Physical Oceanography of the Baltic Sea

Author: Matti Leppäranta
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540797036
Release Date: 2009-03-20
Genre: Science

The Baltic Sea oceanographic research community is wide and the research history is over 100 years old. Nevertheless, there is still no single, coherent book on the physical oceanography of the Baltic Sea as a whole. There is a strong need for such a book, coming from working oceanographers as well as the university teaching programmes in advanced undergraduate to graduate levels. In the regional conference series in physical oceanography (Baltic Sea Science Conference, Baltic Sea Oceanographers' conference, Baltex-conferences) about 500 scientists take part regularly. Even more scientists work in the fields of marine biology, chemistry and the environment, and they need information on the physics of the Baltic Sea as well. There are nine countries bordering on the Baltic Sea and five more in the runoff area. The Baltic Sea as a source of fish, means of transportation and leisure activities is highly important to the regional society. In the runoff area there are a total of 85 million people. Research and protection strategies need to be developed, as the Baltic Sea is probably the most polluted sea in the world. Since the Baltic Sea has become an inner sea of the EU (apart from small shore parts of Russia in Petersburg and Kaliningrad), it is anticipated that the importance of the region will consequently rise. The book will arouse interest among students, scientists and decision makers involved with the Baltic problems. It will also give important background information for those working with biogeochemical processes in the Baltic Sea, because the physical forcing for those processes is of vital importance.

A Systems Analysis of the Baltic Sea

Author: F.V. Wulff
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540677690
Release Date: 2001-03-20
Genre: Nature

During recent decades, large-scale effects of pollution on marine estuaries and even entire enclosed coastal seas have become apparent. One of the first regions where this was observed is the Baltic Sea, whereby the appearance of anoxic deep basins, extensive algal blooms and elimination of top predators like eagles and seals indicated effects of both increased nutrient inputs and toxic substances. This book describes the physical, biochemical and ecological processes that govern inputs, distribution and ecological effects of nutrients and toxic substances in the Baltic Sea. Extensive reviews are supplemented by budgets and dynamic simulation models. This book is highly interdisciplinary and uses a systems approach for analyzing and describing a marine ecosystem. It gives an overview of the Baltic Sea, but is useful for any marine scientist studying large marine ecosystems.

The Baltic Sea

Author: A. Voipio
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080870686
Release Date: 1981-01-01
Genre: Science

The Baltic Sea

Climate Impacts on the Baltic Sea From Science to Policy

Author: Marcus Reckermann
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642257285
Release Date: 2012-04-23
Genre: Science

The Baltic Sea area is an old cultural landscape with a well developed international framework for monitoring, assessing and managing its marine ecosystems. It provides a good case study for other regions where such management is being set up. The chapters in this book are based on lectures given at a summer school on the Baltic Sea island of Bornholm in the summer of 2009. They cover a range of topics, spanning from detailed descriptions of political agreements that protect the marine environment, to basic modelling instructions, to an assessment of the possible impacts of climate change on the marine ecosystem, to a reflection on the role of climate scientists and their responsibility in society. This interdisciplinary book is primarily directed at students and lecturers of the environmental disciplines to provide an overview of the possible impacts of climate change on the Baltic Sea. It is also intended to serve as a background reference for scientists and policy makers, both for the Baltic Sea area and more generally. The book is a contribution to the BALTEX programme and to the BONUS+ projects ECOSUPPORT and Baltic-C.

The Physical Oceanography of Sea Straits

Author: L.J. Pratt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400906778
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

Suppose one were given the task of mapping the general circulation in an unfamiliar ocean. The ocean, like our own, is subdivided into basins and marginal seas interconnected by sea straits. Assuming a limited budget for this undertaking, one would do well to choose the straits as observational starting points. To begin with, the currents flowing from one basin to the next, over possibly wide and time-varying paths, are confined to narrow and stable routes within the straits. Mass, heat and chemical budgets for individual basins can be formulated in terms of the fluxes measured across the straits using a relatively small number of instruments. The confinement of the flow by a strait can also give rise to profound dynamical conse quences including choking or hydraulic control, a process similar to that by which a dam regulates the flow from a reservoir. The funneling geometry can lead to enhanced tidal modulation and increased velocities, giving rise to local instabilities, mixing, internal bores, jumps, and other striking hydraulic and fine scale phenomena. In short, sea straits repre sent choke points which are observationally and dynamically strategic and which contain a full range of fascinating physical processes.

Introduction to the Modelling of Marine Ecosystems

Author: W. Fennel
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780444634153
Release Date: 2014-09-18
Genre: Science

Introduction to the Modelling of Marine Ecosystems, Second Edition provides foundational information on the construction of chemical and biological models – from simple cases to more complex biogeochemical models and life cycle resolving model components. This step-by-step approach to increasing the complexity of the models allows readers to explore the theoretical framework and become familiar with the models even when they have limited experience in mathematical modeling. Introduction to the Modelling of Marine Ecosystems shows how biological model components can be integrated into three dimensional circulation models and how such models can be used for numerical experiments. Covers the marine food web from nutrients, phytoplankton to higher trophic levels Presents information on the response of marine systems to external pressures as seen in physical biological models Provides an extended discussion of unifying theoretical concepts and of physical biological interaction Covers higher trophic levels, in particular multi-species fish models and their interaction with the biogeochemical models Offers MATLAB scripts on a companion website for many of the described example models to facilitate reproduction of the findings in the book and guide reader to writing own code

Descriptive Physical Oceanography

Author: M. Affholder
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0203969278
Release Date: 2001-01-01
Genre: Technology & Engineering

A translation of "Guide de conception et de gestion des reseaux d'assainissement unitaires", this text looks at the design and management of combined sewerage networks, covering topics such as: data on rainstorm run-off pollution; different types of weirs and accessories; and choice of weir.

Physical Oceanography of the Dying Aral Sea

Author: Peter O. Zavialov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540228918
Release Date: 2005-01-31
Genre: Science

The fate of the dying Aral Sea is globally recognised. The author opens with an introduction which will give the reader basic preliminary information about the Aral crisis, providing an historical and bibliographic overview.Part 1- PAST - describes the pre-desiccation state of the Aral Sea as a unique system possessing both lake and sea properties. Drawing on previously unpublished data, Part 1 focuses on the hydrography of the Sea, including thermohaline structure and its variability at different scales from synoptic to seasonal and interannual, physical properties of the Aral Sea water, and the circulation regime.Part 2 - PRESENT - describes the current state of the lake and how the desiccation and salinization process has progressed faster than had been predicted in the last two decades. A major part of this section draws on original exclusive data from recent field research, presenting remote-sensing data from satellite altimetry and infrared remote sensing showing the present sea circulation. Part 3 - FUTURE - formulates a sound forecast of the Aral Sea state for future decades. water-budget components. It emphasizes the dependence of the effective evaporation rates on density stratification and salinity. Then it presents an original model based on these feedbacks, taking into account other models developed by other investigators. The most likely scenario is that the eastern basin will have evaporated in 15 years, with the western basin shrinking slowly, with relatively stable salinity. These will be described in detail along with other possible scenarios. Finally, possible environmental consequences of further shrinking of the Aral Sea will be discussed in a concluding section.

Descriptive Physical Oceanography

Author: George L. Pickard
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 075062759X
Release Date: 1990-01-01
Genre: Science

'Descriptive Physical Oceanography: An Introduction' 5th edition provides an introduction to descriptive (synoptic) physical oceanography for science undergraduates and early graduate students. There has been an updating of topics such as the heat budget, instruments (particularly the use of satellites), a complete revision of the material on equatorial oceanography, sea-ice physics and distribution and El Nino and information has been added on thermohaline circulation, mixing nad coral reef oceanography.

Sensitivity to Change

Author: Emin Özsoy
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401157582
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

Recent decades have seen a degradation of the environmental quality in semi-enclosed seas, which are particularly sensitive to population pressures due to their naturally low flushing rates related to their geometry. The North Sea, Baltic Sea and the Black Sea are amongst the most seriously threatened seas in the Euro-Asian region. Each semi-enclosed sea has a distinct pattern of circulation, transport, mixing, associated with the particular geometry, topography, boundary processes, interior stratification, atmospheric forcing, ice fonnation, straits / sill controls, and the specific inputs of freshwater, nutrients and pollutants. The workshop investigated the distinctive physical and ecological characteristics of the three seas in a comparative manner, in order to identify the types of driving forces and dynamic controls operating on productivity, nutrient cycling, physical transport and mixing mechanisms. A comparative study of these controlling mechanisms would allow us to better understand ecosystem sensitivity in these different environments. The workshop presentations highlighted the complexity of the semi-enclosed seas related to the interaction amongst the physical, chemical and biological fields, and differences in time and space scales in each of the systems. Further, a strong climate signal exists in these systems, manifest in the interannual, interdecadal and longer term variability. Part of the variability appears connected with background climatic variability.

State and Evolution of the Baltic Sea 1952 2005

Author: Rainer Feistel
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470283127
Release Date: 2008-07-21
Genre: Science

Based on a fifty-year study conducted by the Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, this book brings together a comprehensive summary of their observations and findings. Written by well-known experts, this revealing book concentrates on long-term changes in the Baltic Sea?which can be extrapolated to shed light on the environmental problems of other shelf seas, brackish seas, and large estuaries?thereby contributing to our understanding of water exchange processes, eutrophication, and climatic impacts at the forefront of international concern.