642257285
Release Date: 2012-04-23
Genre: Science

The Baltic Sea area is an old cultural landscape with a well developed international framework for monitoring, assessing and managing its marine ecosystems. It provides a good case study for other regions where such management is being set up. The chapters in this book are based on lectures given at a summer school on the Baltic Sea island of Bornholm in the summer of 2009. They cover a range of topics, spanning from detailed descriptions of political agreements that protect the marine environment, to basic modelling instructions, to an assessment of the possible impacts of climate change on the marine ecosystem, to a reflection on the role of climate scientists and their responsibility in society. This interdisciplinary book is primarily directed at students and lecturers of the environmental disciplines to provide an overview of the possible impacts of climate change on the Baltic Sea. It is also intended to serve as a background reference for scientists and policy makers, both for the Baltic Sea area and more generally. The book is a contribution to the BALTEX programme and to the BONUS+ projects ECOSUPPORT and Baltic-C.

Connecting Analytical Thinking and Intuition

Author: Anders Omstedt
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319275345
Release Date: 2016-01-28
Genre: Psychology

This book demonstrates how analytical thinking and intuition can be systematically connected and trained. It is illustrated by figures and photographs and includes creative and stimulating exercises. We are living in a world of increasing complexity, in which perceiving reality accurately is increasingly important and difficult. Society’s need to address “global grand challenges” requires that the scientific community initiates inter-disciplinary research programmes. These are often far removed from current programmes, which are usually based on intra-disciplinary science. Improving our understanding of complex problems and communicating this understanding to a large group of people from different backgrounds represents an important educational challenge. Connecting Analytical Thinking and Intuition stimulates students and scientists to improve their skills in thinking, communicating and learning more about being humans. A guide to connecting analytical thinking and intuition is presented using the “dream group” method developed by Montague Ullman, in which a group of 6–8 people systematically and carefully helps the dreamer to appreciate dreams. The importance of good memory, which can be trained through recalling the dreams, is also discussed in relation to science and literature.

The Baltic Sea Basin

Author: Jan Harff
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642172202
Release Date: 2011-04-15
Genre: Science

This book reports about the results of a Special Symposium “The Baltic Sea Basin”, held on August 11, 2008, within the frame of the 33rd IGC at Oslo, Norway in order to foster the understanding of the Baltic Basin as a unit in terms of genesis, structure, ongoing processes and utilization. It is the first time that in a joint publication, scientists from different disciplines give a comprehensive overview about the Baltic Sea basin in such a general sense. The book will be used not only by students and scientist but also by engineers and decision makers from industry and politics. Summarizing the state of the art in the investigation of the Baltic Sea Basin, but also in the resource utilisation of the basin the book will enhance the development of new monitoring strategies and technical device design including satellite observation methods, the establishment of international research laboratories, innovative topics for interdisciplinary research projects, etc.